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Index Volume XLV 

September, 1920— March, 1921 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few cases 
under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 
The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase 

has seemed more desirable. 



"Abraham Lincoln — Man of God" 

(Hill), 579. 
Academic freedom, 759, 761. 
Accidents. 

Child and the machine, 536. 
Incidence, 431. 
Street, compensation, 830. 
Ackerman, F. L. 

Economy of zoning, 732. 
Selling cooperation at a top price, 
160. 
"Acquisitive Society, The - ' (Taw- 

ney), 932. 
Acton, England, 734. 
Adams, VV. A., 127. 
Addams, Jane, Death of Mrs. Breck- 
inridge, 469. 
Adler, Felix, On making a livable 

world (symposium), 498. 
"Adolescent Girl, The" (Blanchard), 

369. 
"Adult and Child" (Hughes), 370. 
"Advancing Hour, The" (Hapgood), 

320. 
"Adventure, An, in Working Class 
Education" (Mansbridge), 136. 
Advertisements, political (letter), 289. 
Afforestation, New York, 93. 
Airplanes and landing fields, 95. 
Akron, Ohio, 769. 
Alabama. 

Coal strike, 877. 
Movable school, 888. 
.neda County jail, 452. 
bany: The Crisis in Government" 
(Waldman), 103. 
jatraz, 590. 
cohol. 

Germany, 833. 
Italy, 646. 

Light wines and beer (letter), 934. 
Parenthood and, 86. 
See also Prohibition. 
Aldermen, unseated, 381. 
\lexander, Nell, 97. 
liens, British regulations, 278. 
egheny County, Pa., 95. 
en, Devere, On making a livable 

world (symposium), 498. 
inson, B. D. 

Cometh the dawn (verse), 358. 
Jeorge Nasmyth, 1881-1920 (verse), 

899. 
nanac, health, 865. 
ny, Frederic, 930. 
ie«- : rnation, 243. 
pine, Tenn., 550. 

amalgamated Association of Iron, 
Steel and Tin Workers" (Robin- 
| son), 675. 

malgamated Clothing Workers, 627. 
fmerica. 

' As health teacher, 729. 
Foreign concerns, books on, 19. 
World problems and, 20. 
.merica and the New Era" (Fried- 
man), 321. 
L merica Triumphant Under God 
and His Christ" (Cheatham), 
i 321. 
America Via the Neighborhood" 

(Daniels), T70. 
^mer. Assn. for Labor Legislation, 

609. 
Vmer. Assn. for Org. Family Social 

Work, 862. 
\mer. Assn. of Public Employment 

Offices, 83. 
Amer. Bible Society, 149. 
i\mer. Civil Liberties Union, 115, 

623. 
Amer. College of Surgeons, 285. 
Amer. Council for Coordinating 

Child Health Activities, 117. 
Amer. Country Life Assn., 260. 
" mer. Fellowship of Reconciliation, 

244, 511, 901. 
Vmer. Friends Service Committee, 
309, 613, 689, 773. 
ner. Hospital Assn., 260, 727. 



"American Jewish Year Book 5681" 

(Schneiderman), 644. 
"American Police Systems" (Fos- 

dick), 517. 
Amer. Prison Congress, 645. 
"American Prison, System, The" 

(Webb), 369. 
Amer. Public Health Assn., 105. 
American Relief Administration, Vien- 
na, 34, 36, 38. 
Amer. Rolling Mill Co., 815. 
Amer. Social Hygiene Assn., 286, 

383. 
Amer. Sociological Society, 645. 
"American Towns and People" 

(Rhodes), 579. 
Amer. Union Against Militarism, 511. 
Amer. Women's Hospital Medical 

Service Committee, 901. 
Americanism. 
Books, 578. 

California propaeanda, 687. 
Americanization, 277. 
Advice, 280. 
Arizona, 280. 
Books, 17. 
Buffalo, 280. 
Conferences. 750. 
Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church 

and, 280. 
Notes, 280, 924. 
Owen, A. A., on (letter). 290. 
Storv-telling method, 279. 
Studies to be published, list, 10. 
Through neighborKness, 397. 
Americanisms (social studies), 619. 
"Americans by Adoption" (Hus- 
band), 401. 
Americans in Paris (letter), 75. 
America's Making (festival), 280. 
Amsterdam, housing, 569. 
Anarchy and naturalization. 279. 
Anderson, Mrs. E. M., 913. 
Anderson, James, monument to, 782. 
Anderson. Sherwood. On makinc a 

livable world (symposium), 499. 
Andrews. T. B.. 245. 
Aneell. J. R., 846. 
Anti-Semitism, protest. 613. 
Apartment houses, 160. 
Apprenticeship in Wisconsin, 890. 
Approved agencies. 910. 
Architects and building trades, Phila- 
delphia. 624. 
Arizona. Americanization, 280. 
Arkansas, Good Citizenship week, 

582. 
Armament program and nnnropria- 

tion (cartoons). 590, 591. 
Armenians today. 885. 
Armistice Dav, 244. 
Armstrong. B. K., 560. 
Army bills, 269. 
Art prints, 349. 
Ashe. W. F., Pittsburgh playgrounds, 

768. 
Asiago, 306, 307. 
Atlanta Negro conf.. 438. 
Aust.F. A., 459, 482. 
Austria, 35. 

Health examinations of appren- 
tices, 742. 
In the League, 382. 
Land for play, 231. 
Autauga, 888. 

Automobile accident insurance, 830. 
Automotive industry, 751. 

B 
Babies. 

Maine, 427. 

Registration (cartoon), 427. 
Baeger, E. S.. 56. 
Bakeman, G. W., Vienna's children, 

690. 
Baker, G. F., Mayor of Portland, 

Ore., 847. 
Baker, H. M., Passing of the ju- 
venile court, 705. 
Balkan states, 596. 
Baltic babies, 689. 
Baltic States, Conf. of, 655. 



Baltimore. 

Children's Playground Assn., 767. 

Park School, 698. 

Playground drive, 131. 
Bank failures, 414. 
Bank merger proposed (letter), 581. 
Bank notes, Christmas spirit in, 449. 
Barker, Ernest, 290. 
Barnett, H. O. (Mrs. S. A.) 

On the settlement movement (with 
portrait), 5. 

Two Bunker Hills (letter), 434. 
"The young visiter" (interview), 
566. 
Barr, W. H., 752. 
Barren Island, 881. 
Bartlett, W. H., 26. 
Bassano, 308. 
Baughman, Ruby, 923. 
Beer, 434. 

"Behavior of Crowds, The" (Mar- 
tin), 897. 
Bellevue Hospital, poster, 417. 
Benda, W. T., 719. 
Benjamin, P. L., 

Baby (verse), 454. 

Poetry of Sandburg, 12. 

Robert Frost — poet bf neighbor- 
liness, 318. 

Where Y's men disaeree, 861. 
Berg, D. E., The dollar sign in 

social work. 392. 
Berle, A. A., Jr. 

Junior Leaeue of Nations, 655. 

Law and labor in France, 595. 

League at crossroads, 327. 

Santo Domingo. 510. 
Berlin, school strike, 71. 
Better America Federation. 85, 687. 
Better Homes Institute, 162. 
Better Times (paner), 148. 
Bettman, Albert, 260. 
Bibliography of city planning, 733. 
Bien-s, H. M.. 548. 
Billboards. 550. 
Billines, W. K., 267. 
■R.'Hhoven Conf.. 257. 
Biography, books on, 19. 
Birth control. 150. 
Birth registration, 427. 
Black. R. A., Texas State Council, 

97. 
Blaisdell, T. C. Jr., What employ- 
ers and workers are s^qyine, 766. 
Blind. Harv. Univ. lectures for, 143. 
Tilock organization, 96. 
'Roloerna, 6. 
Bombay, 352. 
Book reviews. See the title of the 

book. 
Books. 

Autumn books of social import, 15. 

Buving and hons'ngr, 94. 

Child welfare. 136. 

Communitv organization and recrea- 
tion, _ 642. . 

Education. 136. 

Health, 867. 

Housing and health, 258, 259. 

Mental health, 545. 

Of the Christmas spirit, 320. 

Recent, 322. 

Social relations in children's books, 
316. 

Social science. 13. 

Social studv and reading. 897. 
"Books in General: Second Series" 

(Squire), 27. 
Boston. 

Council of Social Agencies. 526. 

Familv Welfare Society, 577. 

Juvenile Court. 250. 

Mavor in Wayfarers' Lodge, 909. 

Public Library. 742. 

Volunteer Service Bureau for So- 
cial Agents, 97. 
Boston Disnensary clinic, 925. 
Botulism, 686. 
"Rourdelle, E. A.. 649. 
Bowen, L-, Martial law (letter), 645. 
Boy Life Commission, 769. 
"Boy welfare," 511. 




Boyd, D. K., 624. 
Boys. 

Idle, and education laws, 361. 
Settlement workers and, 425. 
Braithwaite, W. S., On making a 

livable world (symposium), 500. 
Branch, A. H., Poet counsellors, 395. 
Brandeis, L. D. 

Answers to his question as to what 
must be done to make this a 
livable world (symposium), 498. 
Letter to the Survey, 183. 
Letter (2d) to the Survey, 245. 
"Brass Check, The," letter from Edi- 
tor of Weekly Review, 899. 
Braucher, H. S., and others call to 

social workers, 169. 
Brazil, tuberculosis and Red Cross. 

901. 
Bread — and hyacinths, 51. 
Breckinridge, Mrs. M. M., obituary, 

469. 
Breed, D. A., Negro Health Week 

in Texas, 100. 
Bridgeport, housing conf., 415. 
"Brief Sketch of Social and Indus- 
trial History" (Cressy), 898. 
Brindell, R. P., 229. 

Conviction, 685. 
Britain. 

Alien regulations, 278. 
Coal strike settlement. 229. 
Costs and currency, 229. 
Drug trade (letter). 289. 
Houses to the acre, 733. 
Iron and steel industry, 799. 
Motion picture films, 295. 
Workers' education, 253. 
British Labor, future, 753. 
British lecturers' fees, 909. 
"Broke" (Brown), 433. 
Brooklyn. 

Merging of organizations, 613. 
Picture circulation, 613. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit, shop plan, 

607. 
Brophy, John, 845. 
Brown, Corinne, Reform of primar> 

school music, 695. 
Brownsville, N. Y., 70. 
Brunner, E. de S., Country Life 

conf., 260. 
Bryn Mawr. 

Scholarships and fellowships, 901. 
Summer course for industrial 
workers, 912. 
Buck, A. H., 27. 
Budget, national, 413. 
"Budget, The, and Responsible Gov 
ernment" (Cleveland and Buck), 
73. 
"Budgets of Families and Individuals 
of Kensington, Philadelphia" 
(Little and Cotton), 401. 
Budish, J. M., 23. 
Buffalo, 930. 

Americanization work, 280. 
Fund campaign poster (ill.), 473. 
Resignation of Frederic Almy, 243. 
Unemployment, how to meet, 613. 
Building loans, federal, 569. 
Building trades, 492. 
Corruption, 229. 

Experts and, in Philadelphia, 624 
Bulgaria, 563. 833. 
Bull, R. A., 387, 417. 
Bunker Hill, England (letter), 434. 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 281. 
Burgess, E. W., Conf. of Amer. So- 
ciological Society, 645. 
Burnett, A. H., obituary, 171. 
Burns, A. T. 

Immigrants, what to do with, 
On making a livable world 
posium), 499. 
Burns, M. S., 635. 
Burnsville, N. C, 550. 
Bush, I. L-, Housing of busic 

women (letter), 169. 
Bush, S. P., 774. 
Business and housing, 877. 
Business trademark, new, 63. 



I 



11 



Index 



Butler, C. J., What else? (letter), 
612. , j I 

Buttenheim, H. S., On making a 
livable world (symposium), SOI. 

Byington, M. F., State Councils of 
Social agencies, 456. 



rf V 



St 
VV5, 



459. 
277. 



Cabot, C. M., 781. 
Cabot, R. C, 718. 
Cadbury, H. J., Work of the Amer. 
Friends Service Committee in 
Germany, 309. 
California. 

Alameda County jail, 452. 

Election, etc., 326. 

Federation of Women's Clubs, 924. 

Health legislation, reactionary, 270. 

"Quack quartette," 572. 

Reactionary propaganda, 687. 

"Shop early" advertisement, 363. 

Social work conf., 742. 

State Housing and Immigration 

Commission, 687. 
Under attack, 85. 
lkins, M. C. 
Barren Island, 881. 
Colonization projects in Wisconsin, 

480. 

Cutover Country, The, 301. 
Ellis Island, 156. 
Fine out-looks from hill-tops, 
Protecting immigrant settlers, 
School in the alley, 697. 
Toys and tears, 455. 
Cambridge, Mass., 734. 
Caminetti, Anthony, 438. 
Camp Society, 742. 
Campbell, H. E-, Old riddle, the (let- 
ter), 645. 
Canada. 

City planning, 646. 
Social hygiene, 638. 
Canby, H. S., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 502. 
Cannon, I. M, 550. 
Capper-Volstead bill, 718. 
"Careers for Women" (Filene), 674. 
Carnegie, Andrew, 782. 
Carnegie Steel Co., 896. 
Carpenter, Niles, Mr. Barker and the 

guilds (letter), 290. 
Carroll, A. A., 190. 
Carstens, C. C, 65, 605. 
Case conference, 929. 

Why not scrap? 928. 
Cassidy, R. A., Cleveland Community 

Fund (letter), 899. 
"Casual Laborer, The, and Other 

Essays" (Parker), 26. 
Catholic Charities conf., 77. 
Catholic Church on the "open shop," 

350. 
Cattell, J. M., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 500. 
"Cause of World Unrest, The," 322. 
Centralization (letter), 580. 
C. G. T., 595. 
Chadsey, Mildred, Reconstruction at 

the Italian front, 305. 
Chalkley, Ethel, 878. 
Chamber of Commerce, Civic Devel- 
opment Dept., 550. 
Chamberlain, J. P., York, England, 

health insurance system, 489. 
Chambers of Commerce, 283. 
Champion, Merrill, Maternity bene- 
fits, 864. 
Chaperons, 396. 
"Chapters in Rural Progress" (But- 

terfield), 642. 
Charity organization societies, name, 

577. 
Chenery, W. L. 

Colonies and protectorates, 118. 
Dept. of Labor: an appraisal, 763. 
Labor and cooperation, 57. 
Liquidating labor, 915. 
New industrial strategy, 606. 
Peace in printing, 451. 
Unemployment, 353. 
Untermeyer revelations, 491. 
Chicago. 

Better Homes Institute, 162. 

City Hall machine, 273. 

Community Trust, 918. 

Crime reduction, 582. 

Federal Council of the Churches, 

741. 
Graduate degrees in social work, 

231. 
Inter-racial conditions, 560. 
Resolutions on education and un- 
employment (United Charities), 
602. 

Id health, council for, 117. 
<ld health legislation, 636. 
ild Health Org., 729. 
lild labor. 
Accidents, 536. 
Detroit, 537. 

District of Columbia, 537. 
Instability in Connecticut, 
Maryland, 646. 
Mental hygiene and, 891. 
Next steps in, 535. 
Report of Natl. Committee, 



604. 



426. 



Why children work, 537. 
Child Labor Day, 559. 
Child Labor Programs. 143. 
Child welfare, 129, 250, 366, 425, 
535, 603, 703, 767, 891. 
Books, 16. 

British institute, 367. 
Connecticut, 603. 
Epoch" in — grant of funds,, 65. 
Milan conf., 295. 
Minnesota, 130. 
New Jersey, 426. 
News' items, 893. 
Serbia, 605. 
Standards, 53. 
State commissions, status (chart), 

605. 
"Stay in School" campaign, 742. 
Worcester, 67. 
"Child Welfare Movement, The" 

(Lane-Claypon), 259. 
Children. 

Adventure, play and education, 

422. 
Bilthoven Conf. on, 257. 
Child crop on the farms, 367. 
Hoover and, 247. 
Keeping them from court, 892. 
Negro, 66. 
Norway, 66. 

Protection in Minnesota, 252. 
Resume of work for in New York, 

67. 
State supervision of societies, 427. 
Under-par school children, 573. 
Vienna, 33-46. 
Vocational counsellors, 268. 
"Children by Chance or by Choice" 

(Smith), 706. 
Children's books, social relations in, 

316. 
Children's circus, 251. 
Children's courts, 130. 
Age limit, 67. 
Boston, 250. 
Courts abroad, 252. 
Keeping children from, 892. 
See also juvenile courts. 
Chimes of a Christian era, 467. 
China. , 

Cereals for, 901. 
Famine, 512. 

Famine sufferers, objections to ap- 
peal for, 646. 
Fighting typhus, 927. 
Hospitals, 638. 

Life-saving stamps (ill.), 849. 
Y. M. C. A. in, 84. 
Chinese industrial students in the 
United States, conditions, 646. 
Christiania conference of women, 

351. 
Christmas. 

Bank notes, Germany, 449. 
Books of the Christmas spirit, 320. 
Hell's Kitchen, 455. 
Near East Relief, 447. 
Poems for, 454. 
"Shop early" campaign, 363. 
Christmas card (ill.), 511. 
Christmas seals, 231. 
Christmas trees, 445. 
Christodora House, 395. 
"Church, The, and Industrial Recon- 
struction," 467. 
"Church, The, and Labor" (Ryan 

and Husslein), 467. 
Churches. 

Country life departments, 550. 
Geraldine, Mont., 160. 
Industrial relations and, 467. 
Industry and, 349. 
Industry and, Chicago Conf., 896. 
Radicalism in, 752. 
Village plans, 161. 
"Voice of the churches," 912. 
See also Federal Council of the 
Churches. 
Cincinnati. 

Letter from H. N. Mallon, 899. 
Women's City Club, 719. 
Circuses and crocuses, 393. 
Cities. 

At play, 768. 
Dancing cities, 631. 
Ford, Henry, on, 750. 
Grand Rapids study under prohi- 
bition, 183-228. 
India, 352. 
Cities, Internatl. Congress of, 550. 
Citizens' week, 669. 
Citizenship. 

Arkansas, 582. 

Chair at Glasgow Univ., 550. 
Teaching, 162. 
City and Country School, 697. 
City planning, 731. 
Bibliography, 733. 
Canada, 646. 
Flint, Mich., 570. 
Jersey City, 582. 
Laws of, 734. 
Los Angeles, 148. 
News items, 734. 
Ohio conf., 260. 
See also Town planning. 
Civic Club of Allegheny County, 819. 
Civic Development Dept. of Chamber 
of Commerce, 550. 



Civic tour to Europe, 934. 
Civics, 92, 160, 277, 395, 459, 568, 
631, 731. 857, 920. 
Books, 17. 

New York, state-wide, 116. 
Civil liberty in France, 509. 
Clark, E. E., Worcester plan, 924. 
Clark, Noble, 481. 
Clark, R. S., Continuation school, 

541. 
Clark Equipment Co., 751. 
Claxton, P. P., 326. 
Clayton Act, 557. 

Construction, 597. 
Cleveland. 

Community Fund (letter), 899. 
Fourth survey, 909. 
Fund poster, 577. 
Health diagnosis, 533. 
Immigrants and quacks, 635. 
Kingsley's services, 51. 
Learning to play, 245. 
Social work financing, 564, 625. 
Welfare Federation cartoons, 385. 
Clothes, salvage depot for (letter), 

138. 
"Clothing — Choice, Care, Cost" 

(Woodman), 739. 
Clothing industry. 
Lockout, 627. 
Lockout threatening, 385. 
Men's, 270. 
New strategy, 606. 
Tie-up, 416. 
Club, Line Fourteen, 95. 
Clum, Woodworth, 687. 
Coakley, T. F., Precedent for Judge 

Lindsey (letter), 773. 
Coal, 141. 

British dispute, 121. 
Women's pressure, 416. 
Coal, King (cartoon), 416. 
Coal industry. 

Maryland conf., 539. 
Mine fatalities in 1920, 540. 
More wars, 558. 
"Coal, Iron, and War" (Eckel). 287. 
"Coal Mining and the Coal Miner" 

(Bulman), 167. 
Cochems, Mrs. F. M., 162. 
Colbourne, Frances, Day nursery 

and community, 129. 
Colcord, L C. 170. 
Cole, G. "D. H., 732. 
"College and Commonwealth" (Mac- 

Cracken), 897. 
"College, The, and the New Amer- 
ica" (Hudson), 136, 168 (cor- 
rection). 
Colleges, human engineering in, 361. 
Collins, H. H., Jr., On the short 

day, 362. 
Colonies and protectorates, 118. 
Colonization. 
Land, 920. 

Wisconsin projects, 480. 
"Colonization of North America, 
The" (Bolton and Marshall), 
579. 
Colorado, plays in a small commu- 
nity, 162. 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., 817. 
Comev, A. C, Federal building loans, 

569. 
"Commercial Recreation" (Rumbold), 

102. 
Common-place, poet of the, 12. 
Commonwealth Steel Co., 814. 
Communist Party, 719, 720. 
Communities, country, score car,d, 

462. 
Community. 

Boundaries, 544. 
Small town, organizing, 634. 
See also School and community. 
Community center, What is a? 859. 
Community chests and labor (letter), 

740. 
Community federation and Y. M. 

C. A., 861. 
Community Forum, 719. 
Community foundations, 639. 
Community life, Iowa, 593. 
"Community Organization" (Hart), 

643. 
•'Community Programs for Cooper- 
ating Churches" (Guild), 642. 
"Community Recreation Program, A" 

(Cleveland Foundation), 102. 
Community Service of Chicago, 163. 
Community talent, 53. 
Community trusts, 694. 

Chicago, 918. 
Compass. The (periodical), 457. 
"Compulsory Arbitration and Com- 
pulsory Investigation of Indus- 
trial Disputes" (Beman), 672. 
Conferences, 74, 105, 260, 291, 371, 
435, 548, 645. 
Function of state conference, 575. 
Congress. 

Bills before, 722. 
Close, 847. 

Disabled soldiers and, 626. 
Short session, prospects, 323. 
Work for the future (social 
studies), 875. 



: 



Connecticut. 

Child life, 603. 

Child welfare, 893. 
Conscientious objectors. 

Present status, 59. 

Release, 349. 
Constantinople, 141. 
"Constitution, A, for the 
Commonwealth of Great 
(Webb), 514. 
Consumers' cooperation, 371. 
Consumers' League, annual 

372. 
Continuation education, 70. 
Continuation school, 541. 
"Control of Parenthood, The" (M< 

chant), 706. 
Cooke, H. T., An Italian colony, 27 Deport] 
Cooper, C. C, 752. 
Cooperation, 267. lJ" 8 * c 

Apartment houses, 160. 

Chair at the College de Franc) Ciii ~ 
582. Hole vl 

Industrial, Appeal by Hoover, 32 

Labor and, 57. IV 

Notes, 860. Dctfai 

Restraint of, 718. i (rtnt,_' 

Cooperative Education, 70. Ptrat, t I 

Cooperative Housing and Gardi Coc--" 



•Da '• 
(Dni 

meetinl 

18), » 

H ! 

Bepitl 



City League of America, 550. 
Cooperative League of America, 

Conf. 371. 
Cooperative mine, 896. 
Coordinating agencies, 877. 
Coordination of social work, 55 
Corn for Europe, offer of farm* 

623. 
Corporations, reaching, 458. 
Cost of living. 

Downward movement (with 
toon), 116. 

Family budget, 282, 394. 

Grand Rapids, 233. 

Great Britain, 229. 
Costello, E. J., 246. 
Cottage unit, 923. 
Country life. 

Church work and, 550. 

Conf., 260. 

Effect of city and industry, 

Emporia, Kan., 460. 

First-aid and health courses 
schools, 399. 

Ministers and, 460. 

Public health work among 
poor, 464. 

Recreation, 634. 

Rural planning in Wisconsin, 

Rural teacher and health, 727. 

Schools, 269. 
Country agent work, 461. 
"County home wrecker," 66. 
Course of events (social 

843. 
Cradle of wars, 563, 596. 
Crane, Frank, The happy famil 
Crane, Ross, 162. 
"Creative Revolution" (Paul), 
Credits, relief and construction, 
Creed for a school, 360. 
Crime in Grand Rapids, reduct: 

192. 
Crockatt, P. C, Degradation of 

men, 894. 
Crops, 295. 

Crowd psychology, 897. 
Crusader, 621. 
Crusader, on bein' a, 100. 
Cumming, H. S., Tainted 

(letter), 169. 
Curtis, H. S., Salvage depc 

clothes (letter), 138. 
Czecho-Slovak Ministry of 

Hygiene, 621. 
Czecho-Slovakia, 257. 



m, Ihry, 
taints;. 

Diseases of Ck 
Child like:, :.: 

jj M ■ 



1 



|al Brian c 
, mm . 



Be Anr ._■ 



He, 



IT una 



Dale, J. A., On making a lj 

world (symposium), 501. 
Dance hall regulations, suggd 

632. 
Dance halls (letter), 470. 
Dancing. 

Our dancing cities, 631. 
Standards, 396. 
Darr, V. C, On being a refugeej 

ter), 934. 
Davies, A. F., 166. 
Davis, N. H., 591. 
"Dawn, The, of Modern Medici 

(Buck), 27. 
Dawson, J. B., Developments in 

treal, 863. 
Day, M. B., Clearing house 

safety news, 363. 
"Day Continuation School, A, 

Work" (Wray and Fergus^ 

610. 
Day nursery, 129. 
Deardorff, N. R. 

American Red Cross at home. 
Throttling social hygiene. 
Death statistics, 243. 
Debs, E. V., portrait and note, 
Deflation in Great Britain, 229/ 
de Forest, R. W., Alfred T. w/ : 

1846-1921, 667. J,; 

Delaware, whipping-post, 244. 




i •• . . 






ft, 



« 



Index 



Delinquents in orphanages, 368. 
"Democracy and Assimilation 

(Drachsler), 578. 
,_ "Democracy and Ideals" (Erskine), 
1 546. ,. ,. ,, 

Dennison, H. S., On making a livable 
world (symposium), 500. 
i Dennison Mfg. Co., 364. 
retin "Dental and General Hygiene (lur- 
ner), 867. 
Denver. 

Public opportunity school, 36U. 
V (M; Strike report, 413. 

Department stores, hygiene, 463. 
dray, 27Deportation report, 592. 
Des Moines, 53. 

Jewish survey, 394. 
Detroit. 
ds FriiiG Child labor, 537. 

Health and housing, 529. 
looYtr, 321 Platoon School, 69. 
j Unemployment, 527. 
foeutsch, Babette, Christmas: 1920 
454. 



J (verse), 41 
bevine, E. T. 
id( Community 



i- ijevine, n. i.. . .,„ 

ind Gard* Community Trust in Chicago, 918. 
ca, 550. i Social justice and the govt., 11V. 
Social Welfare Library, 15. 
Uniform Trust for Public Uses, 

694. ^ 

e Witt, Katherine, On making a 
livable world (symposium), 501. 
iary of a Forty-Niner, The 
k (Canfield), 578. 
tan, Mary, 582. 

lament. ... 

..ipaign for (social studies), 555. 
*ster meetings for, 909. 
-ermany, 882. 
.Mussey, H. R-, on, 562. 
Toward (letter), 900. 
diseases of Children" (Morse), 259. 
istrict of Columbia. 
iChild labor, 537. 
Pept. of public welfare, 622. 
.inimum wage, 702. 
ial system, 724, 740. 
,n (letters), 106. 
L W., Mystic (verse), 884. 
:. A., Training Negro nurses, 

47ft 1 

imatic Dances for Small Chil- 
,ren" (Shatter), 103. 
s, soft, 141. 
addicts, 590, 728. 



iSO, 

1 industry 

I). 

iltn courses 



id kt* W-j 



•dWi «'■, 
[tidal » 

o, * 

hippy '»'■ 

;«" (Paul) 
cncMrattim 
»l J60. 



1 197. 

,,100. 
Tainted 

lata? depil] 



I ■'': 



ince, 295. 

at Britain and (letter), 289. 

er, Ind., 896. 

ray J A., The Armenians to- 

y, '885. 

m, Arthur, Reorganizing regis- 

jTation, 457. 
_;x case, 597. 

[ont Company, 765. 
■am, E. P-, Boston's child court 
System, 250. 
b* *tf ess Bleachery, 622. 

fcmic Americanism" (Hall), 546. 
of I 

Aurora, 74. 

St. Louis, 860. 
.Side. 

tk organization, 96. 
Iry movement, 395. 

Orthodox Catholic Church, 

Jto Live Long" (Porter), 402. 

[Allen, 582. 

niacile, The child and the ma- 

1, 536. 

iic Liberty;' (Cox), 288. 
lea (periodical), 646. 
Ts. < 

1 17. 

led good-will in internation- 

X9. 

goffered for essays, 901. 
Ists and engineers, 382. 
*T. A., 422. 
v, E. J., 481. 
i. 
_..ing in New York city, 601. 
hture, play and, 422. 
• 16, 610. 
Zl, 760. 
,..pe, 255. 
IVfofcn aw'lr act, 531. 

Schools, 550. 
.(lofBit* in wd steps, 295. 

Roys and laws, 361. 
[& y»V 542. . . 
■;• .rity opinion, 761. 

\\d Hintendents of schools at At- 
. i,d f«nic City, 889. 
' lployment and, 602. 

, *rs in Britain, 253. 

ilso School and community; 
L , at tofiAols. 
1 ! W tnt ' on * or Democracy" (Cope). 

rl md » te .' n nal inventories, 326. 
U &J& day, 61. 

S[, t dt-*work in Italy, 561. _ 

ur shift in British iron and 

'.no* 2 '*' '? 799 ' 

I™ i D., View on the juvenile 

(letter), 773. 



miking > 1 

llations. s»» 

,« 
lies, «'■ 

I 



Elliott, J. L., Ten days in Vienna, 

35. 
Ellis Island, 154, 155, 156, 633. 
Emerson, Haven, 243, 406. 

Cleveland health diagnosis, 533. 
Emmons, A. B., Department store 

hygiene, 463. 
Employers, What they are saying, 

766. 
Employment. 

Grand Rapids, 235. 

National control, 83. 

Service study, 429. 

Wisconsin offices, 765. 
Emporia, Kan., 460. 
Engineers. 

Economists and, 382. 

On hours, 151. 

Public and, 526. 

Unionists and, 324. 
England. 

t_oal dispute, 121. 

Housing, Veiller's report, 626. 

Social work, 528. 

Unemployment, 594. 

See also Britain. 
English language. 

toreign-born women and, 696. 

Jewish daily Forwards and, 280. 
"English Pageantry" (Withington), 

738. 
Espionage, industrial, 718. 
Estate management, 571. 
Esthonia, 496, 582, 655, 689. 
"Ethics General and Special" (Hill), 

332. 
"Eugenics, Civics and Ethics" (Wal- 

ston), 332. 
Europe. 

Anatole France on, 84. 

Civic tour to, 934. 

Cry of the children, 386. 

Definite program of relief wanted, 
688. 

Education, 255. 

Farmers' assistance, 623. 

New school, 256. 

Red Cross change of policy, 590. 

Relief of intellectual and artistic 
workers, 438: 

Social and economic condition, 
448. 

Starving children (poster), 669. 

War prisoners, exchange, 496, 582. 
European Relief Council, poster, 719. 
Evans, E. G., Liberties our fathers 

won (letter), 470. 
Evening play centers, 769. 
Everett, R. H., 286. 
"Everybody's World" (Eddy), 320. 
"Everyday Americans" (Canby), 369. 
Everyman's child, 130. 
"Everyman's Child" (Loeb), 707. 
"Evolution of the Budget in Massa- 
chusetts" (Gulick), 104. 
Explosives and safety, 765. 
Ex-Service Men's International, 148. 
Eye diseases in Turkey, 624. 



Factories, Petrograd, 540. 

"Factory Work for Girls" (Hodgen), 

168. 
Fagan, B. L, 130. 
Fairchild, H. P., Connecticut's child 

life, 603. 
"Fairy Grammar" (Carpenter), 518. 
Family. 

Budget, 282, 394. 

Children's agencies and, 605. 

Desertion, 737. 

Happy family, 930. 

Notes, 930. 

Prohibition and family life in 

Grand Rapids, 200. 
Social maladjustments, 640. 
Family welfare, 96, 164, 281, 392, 

456, 575, 639, 735, 861, 928. 
Famine in China, 512. 
Farm work in Italy, 561. 
Farmers. 

Congress and, 718. 

Crisis, 414. 

Jewish, Sullivan County, N. Y., 

460. 
Offer of corn to Europe, 623. 
Farmhouses, better planning, 462. 
Farms. 

Child crop, 367. 
Wages of laborers, 128. 
Farrell, Pa., 896. 
"Fatigue Study" (Gilbreth), 168. 
Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, The, Chicago 
conference, 741. 
Fourth Quadrennial Meeting, 436. 
Federal employes, 364. 
Federated Press, 126, 246. 
Federation, letter from S. C. Kings- 
ley, 708. 
"Feeblemindedness in Children of 

School Age" (Lapage), 931. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 244, 

511, 901. 
Felsenthal, J. I., A peace-time hero 

(letter), 138. 
Ferriere, Adolph, 256. 
Fichandler, Alex., Labor education, 
542. 



Fiction, books of, 19. 
Fiedler, Albert, 481. 
"Field Work and Social Research" 

(Chapin), 432. 
Filene, E. A., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 502. 
Films. See Motion pictures. 
Finance and social problems, 150. 
Fiucke case, 719. 
Findlay, J. J., 22. 
Finland, 655. 
Fischer, W. A., Negro Health Week 

in Texas, 100. 
Fisher act, prospects, 531. 
Fisk, E. L-, Light wines and beer 

(letter), 434. 
Fitch, J. A. 

Long day (twelve-hour day in steel 

industry), 78'3. 
Untermyer revelations (in steel in- 
dustry), 491, 494. 
West Virginia, 850. 
Five-cent fare, 860. 
Flat chest (cartoon), 926. 
Flint, Mich., 570. 
Flying, and landing fields, 95. 
"Folk Love" (Patten), 468. 
Folk school education by Presby- 
terians, 550. 
Food, new financing of production, 

857. 
Food Research Institute, 832. 
Ford, Henry, 750. 
Ford Institute of Technology, 363. 
Ford Motor Co., safety in the fac- 
tory, 64. 
Foreign affairs, books, 19. 
Foreign-Born (periodical), 141. 
Foreign-born citizens, notable, 924. 
Foreign-born mothers, educating, 696. 
Forests and housing, 150. 
Forwards (paper), 280. 
Fosdick, A. J., On getting a wife 

from Italy (letter), 290. 
Foundation, new (Mrs. E. M. An- 
derson), 913. 
"Foundations of Feminism" (Bar- 

nett), 931. 
"Foundations of Social Service, The" 

(Williams), 897. 
Fountain spirits (ill.), 819. 
Fox, H. F., Prohibition (letter), 406. 
Framingham, Mass., 829. 
France. 

Civil liberty, 509. 

Drugs, 295. 

Invitations to Germans to visit 

devastated regions, 646. 
Law and labor, 595. 
Railroads and agriculture, 742. 
Reconstruction of devastated area, 

646. 
Red Cross posters, 101. 
Ruins and damage, 141. 
School of Civics, 438. 
Teachers' congress, 255. 
Tuberculosis, 550. 
France, Anatole, 255. 

On Europe, 84. 
France, C. J., 85, 668. 
Frankfurter, Felix, On indust. prin- 
ciples, 538. 
Franklin, M., Nation-wide bank mer- 
ger (letter), 581. 
Frazier, M. G., death, 291. 
Freedom in schools, 759. 
Freedom of speech, 760. 

Mt. Vernon, 115. 
French, D. C, 737, 782. 
French peasant (ill.), 649. 
Friday, David, 382. 
Friendly visitor, 349. 
Friends, Society of. 

Survey of farmers' group, 511. 
Work in Germany, 309. 
"Frontier in American History, The" 

(Turner), 578. 
Frost, Robert. 

As poet of neighborliness, 318. 
Road not taken, the (verse), 319. 
Fuller, R. G. 

Child labor and mental hgyiene, 

891. 
Next steps in child labor, 535. 
"Fundamental Principles of Learn- 
ing and Study" (Edwards), 611. 
Furniture. See Grand Rapids. 
Furuseth, Andrew, 854. 



Gambling, New York state fight, 51. 

Garbage, New York's, 881. 

Garden City (Welwyn), 569. 

Gardiner, A. G., or Austria, 35. 

Garfield, Charles, . .2. 

Garment trades. See Clothing in- 
dustry. 

Garrison, L. M., 607. 

Gary, E. H. on the twelve-hour day, 
845. 

Geary, Blanche, Houses for working 
women, 570. 

Geddes, Sir Patrick, 352. 

Geneva, home of the Women's In- 
ternatl. League for Peace and 
Freedom (ill.), 350. 

Genoa, 52. 



Ill 

Georgia. 

Children's code, 613. 

Juvenile offenders, 613. 
Geraldine, Mont., 160. 
German universities, 134. 
Germany. 

Alcohol, 833. 

Amer. Friends Service Commit- 
tee's work, 309, 613. 

Building, 141. 

Christmas bank notes, 449. 

Compulsory labor, 428. 

Democracy in industry, 628. 

Disarmed, 882. 

Favorable signs (letter), 289. 

Nationalization, 848. 

Public health officers, 141. 

School program, 255. 

Social insurance, 485. 

Under-nourishment of youth, 901. 

Unemployment, 834. 
Ghent, W. J., 899. 
Gide, Charles, 582. 
Gierloeff, Christian, 94. 
Gillmore, Frank, On making a liv- 
able world (symposium), 502. 
Giolitti, Mr., 152, On capital and 

labor, 53. 
Girl scouts, campaign, 116. 
Girls. 

Health work for, 99. 

Omaha experiment, 423. 
Girls' clubs, 633. 
Glasgow University, 550. 
Glasson, W. H., Soldiers' bonuses: 

state and federal, 755. 
Gleason, Arthur, Workers' Educa- 

tion in Britain, 253. 
Glenn, Mrs. J. M., 646. 
Gold, H. R., 560. 
Goldmark, Pauline, Child at work 

604. 
Goldwasser, Maria, On a Petrograd 

factory, 540. 
Gollomb, Joseph, 84. 
Gompers, Samuel, 830. 
Goodfaith, Mercy, 893. 
Good-will, organized, 559. 
Good-will among men (Europe), 448 
Gopher Prairie 735, 855. 

Letters on Hart's article, 933. 
Gorgas, W. C, 138. 
Government and politics, books on, 

Grand Rapids. 

Cornwall Community House, 397 

Findings, gist, 186-187. 

Hibernian Athletic Club, 529 

Letter from, 580. 

Nationalities, 213. 

Phases seen by an aviator, 206-207 " 

Plan, 188. 

Prohibition and prosperity, 183- 

228. 
Prosperity, facts, 233. 
Shops, 210-211. 
Types of industrial workers, 208- 

What high wages and steady worl 
mean, 213. 
"Grand Strategy of Evolution, The 

(Patten), 706. 
Granny-doctor, 399. 
Graser, F. H. 

City managers and plain citizens, 

Grasse, Gertrude, Keeping children 
from court, 892. 

Great Britain. See Britain. 

Greek language question, 8. 

Greeks in America, 582. 

Greenwich House. 

New plan of organization, 670. 
Poster, 670. 

Grenfell, W. T., 589. 

Griffith, Sanford. 

Compulsory labor in Germany 

428. 
More democracy in German indus- 
try, 628. 

"Group Mind, The" (McDougall), 
547. 

"Growth During School Age" (Go- 
din), 611. 

Guild-built houses, 732. 

"Guild State, The" (Taylor), 288. 

Guilds and E. Barker (letter), 290. 

Guinzburg, Frederic, 622. 

"Gulf of Misunderstanding, The" 
(Pinochet), 770. 

Gunn, S. M., 582. 

Gwin, J. B., Education in Mexico, 
354. 
Mexican labor problems, 272. 
Mexico after ten years of revolu- 
tion, 248. 
Public health and welfare work in 
Mexico, 507. 

"Gymnastic Dancing" (Staley and 
Lowery), 644. 

Gypsy parlors, 893. 

H 
Hackenburg, F. L-, 934. 
Haiti, 118. 
Halek, J., America as health teacher, 
729. 



f 



IV 



Index 






Halifax, public health, 446. 

Hall, G. Stanley, 697. 

Hallinan, C. T., 511. 

Hamilton J. A., Need for permanent 
housing boards, 92. f 

Hanchett, D. S. ( Mops or parasites, 
425 " 

"Handbook of American Govern- 
ment" (Bartlett), 26. . „ 

"Handbook of Ballroom Dancing 

Hannah r Ellis Island, 154. 

Hard times n Mayor > s Commit- 

tee, New York, Dec. .1917 issue 
of Feb. 5, 1921, Section II. 
Harding, W. G. 

On immigration, 278. 
Problems facing, 247. 
Sister's appointment, 413. 

Ha^ck^.^hy not scrap the 

case conference? 928. 
Harris, L. I, Typhus, 721. 

Harrison, S. M. Cf„rlv 429 

Employment Service Study, <wv. 

Hospitals in China, 638. 
Harrison Act, 728. 
Hart H. H., ,532. 
Hart Hornell, 394, 640. 
Hart J. K., 15, 869. „ . 

Letters on his article on Gopher 
Prairie, 933. ,.._»*« 

Minority opinion in education, /ol. 

On Oakland, 870. 

What's wrong with Uoplier 
Prairie? 855. 

See also Social studies 
Hart, Schaffner & Marx Co., 774 
Harvard Industrial Hygiene Di- 

Harva?d 0I Univ.,' lectures on education 

of the blind, 143. 
"Harvey Humphrey Baker (Cusn- 

man), 404. 
Hawaiian settlement, 670. 
Haynes, Rowland, 245. 
Haywood, Wm. D., et at., 87. 

"Books, 15, 259, 706 867. 

Cleveland survey, 533. 

Girls, 99. r ^ n 

Housing and, 529. 

How a clinic works, 925. 

Insurance and, 90. 

Motion pictures on, 143. 

National Health Council, 561. 

Notes, 927. 

Rural, conf., 548. 

Unemployment and, 4JU. 

See also Public health. 
Health almanac, 865 
"Health and Social Progress (Bin- 
der), 706. 
Health bonds, 381. 
Health center, union, 446. 
"Health Circus," 729. 
Health town, another experiment con- 
sidered, 829. 
"Healthy Hambone" (cartoon), 230. 
Hedin, Alma, 397. 
Hell's Kitchen, 455. 
"Helping Men Own Farms (Mead), 

643. 
Hettrick, J. T 229 
Hibernian Athletic Club, 529. 
Highways, murderous, 525. 
Hill, A. R., 774. 
Hill E. P., 641 
Hill, W. D., 637. 
Hill City, Minn., 86. 
Hine L. W., 406. 
"Historical Child, The" (Chrisman), 

"History of the Chartist Movement, 

A" (West), 739. 
"History of the Motion Picture, The 

(Lubschez), 404 
Hoag, C. G., Log of a P. R-, 828 
Hoblrt, Ethel, Plymouth (Mass.) of 

today, 313. 
Hodson, W. W., 130, 252. 
Hoffman, C. W., 267 

Saving the child, 704. 
Hoffman, F. L., On Indians, 466. 
Hoffman's Island, 921. _ 
Holbrook, D. H., On making a liv- 
able world (symposium), 503. 
Holden, Raymond. 

Legislation and narcotics, 728. 
Passenger pigeon, the (verse), 693. 
Town meeting— 1921, 917. 
White Christmas (verse), 454. 
Holiday school, 71. 
Hollingshead, F. M., Community 

foundations, 639. 
Hollingsworth, H. S., Survey of 

Jewish families, 394. 
Holt, L. E-, Survey of nutrition 

work, 866. 
"Home assistant," 128. 
Home Service, 83. 
Honolulu, 670. 

Hoover, H. C, 141, 386, 428. 
Children's employment, 247. 
Horner, W. S., 671. 
Hospital ship, 730. 



Hospital social service, 284, 550. 

Education of workers, 727. 
Hospitals. 

China, 638. 

Convention, 260. 

France, children, 927. 

White list, 285. 
Hours of work, 61. 

Engineers on, 151. 

Forty-eight hour law in Mass., 
125. 

Short day, manufacturer on, 362. 
House-flies, 464. 
Housing. 

Books, 258. 

Books and beds, 94. 

Boom town, 731. 

Business and, 877. 

Business women (letter), 169. 

Cooperative, 550. 

Cooperative plan (Jackson Heights), 
568. 

Economic aspects (social studies), 
109. 

England, shortage, 557. 

England, Veiller's report, 626. 

Forests and, 150. 

Hackenburg bill, 934. 

Health and, 529. 

Jersey City, 582. 

Joint Legislative Housing Commit- 
tee investigation, 229. 

Land and (letter), 169. 

Landlord and tenant, 389. 

Natl, conf., 415. 

National scheme, 230. 

Need for permanent boards, 92. 

New York, 54. 

New York city, vacant homes, 295. 

New York law, 149. 

New York laws valid, 879. 

New York policy, 3. 

Old and new problems, 77. 

St. Louis, 571. 

Standards (social studies), 137. 

Suggested remedies (social stud- 
ies), 173. 

Untermyer revelations, 491. 

Working women, 570. 
"Housing Problem, The" (Clarke), 

258. 
Houston Foundation, 641. 
Hourwich, Rebecca, Letter on Hart's 

article on Gopher Prairie, 935. 
"How to Reduce" (Donnelly), 867. 
Howard, Sidney, 718. 
Howe, S. H., 413. 
Howells, W. D., 845. 
Hoyem, Oliver, 724. 

District prison (letter), 106. 

Letter, 740. 
Hoyer, R. A., Migration of colored 

workers, 930. 
Huber, W. A., 880. 
Hudson Guild, 398. 
"Human and Industrial Efficiency" 

(Chellew), 515. 
Human Engineering, 361. 
"Human Motor, The" (Amar), 738. 
Hume, S. J., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 503. 
Hungarian newspapers, 141. 
Hungary, 56. 

"Hungry Hearts" (Yezierska), 579. 
Hunt, Matilda, 71. 
Hunter, F. M., 869, 870. 
Hunter, F. R., 359. 
Husband, R. W., Letter on Hart's 

article on Gopher Prairie, 933. 
Husband, W. W., 914, 920. 
Huszar, Karoly, 56. 

I 
Ice ponds, municipal, 634. 
"Idea of Progress, The" (Bury), 322. 
"Idea of Progress, The" (Inge), 898. 
Ideals, local and national (letter), 

434. 
Ihlder, John, 550. 
Illinois, survey of prisoners, 147. 
Immigrant News Service, 278. 
Immigrants, 853. 

Colonization, 920. 

Distributing in America (social 
studies), 411. 

Ellis Island, 154, 155, 156. 

Ellis Island, entertainment, 633. 

First siftings, 922. 

Quacks and, 635. 

Share in the making of America, 
280. 

What to do with, 10. 

Willing guests (letter), 708. 

Wisconsin, 277. 

Women, 696. 
Immigration. 

Cartoon, 118. 

Harding on, 278. 

Open shop and, 752. 

Since the war (social studies), 379. 

Suspension question, 416. 

Three per cent, 834. 

Unemployment and, 388. 

Vise system, 438. 
Immigration commissioner, new, 914. 
Inauguration Day, two weeks before 
— work of Congress, 722. 



India. 

Cities, 352. 

Education, 71. 
Indianapolis, Natl. Municipal League 

and allied orgs., conf., 371. 
Indians. 

Citizenship, 438. 

Medically neglected, 466. 
Indirect action (social studies), 293. 
Individuality, 434. 
Indust. accidents to children, 536. 
"Industrial Control" (Lawson), 672. 
"Industrial Democracy" (Webb), 672. 
Industrial espionage, 718. 
"Industrial History, The, of Eng- 
land" (Usher), 288. 
"Industrial Housing" (Knowles), 258. 
Industrial movies, 431. 
Industrial pensions, 126. 
Industrial principles, 538. 
Industrial relations. 

Hoover's appeal for cooperation, 325. 

Newark, N. J., discussion, 324. 

Situation (social studies), 374. 
I. W. W., judgment of U. S. Circuit 

Court, 87. 
Industry, 61, 125, 253, 362, 428, 538, 
606, 699, 762, 894. 

Books, 16, 287, 672. 

Church and, 349. 

Church and, Chicago Conf., 896. 

Negro and, 291, 420. 

New Jersey plan, 832. 

New York commission, 593. 

Worth Dakota program, 418. 

Research, 133. 

Situation in the United States, 477. 

Women in, 539. 
"Industry, Emotion and Unrest" 

(Thomas), 287. 
Infancy, federal aid, 446. 
Infant mortality, 558. 
Ingham, M. H., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 5U0. 
"Insects and Human Welfare" 

(Brues), 867. 
Institute for Public Service, 295. 
Institution child, 130. 
Insurance. 

Government, 281. 

Health and, 90. 

Japanese drawings, 625. 

Social, Germany, 485. 

York, England, health system, 489. 
International, veterans', 148. 
Internatl. Conf. on the Causes of 

Death, 243. 
Internatl. Council of Women, 351. 
Internatl. Harvester Co., 812. 
Internatl. journalism, 550. 
"International Labor Legislation" 

(Ayusawa), 287. 
"International Labor Legislation" 

(Hetherington), 672. 
Internatl. Ladies Garment Workers' 

Union, health center, 446. 
Internatl. law, 550. 
Internatl. mindedness, 70. 
Internatl. scientific research, 295. 
Intersettlement arts, 395. 
"Introduction to Sociology, An" 

(Findlay), 22. 
"Introduction to the Principles of So- 
ciology" (Dow), 370. 
"Introduction to Vocational Educa- 
tion" (Hill), 610. 
Iowa. 

Rural life conf., 593. 

State conf. of social work and so- 
cial maladjustments in families, 
640. 
Ireland. 

Civil war (British Labor report), 
528. 

Hearings, 51. 

Henderson, Arthur, and, 384. 

Relief unit, 668. 

State of, 447. 
Irene Kaufmann Settlement, 251. 
Irish Relief, 742. 

"Is Mexico Worth Saving?" (Cham- 
berlain), 770. 
Italian Chamber of Labor, 278. 
Italian needlecraft center, 924. 
Italian remittances, 141. 
Italians. 

New contacts, 278. 

Orange colony, 277. 
Italy. 

As a mother country, 754. 

Building Credit Institute, 734. 

Farm work, 561. 

Getting a wife from (letter), 290. 

Iron workers, 152, 275. 

Labor (letter), 581. 

Reconstruction at the front, 305. 

Situation, 6. 



Jackson Heights, 568. 
Jacksonville, Fla., 350. 
Jacobs, P. P., On making a livable 
world (symposium), 506. 



Jails. 

Alameda County, Cal., 452. 

As continuation schools, 134. Labor, 

Jamaica Bay, garbage island in, 881. i, fc .'' 
Japan. q...... 

Employment of women, 143. Ccrr." 

Habits of the people, 246. 

Insurance (with drawings), 625 

Labor laws, 364. 
Japanese in Texas, 774. 
Japanese women (letter), 470. 
Jena, social workers, 291. 
Jerome, J. K., on youth, 255 



fain bi 



our la.; 

I 



.ic.umc, j. xv., on youtn, jji. 

Jersey City, housing and city plan W-: 

ning, 582. ^ 

"Jesus' Principles of Living" (Ken M-'i 

and Jenks), 104. 
Jerusalem, new, 352. 
"Jewish Contributions to Civilization' Osa 

(Jacobs), 322. 
Jews. 

Des Moines survey, 394. 
Farming community, 460. 
International council in aid of Pt 

lestine, 774. 
New York, recreation, 632. 
Poland, 613. 

Relief in Europe and Palestine, 58i„ 
Johnson, Alexander, Mercy Goodfaitf. 
893. ' 

Johnson, E. M., Forty-eight hour la.; 

in Mass., 125. 
Johnson, W. E. ("Pussyfoot") 
ter on Grand Rapids and 
526. 
Johnson bill, 416. 
Jolly Jester, 729. 

Jones, Brewster, 305. wLe; 

Jones, Herschel, Consumers' coopl 

tion, 371. Xui 

Jones, M. L., Italian labor situatl 

(letter), 581. 
Jones amendment to Harrison 

728. 
Joplin zinc, 657. 
Jordan, A. M., Social relatic 

children's books, 316. 
Joslyn, J. J., 878. 
Journalism, internatl., 550. 
Jugoslavia, 774. 

Junior league of nations, 655. , 
Justice, U. S. Dept. of, illegal 

tices (letter), 470. 
Juvenile courts. 
Passing, 705. 
Saving the child, 704. 
Schools and, 703. 
View of T. D. Eliot (letter) - 
See also Children's courts. 

K 

Kalb, E. G., District prison (1 

106. 
Kallen, H. M., On making a 
world (symposium), 502. 
Kane, F. F. 

Civil liberty in France, 509. 
Freedom and initiative in 
759. 
Kaska, Pa., 128. 
Katzaroff, Prof., 833. 
Kaufmann, Paul, 487. 
Kazinci, Father, 355. 
Keene, C. H., 934. 
Kelley, Florence. % ' 

District minimum wage, 70aE ; 
New Woman's Party, 827-rJ 
Kellogg P. U., Letter ' 

Taylor, 911. 
Kelso, R. W., S26. 
Kent, Rockwell, 417, 511. 
Kentucky. 

Case work, 575. 
Mine worker judge, 431. 
Play institute, 268. 
Kentucky, Univ. of, 134. 
"Kentucky Superstitions" (M "'- 

547. [ 

Kern, Mrs. Fred, Line I 

Club, 95. 
Kidner, T. B., 934. 
Kimball, Theodora, 733. 
King, J. H., Afforestation b? 

town, 95. 
Kingsbury, J. A., A new fg 

and its donor, 913. 
Kingsley, S. C, 51. 

Cleveland Community FB 

Mr. Cassidy (letter), 899/"-' - " 
Correction, 625. 

Keep the pot boiling (lelta; ■ V 
Should everybody care, 561 . ^ C .-" 
Kipawa, 734. PJ 

Kirchwey, G. W., Paradox . 
quan, 724. f 

Kjelsberg, Betzy, Norwejt'j" 

dren's laws, 66. 
Knights of Columbus, War I 

position, 742. 
Kohs, S. C, Twenty-four-h 

(letter), 580. 
Krehbiel, Edward, 85. 
Kropotkin, Peter, 720. 
Ku Klux Klan, 350, 742. 




Index 






it] ■■< 



lid si F 



jbt Ion 1 



Labor. 

Books, 287, 672. 

Clayton Act and, SS7. 

Community chests and (letter), 740. 

Cooperation and, 57. 

Disputes (cartoon), 608. 

Education, 542. 

France, 595. 

Germany, 428. 

Italy (letter), 581. 

Japanese laws, 364. 

League of Nations and, 52. 

Liquidation, 915. 

Mexico, 272. 

Monopolies and, 749. 

Nebraska laws, amendment, 525. 

Open shop and — Washington conf., 

830. 
Productivity, 127. 
Right to join unions, 850. 
Russian laws, 430. 
What workers are saying, 766. 
Workers' education in Britain, 253. 
See also Unions. 
*abor, Dept. of, appraisal, 763. 
Labor in Politics" (Fay), 515. 
C .<]tttJLabor, Management and Production" 
(Coolie and others), 518. 
abor organizations, status (social 

studies), 336. 
Labor's Challenge to the Social 

Order" (Brooks), 73. 
,abrador, 589. 
L'Alcoolisation de la France" (Aub- 

ert and Letort), 868. 
ambeth Conf., on sexual morality, 
117. 
^and. 
Colonization, 920. 
Housing and (letter), 169. 
Requisitioning for play, 231. 
ndlords, 389. 
ne, W. D. 
rohibition in Grand Rapids, 189. 
tudy of West Virginia, 850. 
ne County, Ore., 93. 
nguage and loreign-born mothers, 

696. 
nsing, Mich., 734. 
.sell, G. M., 924. 
iker, Bruno. 

rand Rapids — a look ahead, 226. 
and colonization, 920. 
rosperity in Grand Rapids, 213. 
[;ker, Loula, Italy a mother coun- 
try, 754. 
ki, H. J. 

ritish coal dispute, 121. 
itish Labor's future, 753. 
ngland out of work, 594. 
^nglish books on social science, 13. 
ospects of the Fisher act, 531. 
rop, Julia C, On Czecho-Slov- 
akia, 257. 
i, 655, 689. 
internatl., 550. 
dership, psychology of, 646. 
lie for Political Education, 561. 
of Free Nations Assn., 559. 
of Nations, 
the crossroads, 327. 
stria and, 382. 
bor and, 52. 

opaganda as to the United States 
entering, 646. 
" ite slavery and, 147. 
le of Nations, Junior, 655. 
G. S., On making a livable world 
(symposium), 506. 
Joseph, 
xplanation (letter), 580. 
cal and national ideals (letter), 
!434. 

P. R., Schools for social work, 
549. 

mann, Helmuth, 487. 
serson, W. M., 627. 
mmigration and unemployment, 

388. 
and Stanford, Jr., Univ., 832. 
prosy, 383. 

etters to a Young Man on Love 
and Health" (Gallichan), 137. 
. ver Food Control Act, Supreme 
■ \ «e« l Court on, 846. 
™ J1J, wis, R. E., 861. 

SI . wis, Sinclair, On making a livable 
'lijjinoilJ .. world (symposium), 504. 
■' ,| t ttei)i >" xington, Ky., 469. 
3, y, H. A., Health and insurance, 90. 

,-l,ling » ! iberal College, The" (Meiklejohn), 

■y piraJ° J France, civil, 509. 
See also Freedom. 
j )l!flf%rary methods, 141. 
Be KS , Fe Extension Institute, 90. 
u«««&tfoot, Warren, 613. 

icoln, Abraham, on labor and capi- 
tal (with portrait), 684. 



Harrison I 



I reiatir 

16. 

ns, 655. 
if, illegal 



K 

it (letter),] 

i courts. 



liin? ] 1 
an), SM 

ranee, 509. 



417, 5U. 



til 



of, W 
■rstitions 

■red. !•'"' 



1)3, 




say, Vachel, 

verse), 91. 
jsey, B. B., 267. 
making a livable 

osium,), 503. 



The leaden-eyed 



world (sym- 



Precedent for (letter), 773. 

Story of his refusal to betray a 

child's confidence, 689. 
Line fourteen Club, 95. 
Linville, H. R., 543. 
"Literature in a Changing Age" 

(Thorndike), 330. 
Lithuania, 655. 
"Little Lessons in Corrective Eating" 

(Christian), 103. 
Livable world (symposium), 498. 
Liveright, H. B., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 5U5. 
Livingston, Arthur, Situation in Italy, 

6. 
Livingston, Carl, 302. 
Local self-government (social studies), 

907. 
Local unit, 434. 
Lockwood committee, 491, 492. 
Loeb, S. I., Soliloquy, 130. 
London Adult School Union, 71. 
London Infant Welfare Congress, no- 
tice, 893. 
London School of Economics, 646. 
London Symphony, 557. 
Long, Andrew, 'J. he Federated Press, 

126. 
"Lore of the Wanderer, The" (Stev- 
enson), 932. 
Los Angeles, 85. 

Americanization plan, 923. 
City plan, 148. 
Negroes, 295. 
Lothrop, Mrs. W. H., fund, 901. 
Louisiana, women's wages, 64. 
Louisville. 

Negro migration, 930. 
Swapping story tellers, 633. 
Welfare League and Legion, 736. 
Lovejoy, O. R., 426. 

Key to the barn door, 559. 
Lowell, A. L., on academic freedom, 

761. 
Lowell, Mass., housing project, 733. 
Lull, fl. G., Bringing science to the 

home, 461. 
Lund, H. J., Gopher Prairie, 735. 
Lundberg, E. O., The school and the 

juvenile court, 703. 
Lynch, Frederick, on G. W. Nasmyth, 

105. 
Lynde, E. D., 260. 

Rural conf. in Wisconsin, 863. 
State conference, the, 575. 



M 



MacArthur, Mary, obituary, 557. 

McBride, M. M., Geraldine goes to 
church, 160. 

McCausland, Isabelle, Japanese women 
(letter), 470. 

MacDonald, Frank, 717. 

McDonald, J. G., 383. 

On European conditions, 448. 

Macdougal Alley Play School, 697. 

MacDougall, E. A., Cooperative hous- 
ing, 568. 

Macedonia, 934. 

Machinery, accidents to children, 536. 

Machinists, international, 128. 

Mahoney, J. J., 924. 

"Main Street," 855. 

Maine. 

Public Health Assn., 637. 
Saving babies, 427. 

"Major Social Problems" (Binder), 
706. 

"Maiden Survey, The" (Athearn), 
642. 

Mallery, O. T., Preventing job fam- 
ines, 530. 

Mallon, H. N., Cincinnati (letter), 899. 

Mallon, J. J., 396. 

Mallory industries, 63. 

Maltby, Frances, The movable school, 
888. 

Manes, Alfred, Social insurance in the 
new Germany, 485. 

Mann, Kristine, Health work for 
girls, 99. 

Mannes, David, On making a livable 
world (symposium), 505. 

"Man's Unconscious Passion" (Lay), 
545. 

"Manual of Psychiatry" (Rosanoff), 
369. 

Manufacture in tenements, 849. 

"Manage sterile, Le, et le divorce" 
(Cazal), 708. 

Marshall, T. R., 622. 

Martial law, 645. 

Maryland. 

Child labor, 646. 

Miners and operators, conf., 539. 

Massachusetts. 

Conf. of Social Work, 435. 
Forty-eight hour law, 125. 
Maternity benefits, 864. 
Minimum wage, 63. 
Training teachers for Americaniza- 
tion, 924. 

"Massage and Exercises Combined" 
(Jensen), 103. 



Maternity. 

Benefits, 864. 

Federal aid, 446. 
Maternity and Child Welfare, cartoon 

from, 769. 
Matthews, W. H. 

(Jn making a livable world (sym- 
posium), 504. 

Twelve-hour day, 879. 
Mayflower landing, 149. 
■'Meaning of Service, The" (Fosdick), 

772. 
Meat consumption, 141. 
Medary, Anna. 

To little Concetta (verse), 567. 
Medical work in Austrian schools, 901. 
Meierowitz, M., 655. 
Meiklejohn, Alexander, on academic 

freedom, 759. 
"Men and Steel" (verse), 676. 
"Mental Fatigue During Continuous 
Exercise of a Single Function" 
(Garth), 168. 
Mental health, books, 545. 
Mental hygiene and child labor, 891. 
Merchants' Assn. of N. Y., 126. 
Merritt, W. G., Texas open port law, 

700. 
Merriweather, Dr., 252, 368, 426. 
Messer, L. W., 861. 
"Methods and Results of Testing 
School Children" (Dewey and 
others), 611. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 270. 
Mexico. 

After ten years of revolution, 248. 

Another survey, 279. 

Education, 354. 

Labor problems, 272. 

Public health and welfare work, 507. 

Public instruction, 295. 
Meyer, M. F. 

In quarantine, 921. 

Third class, 853. 
Milan, child welfare conf., 295. 
Milbank Memorial Fund, 913. 
Militarism, 511. 
Military service, cartoon, 269. 
Military training. 

New York, 511. 

Oakland, 359. 

School, 84. 
Milk. 

Missouri, 295. 

Motor cars and, 750. 
Miller, H. A. 

Agrarian Bulgaria, 563. 

Kingdoms and republics, 596. 
Miller, N. L., on night work for wo- 
men, 669. 
Miller, Spencer, Jr., The prison as an 

asset 157. 
Mills, C.'m., Joplin zinc, 657. 
Milwaukee. 

Air port, 569. 

Teachers' Council, 133. 
Mine worker judge, 431. 
Miners. 

British dispute, 121. 

Program, 845. 
Minimum wage, 431. 

Dennison plan, 364. 

District of Columbia, 702. 

Massachusetts, 63. 

Washington, 62. 
Mining. 

Coal fatalities in 1920, 540. 

Cooperative mine, 896. 

New town, 128. 

Productivity of labor, 127. 

Zinc, 657. 
Minneapolis. 

Girls' club study, 742. 

Harvest Nights, 283. 
Minnesota. 

Child protection, 252. 

Child welfare, 130. 

Tuberculosis fellowship, 143. 
Mississippi State Health Bulletin, 230. 
Missouri. 

Milk, 295. 

Tuberculosis, 661. 
Mixer, Knowlton, 646. 
"Model Housing Law, A" (Sage 

Foundation), 167. 
"Modern Greek Stories" (Vaka and 

Phoutrides), 334. 
Modern Health Crusade, 100. 
"Modern Specialist in Unrest, The," 

21. 
Money, contaminated (letter), 169. 
Monopolies and labor, 749. 
Montreal, developments, 863. 
Mooney case, 267, 717. 
Moore, H. H., 741. 
Mops or parasites, 425. 
Moral education congress, 257. 
"Morale" (Hall), 332. 
"Morals, The, of Economic Interna- 
tionalism" (Hobson), 468. 
Morgan, A. R., Negro in politics (let- 
ter), 581. 
Morrow, Judge R. S., 847. 
Moscow, relief situation, 689. 
Motion pictures. 

Churches, 141. 



Food distribution film, 550. 

Great Britain, 295. 

Health, 143. 

Industrial, 431. 
Moton, R. R., 260. 
Motor cars for milk, 750. 
Motorists and accidents, 717. 
Mt. Vernon decision, 115. 
Moving day, 54. 
Moyer, J. A., 279. 
Mucha, Alphonse, 751. 
Mulford, F. L., 462. 
Municipal air ports, 569. 
Municipal landing fields, 95. 
Murphy, J. J., Tenements (reply to 

letter), 645. 
Music, primary school, 695. 
Mussey, H. R., Disarmament, 562. 
Myers, L. B., 934. 

Reaching the Negro, 66. 



N 

Names, changes in social work socie- 
ties, 577. 
Narcotics. 

Legislation and, 728. 
New York Commission, 590. 
See also Drugs. 
Narva, 496, 582. 
Nasmyth, G. W., 105, 899. 
Nathan, Maud, Americans in Paris 

(letter), 75. 
"Nation, The, and the Schools" 

(Keith and Bagley), 610. 
Natl. Amer. Council, 910. 
Natl. Civic Federation, housing plan. 

230. 
"National Costumes of the Slavic 

Peoples" (Hubbard), 644. 
Natl. Enameling and Stamping Co., 

816. 
"National Government, The, of tin 

United States" (Kimball), 104. 
"National Guilds and the State" (Hob- 
son), 288. 
National Health Council, 561. 
Natl. Indust. Conf. Board, on profit 

sharing, 128. 
Natl. League of Girls' Clubs (former- 
ly of Women Workers), 633. 
Natl. League of Women Voters, 646. 

Regional conferences, 371. 
Natl. Municipal League, conf., 371. 
Natl. Org. for Public Health Nursing, 

927. 
Natl. Safety Council, 363. 
National school week, 326. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange, 24-3. 

877, 930. 
Natl. Tuberculosis Assn., 381, 934. 
Natl. Urban League, 291. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League, 

53. 
Nationalities in Grand Rapids, 213. 
Nationalization in Germany, 848. 
Naturalization. 
Anarchy and, 279. 
Handbook, 924. 
Near East Relief, 447, 850. 

Map, 886. 
Nebraska. 

Children's Code, 893. 
Labor amendment, 525. 
"Needlecraft for Older Girls" (Swan- 
son), 611. 
"Negro, The, Faces America" (Selig- 

man), 24. 
Negroes. 
Arkansas, 582. 
Children, 66. 
Children (poster), 574. 
Dread of women voters in the 

South, 350. 
Education, conference, 438. 
Health, 637. 

In politics (letter), 581. 
Industrial problems, 420. 
Industrial prospect in the North, 

230. 
Industry and, 291. 
Los Angeles, 295. 
Migration, 930. 
Movable school, 888. 
New migration (to cities), 752. 
Phelps Stokes Foundation report, 

Playgrounds for, 633. 

Race cooperation, 88. 

Texas, Health Week, 100. 

Training nurses, 926. 

Training social workers, 393. 
"Neighboring New Americans' 

(Barnes), 404. 
Neighborliness, 397. 

Poet of (Frost), 318. 
Neighbors' Union handbill, 97. 
"Nerves and the Man" (Loosmore). 

868. 
New Bedford, fund raising campaign, 

"New Children, The" (Radice), 136. 
New England, 313. 

Town meeting — 1921, 917. 
"New England Romance, A" (Pea- 
body), 329. 






VI 



Index 



"New Italy" (Zimmern and Agresti), 

73. 
New Jersey. 

Child welfare, 426. 

Health Dept. cartoon, 85 

Industrial relations, discussion, 324. 

Plan as to open shop, 83.2. 
-New Land, The" (Levinger), 468. 

"New 8 Unionism, The" (Budish and 
.. Ne !° U World 3 'Order, The" (Hicks), 

New Year (social studies), 513. 
New York (city). 

Block organization, 9b. 

Children in court, 893. 

Clothing industry, 606. 

Education deficit, bin. 

Garbage, 881. _ 

Jewish recreation, bdt. 

^T^J^nna standard rail- 

M^C—le report of Dec 
1917, on how to meet hard times, 
issue of Feb. 5, 1921, Section II. 
MO N V iw g typ a e y, of 4 school survey, 543. 
Nutrition of children 866. 
Port and people, 858 
Tenement House Dept 621 
Tenement House Dept. anu 

of Appeals, 774. 
Town Hall, 561. 
Unseated aldermen 381. 
Vacant houses, MS. 
New York (state). 

Co^' o^charities and corrections, 
Continuation extension education, 70. 
Gambling, 51. , -.„ 

Health center bill, conf., 548. 
Housing laws, 149, 879. 
Housing policy, 3. 
Industrial commission, 593. 
Military training, 511. , 
Narcotic Drug Commission 590. 
Personnel administration 115. 
Prison survey report, 15/. 
Reorganization, 878. 
Rural education survey, 269. 
St"te Charities Aid Assn., 67. 
New York Evening Post, comment on 
Survey article, 268. renter, 

New York Foundation Health Center, 

New"York School of Social Work, 
Newspapers and family welfare (car- 

toon), 862. 
Newton, A. E., 94 
"Next Five Years, 640 
Night work for women, 669. 
Noise, 163. 
Nolen, John, 934. 

N p r o n s e t n war C G^-many (letter), 289. 

Silesian plebiscite, 85 J. 

Social workers in Jena, <svi. 
North Carolina, health bulletin, 286. 
North Dakota, 735. 

Banks, 414. . 41g 

Indust. program and the law, 4i». 

Norway. 

Children's laws, 66. 

Town planning, 94. ,„„„„! 

"Nu«e'ry School Education" (Owen), 

518. 
Nurses. ., 

Training Negro, 926. 

Volunteer, 927. 
Nursing, cartoon, 848. 
Nutrition. . 

New York city, 466 

Survey of work, 8bb. 

O 

0a Mil?tary training program, 359. 
Program (letter), 869. 

^"eSidge, Mrs M. M., 469. 

H r a a n1on',^'M::^: 

fc e h?ff, JO J h V 7 Vibute by L. D. 
Wald), 4. 

White, A. T., 667. 
Occoquan, 106, 724, 740. 
O'Grady, John, Catholic charities, 77 

Ohio. . , , n 

City planning conf., 26U. 
Placing child wards, 366 
Workhouses (diagram) 393. 
"Old and New in the Countryside 
(De Bunsen), 643. , 

"Old at Forty or Young at bixty 
(Carroll), 867. 



Olives, poisoning from, 686. 
Olmsted, F. L. „ . ... 

On Hart and Sutton (letter), 933, 

934. 
Profession in the making (letter), 
290. , , , 

Olrich, M. S., Health and the rural 

teacher, 727. 
Omaha, adolescent girls, 423. 
Ontario, paper mill, 295. 
Open-air schools, Swiss, 901. 
Open shop. 

Campaign, 428. 
Catholic Church on, 350. 
Catholic Welfare Council on cam- 
paign, 558. 
Developments in the Untermyer in- 
vestigation, 494. 
Immigration and, 752. 
Washington labor conf., 830. 
Oppenheimer, Ida, Block organization 

on the East Side, 96. 
Opportunity, 360. 
Orange, N. J. 

Italian colony, 277. 
Welfare exposition, 393 
Oregon, reactionary health legislation, 

270. 
"Organisation industrielle" (Sand), 



Organization of small town, 634. 

Orphanages, delinquents in, 368. 

Orth, C. D., 910. 

Otis test, 541. . . 

"Our Democracy and the American 
Indian" (Kellogg), 932. 

"Our Kid" (Green), 739 

"Our Women" (Bennett), 931. 

Overwork, wastes of (social studies), 
779. 

Owens A. A., Americanization (let- 
ter), 290. 

Oxford professors, 256. 



Pacific coast experiment, 829. 

Packer, B. G., 277. 

Packers' reduction of wages, 915. 

"P 1 Q £ i n t s 

Pittsburgh Civic Club, 512. 
Smith, the, 819. 
Palestine, 352, 774. . 

"Pan-Americanism: Its Beginnings 

(Lockey), 770. 
Panunzio, C. M., 592. 
Paper shortage, 295. 
Parenthood. 
. Alcoholism and, 86. 
Voluntary, 150. 
Parents, schools for, 394. 
Paris, Americans in (letter), 75. 
Parker, C. H, 26, 85 
Parker, C. S., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 506. 
"Passing of the Old Order, The 

(Zilboorg), 320. 
"Passing of the Poor, The" (Blyth), 

334 
Patriotic activities, coordinating, 910. 
Peace on earth (social studies), 44.5. 
Peace, prices and war, 527. 
Peartrec, Henry, 901. ' 

Peck L- M., Intersettlement arts, 395 
Pelton, G. I., Under-par school chil- 
dren, 573. 
Penologists, European, 271. 
Pensions, industrial, 126. 
Personal services, 398. 
Personality grading, 698. 
Personnel administration, 1 15. 
"Personnel Administration (lead and 

Metcalf), 167. 
Persons, W. F., 691, 829. 
Peters, A. J., 909. . 
Petrograd, factory in, 540. 
Phelan, J- J-, 621. 

Dance halls (letter), 470. 
Our dancing cities, 631. 
Phelps Stokes Foundation, 135. 
Philadelphia. , 

Friends, survey of farmers group, 

Social Service Exchange, 457. 
Social work finance, 392. 
Technical experts and unions, t>n. 
Welfare Federation, 685, 774. 
Philippines, schools, 550. 
Phillips, E- A., London (verse), 85^. 
Phonographic disk library, 613. 
Phoutrides, A. E., Vernacular and 

revolution, 8. 
Piave River, 305. 
• Pictures, circulation, 613. 

Pilgrim and the Book (cartoon), 149 
Pilgrims and Plymouth, 313. 
Pittsburgh. 

Blacklisting the Y.W.C.A., 668. 

Children's circus, 251. 

Civic Club pageant, 512, 819. 

Council, 846. 

Irene Kaufmann Settlement, 398. 

Mill and community (ill.), 794. 

Negroes, 752. 

Playgrounds, 768. 

Rankin borough, 269. 



Platoon Schools, 69. 
Platteville, Wis., 863. 
Play. 

Baltimore, 767. 
Cities at play, 768. 
Cleveland learning, 245. 
Education and, 422. 
Evening, 769. 

Requisitioning land for, 231. 
"Sometimes on Sundays," 536. 
Play School, 697. 
Playgrounds. 

Baltimore drive, 131. 
City appropriations, 646. 
Colored people, 633. 
Demonstration missionary, 582. 
Pittsburgh, 768. 
Plumbers and professors, 360. 
Plunkett, Sir Horace, 448. 
Plymouth, Mass., as it is today, 313. 
"Plymouth and the Pilgrims" (Lord), 

329. 
Poet counsellors, 395. 
Poetry. 

Sandburg, 12, 
See also Verse. 
Poland, 655. 
Jews, 613. 

Walser, F. E-, on, 123. 
"Poland and the Minority Races 

(Goodhart), 514. 
"Poland the Unknown" (Waliszewski), 

514. 
Political advertisements (letters), 289. 
Pollak (Francis D.) Foundation, 901. 
"Poor Richard," leaf from, 865. 
Portland, Ore. 

Labor meeting, 847. 
Zoning, 582: 
Porto Rico, 63, 118. 
Pratt, Caroline, 697. 
Pratt, Sally, 862. 
"Present-Day Immigration," 932. 
Prezzolini, Giuseppe, Italy and the 

iron workers, 152, 275. 
Price, B. M., Uncle Sam's insurance, 

281. 
Prices, war and peace, 527. 
"Principles of Labor Legislation 

(Common and Andrews), 676. 
Printing industry. 
Peace, 451. 

Wage arbitration, 381. 
Prints and the people, 349. 
Prisoners of war. 

Exchange of Russian and Central 

European, 496. 
Return, in Europe, 232, 582. 
Prisons. 

Amer. Prison Congress, 645. 

Clearing house for information, 438. 

District of Columbia: See Occoquan. 

Federal, restrictions, 590. 

Honor system, 622. 

Mental survey of prisoners in 

Illinois, 147. 
New York survey report, 157. 
Occoquan (D. C), 106, 724, 740. 
"Problems of Population and Parent- 
hood," 707. 
"Problems of Today" (Storey), 739. 
"Proceedings Annual Convention In- 
dustrial Relations Association of 
America," 676. 
"Professional Preparation of Teach- 
ers for American Public Schools, 
The" (Learned and others), 72. 
Professional secrecy, 773. 
Professions in the making (letter), 

290. 
Professors and plumbers, 360. 
Profit sharing, 128. 
Profiteering, Lever Act and, 846. 

674. . „ ._ . 

"Profits, Wages and Prices (Fri- 
day), 674. 
Prohibition. 

Effects (social studies), 237. 
Grand Rapids and, 183-228. 
Letters pro and con (Tilton, Fox), 

405. 
Prescription of whiskey, 927. 
Scotland (with cartoon), 246. 
See also Alcohol. 
Proportional representation, 582. 

In five European countries, 828. 
Prosperity in Grand Rapids, facts, 

233. 
Prostitution and unemployment, 735. 
"Protocols, The, and World Revolu- 
tion," 322. 
Psychology, social, books on, 18 
"Psychology of Subnormal Children, 

The (Hollingworth), 611. 
Public health, 99, 284, 399, 463, 635, 
727, 864, 925. 
Aims of the work for, 466. 
America as teacher, 729. 
Amer. Assn. Conf., 105. 
California, "quack quartette, 572. 
California and Oregon, reactionary 

measures, 270. 
Halifax, 446. 
News items, 730. 



I 

Rural work among the poor, sugl' ■ 
„»„»:„_„ mla •■ ■■■ 



J >«' 



gestions, 464. 
South America, 742. 
"Public Health and Insurance, Amer 
ican Addresses" (Newsholme) ' c • 
259. 
Public health nurses, 686, 687, 927. 
Public office and economic views, 85 
"Public Provision for Recreation' 

(Haynes), 102. 
Public schools. See Schools. 
Public work, 530. 
British cities, 550. 



Bafc ft 



-Diuisii ciues, J3U. 
"Pulmonary Tuberculosis" (Otis), 868, ;" 

I U '" " 
Q V 

Quackenbush, Susan, Political adverjo. \ * 

tisements (letter), 289. I 

Quacks, 635. 
Quakers, relief work in Germany an 

Russia, 309, 613, 689, 773. 
Quarantine. 

Conditions, 921. 

Typhus and, 721. 

Unified federal, 717. 
Queensboro Corporation, 568. 
"Quicksands of Youth" (Hoyt), T. 



Race betterment, books on, 706. 
Race relations. 

Chicago, 560. 

Growing cooperation, 88. 

Problem of antagonism, 740. 



jrroDiem or antagonism, /tu. 
Races and Immigrants in America - 



•r' 
I id W** 

1 

Err* ■ 



lifer - 
ft 

te- \" 
■ ; 

bail - 






officials 



iDm 



9 

I ribs 
I 
I 

I 



ffi 



>fa: 






(Commons), 772. 
"Rachel" (Grimke), 932. 
Radford, M. M., 87. 
Radical evictions, 719. 
Radicalism in the churches, 752. 
Railroads. 

Adjustment boards, 384. 
Agreements continued, 717. 
Stabilization of supply purch 

774. 
Struggle between 

unions, 699. 
Unions and, 61. 
Workers and, 270. 
Ramsey, Russell, 901 
Rankin, Pa., 269. 
Rankin, A. W., Control of educa 

760. 
Rankin, Jeanette, 372. 
Rath, J. A., 670. 
Rats, 846. 

Raw material (cartoon), 118. 
Razovski, Cecilia, Ellis Island, 1 
"Readings and Problems in Stati 

Methods" (Secrist), 433. 
"Readings in Rural Sociology 

Ian), 642. 
Recreation. 
Books, 16. 

Jewish, New York, 632. 
Rural, 634. 
Red Cross. 

Booklet posters, France, 101. 
Centralization, 774. 
Christmas seals, 231 
Disaster relief, 930. 
European clinics for children. 
Home Service and (social stu 

683. 
International activities, repor 
New division of domestic 

tions, 691. 
New divisions, 829. 
Roll Call, 1920, 165. 
Scholarship fund for workersi 
Wall Street explosion, 98. 
War medal, 737. 
"Red Cross Chapter, A, at 

(Chomel), 104. 
Reds. . . 

Activity and evictions, 719. 
One in Seattle, 589. 
Reed, John, obituary, 170. 
Reedcr, R. R., 605. 
Refugees, grey clothing and (lettj. 

934. 
Registration, reorganizing, 457. 
Reiss, R. L-, 733. 
Religion. 

In social service, 736. 
Radicalism in the churches, 75 C «M, f •■ 
Religion and ethics, books, 18. , 
Remmers, O. T., 766. 
Remsen, D. S., 694. . 

"Repressed Emotions" (Coriat), 
Republican victory, 247. "ftB.'j. i 

Research, in industry, 133. 
Resnick, Louis, 765. «!:;-■,.. 

Retailing, school of, 646. BO, ' 

"Retraining Canada's Disabled 

diers" (Segsworth), 433. fort (■."."' 

Revolution and Greek vernacular^ 

T, 1J_ T « Af.7 l,i. 



Hi tkf' 

I 

l'ttr n 

el* • 

I * ; '- ■ 
■ai • | 

ita i !* t * , "t 



J 



of H 



Reynolds, J. B., 462. 
Rhode Island, Board 

almanac, 865. 
Riga, 655. 

Rights, natural (social studies)J 
Robertson, Alice, 247, 



'one . 



Ind 



e x 



<ii Rogers, J. E. F 163. 

Romanes Lectures, 1920, 898. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, bashfulness, 381. 



D », Arnei 
'wsholme) 

S87. 927. 
views, 8S 
■tecrsation' 

Is. 



Ro 
Ro 

"J< 



(Otis), 868 
I 



otten, Elizabeth, 255. 
oyer, B. F., 446. 
'Rural Community, The" (Sims), 
642. 
ural life. See Country life, 
ussia. 

Books, 19. 

Exchange of prisoners of war, 496. 
Labor laws, 430. 
Medical relief, 527. 
Quakers' relief work, 689, 773. 
Relief and trade, U. S. policy, 591. 
War prisoners, 582. 
Russian children, 381. 
• , Russian relief conference, 773. 
™ aaverRyan, J. A., On making a livable 
world (symposium), 505. 

■many an 
773. 

Sacramento, Hare system, 582. 
Safety. 
Explosives and, 765. 
News, clearing house for, 363. 
safety First, sore finger (cartoon), 

127. 
Safety trophy of Carnegie Steel Co., 

896. 
St. Louis. 
Coordination, 166. 
Council principles, 577. 
Housing, 571. 
Saleeby, C. W., 86. 
I 74(j Salesmanship, 646. 
in AmericaSalida, Colo., 162. 

Sally Pratts, the, 862. 
Salmon, B. J., 349. 
alzburg, Austria, 901. 
ampson, F. E., 260. 
an Dona di Piave, 305. 
n Francisco, experiment in indus- 
trial peace, 829. 
nd pile, 697. 
ndburg, Carl, 
s poet of the common-place, 12. 
oad, the, and the end (verse), 7. 
derson, Dwight, What is a com- 
bunity center? 859. 
anity in Sex" (Fielding), 339. 
nto Domingo, 510. 
piro, Aaron, New financing of food 

production, 857. 
ratoga Springs, 51. 
ay it with Flour," 850. 
yre, F. B., Clayton Act construed, 
597. 

aefer, Samuel, Omaha 
ment, 423. 

nectady, ice ponds, 634. 
ff, J. H., tribute by L. D. Wald, 



Hoyt), 7; 



i, 706. 



S, 752. 

I. 

717. 
I purchi 

Us 



of tducal 



IIS. 

Island, I 
in StJU 
43], 



experi- 



} 



larship fund for social workers, 
295. 

ioI and community, 68, 132 255, 
1359, 422, 541, 599, 695, 759, 888. 
loohng of the Immigrant, The" 
i(Thompson), 401. 
lols. 

[ackward children, 601. 
freakdown, 68. 
ivic background, 599. 
reed, 360. 
jxperimental, 697. 
[or prospective parents, 394. 
reedom and initiative in, 759. 
fealth courses in rural, 399. 
Juvenile court and, 703. 
'ilitary training in, 84. 
ovable school, 888. 
« York city, 543. 
text generation (cartoon), 423. 
ipen-air, Swiss, 901. 
'ark School of Baltimore, personal- 
ity grading, 698. 
'rimary, music, 695. 
leal investigation, 132. 
'Rural, 269. 

Superintendents' meeting, 889. 
Under-par children, 573. 
Vocational counsellors, 268. 
See also Education. 
cience, international work, 295. 
Science and Philosophy of Eugenics" 
(Guild), 932. 

*&"!■%£. i«: Housing and Iand 

otland, prohibition (with cartoon),. 

246. 
:reens, 621. 
=ager, H. R., Industrial situation in 

the United States, 477. 
eamen, degradation, 894. 

Hi K 4 ."?- 
• Disabled IPvic Bureau and new teachers, 295. 
ill <!'• l ort Commission, 85. 
t vernas« lill t rec y' professional, 773. 
eK Bition laws, map, 623. 

!r j of % d s, C. A., The cottage unit, 923. 
■jtz, D. C, On making a livable 
'world (symposium), 504. 
, sW !iesi ■lected Articles on the Employment 
!ll. ^° Wora =n" (Johnson), 168. 



children 
social stu 

s, repo 

jmestic 



workers; 



, 



,719. 



and W 
if. 4)7. 



[UUlv— -J 

)00lS, 11 

• (Coriltfi 

•M 

.133. 



Self-government, local (social studies), 

907. 
"Self-Health As a Habit" (Miles), 

103. 
Seligmann, H. J., 24. 
Senate and railroad strike bill, 525. 
Serbia, child care, 605. 
Serbian students in the United States, 

438. 
"Serving the Neighborhood" (Felton), 

370. 
Settlements. 
Barnett, H. O., on, 5. 
Boys' clubs in. 425. 
Conference at East Aurora, 74. 
England, 396. 
Hawaiian, 670. 
In review, 395. 
Overseas, 52. 
Unemployment and, 445. 
Seven-day week, 797. 
Sex, 548. 

Sexual morality, 117. 
"Shadow Shapes" (Sergeant), 547. 
Shaw, Byam, 769. 
Shaw, H. L. K., 101. 
Shaw, Margaret, 601. 
Shaw, S. A., Three shifts, 809. 
Sheppard-Towner Act, 446. 
Shillady, J. R., 83. 
Shipman, Clare, Anita (verse), 723. 
Shirt fronts, 640. 
Shoes, high cost, 398. 
"Shop early," 363. 
"Short History of Nursing, A" (Dock 

and Stewart), 402. 
"Short Talk on Personal and Com- 
munity Health" (Lehrfeld), 708. 
Silesian plebiscite, 852. 
Simon, W. F., Apprenticeship in Wis- 
consin, 890. 
Simons, W. J., 742. 
Sinclair, Upton, 899. 
Sisson, E. O., Freedom of speech and 

teaching, 760. 
Skating, 634. 
Skidmore, Ralph, 484. 
Slums in four movements, 557. 
Small town, organizing, 634. 
Smallpox, 400. 

Smith, the — civic pageant, 819. 
Smith, A. E., 267. 

A housing policy for New York, 3. 
Smith, Barry C, 291, 688. 
Smith, Esther M., The messenger 

(verse), 391. 
Smith, Eugene R., 698.' 
Smith, "Hardboiled" (F. H.), 59. 
Smith, J. F., and Marian Williamson. 

At the head of the hollow, 464. 
Smith, Leonard, 482. 
Smith College Training School for 

Social Work, 166. 
Smith-Lever Act, 461. 
Social agencies. 
Boston Council, 526. 
Councils of, 749. 
Family and children, 605. 
St. Louis, coordination, 166. 
State councils, 456. 
Texas Council, 97. 
"Social Case History, The" (Shef- 
field), 432. 
"Social Diseases, The" (Hericourt), 

867. 
Social economy and social research 

scholarships, 901. 
"Social Evolution" (Kidd), 898. 
Social hygiene. 
Canada, 638. 
Throttling, 883. 
"Social Interpretation of History, 

The" (William), 931. 
Social justice and the government, 

119. 
Social method in 1921 (social studies), 

523. 
Social order and the Pilgrims, 315. 
Social problems and finance, 150. 
Social psychology, books on, 18. 
Social Research, New School for, 68. 
Social science. 

Autumn books, 15. 
Campaign assistance, 613. 
Compulsory (Bulgaria), 833. 
English books on, 13. 
Religion in, 736. 
Social studies (J. K. Hart), 20, 77, 
109, 137, 173, 237, 263, 293, 336, 
374, 379, 411, 443, 513, 523, 555, 
612, 619, 677, 683, 715, 747, 779, 
843, 875, 907. 
Social studies, teachers of, 846. 
"Social Theory" (Cole), 288. 
Social Welfare Library, book series, 

15. 
Social work. 
Books, 432. 
Conference for coordination in 

Washington, D. C, 55. 
Coordinating, 877. 
Dollar sign in, 392. 
England, 528. 
Graduate degrees, 231. 



Meeting of Natl. Social Workers 

Exchange, 243. 
Schools for, 549. 
Smith College, 166. 
Wisconsin conf., 260. 
Social workers. 
Bicycle and, 229. 

Call to (Braucher and others), 169. 
Challenge to, 169. 
Conference at Union Theological 

Seminary, 740. 
Evolution (cartoon and verse), 878. 
Hospital, 260, 284. 
Hospital, education, 727. 
Jena, 291. 
Negro, 395. 

Professional status (letter), 290. 
Recruit, 413. 
Scholarship fund, 295. 
Socialism. 
Books, 17. 
Italy, 6. 
Sociology, books on, 18. 
Sofia, school, 141. 
.Soldiers. 

Disabled, and Congress, 626. 
Insurance, 281. 
Soldiers' bonuses, 755. 
"Some Problems of the Peace Confer- 
ence" (Haskins and Lord), 104. 
"Sometimes on Sunday," 536. 
Song, clean-up, 400. 
Sonneberg, 449. 
Sorden, H. L., The Spirit of Puck, 

767. 
Soule, George, 23. 

South, Negro women voters in, 350. 
South America, medical conditions, 

742. 
Southard, Dr., 21. 
Spain, land and agriculture, 438. 
Spaulding, W. B., 161. 
Speek, P. A., 920. 
Spencer, A. G., Toward disarmament 

(letter), 900. 
"Sphere of Private Agencies, The" 

(Vassault), 102. 
"Splendid Wayfaring, The" (Nei- 

hardt), 578. 
Spooner, L. H., How a health clinic 

works, 925. 
Squire, J. C, 27. 
Stage hands (cartoon), 254. 
Standards of living (social studies) 

263. 
"Standards of Livine," 401. 
Stanoyevich, B. S., First siftings, 92z. 
Stark, S. L. 

Factory in Petrograd, 540. 
Portal of peace, 496. 
State, Dept. of, Russian policy. 591. 
State conference, function, 575. 
State socialists on occasion (cartoon), 

765. 
"Stay in School" campaign, 742. 
Steel industry. 
British, 799. 

Derelicts of the strike, 355. 
Gary's statement quoted, 845. 
Long day, 783. 

Matthews, W. H., on the twelve- 
hour day, 879. 
Modern machinery, 808. 
Modern plant (ill.), 813. 
New campaign, 589. 
Safety trophy. 896. 
Senate hearing, 671. 
Steel company's reply to M. H. 

Vorse, 357. 
Steel-scape in Northeast England 

(ill.), 799. 
Three shifts. 387, 809. 
Welfare, 702. 
Steel workers. 

Monument to a worker, 7S2. 
Negro — Youngstown (ill.), 789. 
New generation — Youngstown (ill.), 

791. 
Older generation — Lackawanna (ill.). 

790. 
Portraits of family members, 792, 

793. 
Slavic worker — Homestead (ill ), 
788. 
Steerage, 853. 
Steffens, Lincoln, 847. 
Stein, C. S.. 169. 
Steiner, J. F., 930. 
Stelzle, Charles, The Pilgrims and the 

social order. 315. 
Sterry, Nora, Civic background of a 

school. 599. 
Stevens, T. W., Smith, the — civic 

paeeant. 819. 
Stillwater, Minn., 93. 
Stockholm, Institution of Alma Hedin, 

397. 
"Story of a Sand Pile" (Hall), 697. 
"Story of America, The" (Pecorini), 

518. 
Story-telling, 279. 
Stowell, J. S., 279. 

Street, Elwood, Welfare Legionaires, 
736. 



Vll 

Street accident compensation, 83. 
Street noises, 163. 
Strikes. , 

Alabama coal, 877. 
Denver report, 413. 
Senate bill outlawing railroad 

strikes, 525. 
Texas anti-strike law, 362. 
"Study, A, of the Physical Vigor of 
American Women" (Jacobs), 708. 
Stumps in Wisconsin, 301. 
Sugar and the teeth, 101. 
Sullivan County, N. Y., Jewish farm- 
ers, 460. 
"Suppose Nobody Cared," 98. 

Cartoons, 385. 
Supreme Court on the Clayton Act, 

597. 
Survey, The. 

Neiv Republic and, 685. 
Political advertisements (letters and 
reply), 289. 
Survey Associates, 85, 111. 
Annual statement, Nov. 13 issue. 
Section II. 
Surveys. 

Cleveland, 909. 
Community, 93. 
New type (for schools), 543. 
Sutton, J. R., Oakland program (let- 
ter), 869. 
Swapping story tellers, 633. 
Swimming pools, 927. 
Switzerland, open-air schools, 901. 
Symphony, London, 557. 
Symposium on making a livable world, 

498. 
Syria, eye diseases, 624. 



Taxes, 525. 

Taylor, C. L-, on the twelve-hour day 

(letter), 911. 
Taylor, Gladys, Minimum wage in 

Washington, 62. 
Taylor, Graham, Chimes of a Christ- 
ian era, 467. 
Taylor Society, 382. 
Teachers. 

Academic freedom, 760. 
Milwaukee, 133. 
Rural, and health, 727. 
Salaries, 69. 
Visiting, 424. 
Teeth and sugar, 101. 
Ten-hour day, 61. 
"Ten Minute Talks with Workers," 

515. 
Tenants, 389. 

Tenement house conditions, 645. 
Tenement House Dept. of New York 

city, 774. 
Tenements, manufacturing in, 849. 
Tennessee, Y. M. C. A., 901. 
Test-tubes and calipers, 368. 
Texas. 

Antagonism to Japanese and Mex- 
icans, 774. 
Anti-strike law, 362. 
Negro Health Week, 100. 
Open port law, criticism of the Sur- 
vey, 700. 
Open port law — reply to W. G. Mer- 

ritt, 701. 
State Council, 97. 
Textile industry. 
Wage cuts. 608. 

Wages, 622. & 

"That Damn Y" (Mayo), 72. 
Theater, coming American, 162. 
Thessalonica Inst., 934. 
Third class (voyage), 853. 
Thomas, Norman, Status of conscien- 
tious objectors, 59. 
Thomson (Edgar) Company, 355, 357. 
"Thousand Faces, A" (Thompson and 

Galvin), 545. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Prohibition (letter), 405. 
Too much centralization (letter), 
580. 
Tippy, W. M., On making a livable 

world (symposium), 504. 
Tobey, B. F., 613. 
Toledo, Ohio. 621. 
Toleration, prize offered for essay on, 

901. 
Tonsils, 830. 
Toothbrush, 466. 
Toronto, 742. 
Torrey, M. L., 297, 299. 
Tours, France, 255. 
Town Hall. New York city, 561. • 
Town meeting — 1921, 917. 
Town organization, small, 634. 
Town planning. 
Norway, 94. 
See also City planning. 
Town Tea Kettle, 283. 
"Toy-Making in School and Home" 

(Polkinhorne), 334. 
Toynbee Hall, 5. 
Toys and tears, 455. 



I 



Vlll 



Index 



Trade unions. See Labor; Unions. 
Traffic violations, 525. 
Transit extension, paying for, 860. 
Transportation, Spirit of, 751. 
Trees, Grand Rapids, 205. 
Truant officers, 134. 
Trusts, public, 694. 
Tuberculosis. 

Brazilian Red Cross, 901. 

France, 550. 

Internatl. conf., 243. 

Minnesota fellowship, 143. 

Missouri, 661. 

Modern Health Crusade, 100. 

Natl. Assn. health bonds, 381. 

Natl. Assn. personnel, 934. 
"Tuberculosis and Public Health" 

(Thomson), 167. 
Tufts, J. H., Letter on Hart's article 

on Gopher Prairie, 933. 
Turner, L. A., Natl. Urban League 

Conf., 291. 
Turner, William, 736. 
Tuttle, M. C, Angelo in the boom 

town, 731. 
Tweedy, Mr., 483. 
Twelve-hour day, 782. 

Church and — replies of ministers, 
792. 

Communication from W. H. Mat- 
thews, 879. 

Exchange of letters with C. L. 
Taylor, 911. 

Wear and tear, 787. 

Where the responsibility lies, 795. 
Twelve-hour night fill.') , 818. 
"$1,200 a Year" (Ferber and Levy), 

137. 
Twenty-four-hour school (letter), 580. 
Typhus, 721. 

China, 927. 
Tyson, H. G., 129. 

On the death of M. G. Frazier, 291. 



U 



Unemployment. 

At hand, 353. 

Buffalo, pamphlet on, 613. 

Detroit, 527. 

Education and, 602. 

England, 594. 

Germany, 834. 

Health and, 430. 

Immigration and, 388. 

Immorality and, 735. 

Preventing job famines, 530. 

Program for, 609. 

Relieving the unemployed (social 
studies), 677. 

Road construction in British cities, 
550. 

Settlements and, 445. 

Situation. 245. 

Study, 612. 

Summary of a report of Mayor's 
Committee, New York, Dec. 1917, 
issue of Feb. 5, 1921, Section II. 

Taxing, 880. 
"Unfinished Programme of Democ- 
racy, The" (Roberts'), 73. 
Uniform Trust for Public Uses, 694. 
Union health center, 446. 
Union Theolog. Seminary, 930. 
Unions. 

Engineers and, 324. 

Experts and, in Philadelphia, 624. 

Railroads and, 61. 

Right to join, 850. 

Southern women, 53. 
United Hospital Fund, 285. 
United Mine Workers, program, 845. 
U. S. Bur. of Mines, 127. 
United States crops, 295. 
"United States in Our Time, The' 

(Haworth), 579. 
U. S. Public Health Service and ven- 
ereal diseases, 148. 



U. S. Steel Corp., 782, 783, 795, 809, 
911. 
On the twelve-hour day, 797. 
Welfare work, 702. 
Universities, increase in students, 

135. 
Untermyer, Samuel, 685. 

Revelations, 491. 
Utah, natl. park area, 141. 



Vaccination, 400. 

Values, 115. 

Van Kleeck, Mary, 539. 

Vanderlip, N. C, On making a livable 

world (symposium), 505. 
Veiller, Lawrence, 415, 732. 

On housing in England, 626. 
Venereal diseases. 

Conf., 143. 

Conference, diagrammatic plan, 465. 

Conferences, 927. 

Cost, 286. 

Institute, Washington, D. C, 148, 
548. 

Problem of combating (chart), 383. 
"Venizelos" (Gibbons), 330. 
Vernacular and revolution, 8. 
Verse. 

Anita (Shipman), 723. 

Baby (Benjamin), 454. 

Christmas: 1920 (Deutsch), 454. 

Clean-up Song, 400. 

Cometh the dawn (Allinson), 358. 

George Nasmyth, 1881-1920 (Allin- 
son), 899. 

Leaden-eyed, the (Lindsay), 91. 

London (Phillips) v 852. 

Messenger, the (Smith), 391. 

Mystic (Dodd), 884. 

Other shepherd, the (Widdemer), 
454. 

Passenger pigeon, the (Holden), 
693. 

Road, the, and the end (Sandburg), 
7. 

Road not taken, the (Frost), 319. 

To little Concetta, 567. 

To the spirit of this age, 87. 

Two brothers, the (Whitcomb), 630. 

White Christmas (Holden), 454. 
Vienna. 

Children in 1921, 690. 

Ten days in (Elliott), 35. 
"Village Trade Unions in Two Cen- 
turies" (Selley), 288. 
Villard, O. G., 719. 

Speaking of rainbows (letter), 869. 
Virgin Islands, 118, 170. 
Visiting teachers, 424. 
"Vital Forces in Current Events" 

(Spears and Norris), 898. 
"Voice of the Negro, The" (Kerlin), 

547. 
Volstead-Capper bill, 718. 
Volunteers, training, 97. 
Voorhorst, B. T., Hoover and the 

children, 247. 
Vorse, M. H. 

Derelicts of the steel strike, 355. 
Votaw, Mrs. Carolyn, 413. 
Voting, Southern Negro women, 350. 

W 

Wages. 

Dennison plan, 364. 

Farm laborers, 128. 

Federal employes, 364. 

Grand Rapids, 233. 

Reductions, 915. 

Textile, 608, 622. 
Wald, L D., Tribute to J. H. Schiff, 

4. 
Wall Street explosion, 98. 
Wall Street Journal (periodical), 

150. 
Walser, F. E., Poland, 123. 
War, 900. 

Balkan states, 596. 



Bulgaria, 563. 
Peace and prices, 527. 
War agencies, 910. 
War Dept., sale of unfit chocolate, 

742. 
War medal, 737. 
War prisoners, European, 232, 496, 

582. 
War Risk Insurance Bureau, 406. 
"Wartime Control of Distribution of 

Foods" (Merritt), 370. 
Warts, 83. 
Washington (state), minimum wage, 

62. 
Washington Irving High School, 360. 
Washington Wheat Growers' Assn., 

857. 
Washington's Birthday, poster by 

Benda, 719. 
"Watch New York's Children Grow," 

866. 
Water Power Act, 582. 
Weatherford, W. D., Growing race 

cooperation, 88. 
Weekly Review, Letter from Editors 
on Upton Sinclair and W. J. 
Ghent, 899. 
Wehle, L. B., 860. 

Weller, C. F., on J. M. Hanson, 709. 
Welwyn Garden City, 569. 
West Virginia, struggle, 850. 
West Virginia College of Agric, 462. 
Westchester County Penitentiary, 622. 
Wheat, 141. 
Wheeler, E. R., 752. 
Wherry, Pauline, Case work in Ken- 
tucky, 575. 
Whipping-post, 244. 
Whitaker, Fess, 431. 
Whitcomb, E. O., The two brothers 

(verse), 630. 
White, Alfred T. (1846-1921), 667. 
White, W. A., on the farmer, 414. 
White slavery and the League, 147. 
White terror, 56. 
Whitney, Anita, 723. 
Whitney, C. A. 

Alameda County jail, 452. 
Britain and the drug trade (letter), 
289. 
"Who Are the Slavs?" (Radosavlje- 

vich), 771. 
Widdemer, Margaret, The other shep- 
herd (verscl, 454. 
Widdicomb, William, 212. 

Letter from Grand Rapids, 580. 
"Wild Turkeys and Tallow Candles" 

(Hayes), 329. 
Wile. S. R., Political advertisements 

(letter), 289. 
Wilhelm, Donald. 

Congress and the disabled, fi'fi. 
Two weeks before March Fourth, 
722. 
Williams. C. V., Placing Ohio's child 

wards. 366. 
Williams, Vaughan, 557. 
Williams, Whiting, British steel in- 
dustry, 799. 
Williamson, Marian. See Smith, J. 

F., and Marian Williamson. 
Willis, H. E., North Dakota's indust. 

nrogram and the law. 418. 
Wilmans, Beatrice, Real investiga- 
tion (school), 132. 
Windbrook. 917. 
Wine and beer, 434. 
Winken, Blinken and Nod, 297. 
Wisconsin. 

Apprenticeship, 890. 
Colonization projects, 480. 
Immigrant settlers, 277. 
Placing men, 765. 
Rural planning, 459. 
Social work conf., 260. 
Taxing unemployment, 880. 
Warring on' the stump in the cut- 
over country. 301. 
Woerishoffer (Carola) scholarships, 
901. 



Wold, Emma, District prison (letter 

106. 
Woll, Matthew, 749. 
"Woman and the New Race" (Sj 

ger), 706. 
"Woman of the Streets, Tl 

(Stone), 518. 
"Woman Who Waits, The" (Do, 

van), 675. 
Woman's Party, new, 827. 
Women. 

Deninson wage plan, 364. 
Federal legislation, 446. 
House managers, 569. 
Immigrants, 696. 

Internatl. Council, resolutions, 3! 
Japan, 143. 
Louisiana, wages, 64. 
Negro voters in the South, 350. i 
New position, 539. I 

Night work for, 669. 
Southern unionists, 53. 
Women in industry, Grand Rap 

236. 
Women in politics (social studi 

715. 

"Women's Wild Oats" (Hartley), ; 
Woodbury, R. M., 604. 
"Woodrow Wilson and His Wo 

(Dodd), 168. 
Woods, R. A., on settlements o\ 

seas, 52. 
Woodward, E. A., Language 

home links, 696. 
Woodward, George, Landlord 

tenant, 389. 
Woofter, T. J., Jr., The Negro 

industrial peace, 420. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Child care, 67. 
Immigrant education, 924. 
Welfare Federation campaign, 
"Workers, The, at War" (Wa 

287. 
Workingman's letter, 612. 
Workmen's compensation, 365. 
"World After the War, The" ( 

and Buxton), 321. 
"World Problem, A" (Laudyn) 
World problems and America, i 
Worthy cases, 426. 
Wyle, Armand, Delinquents in o 
ages, 368. 



X-ray for tonsils, 830. 



Yale presidency, 846. 

Yarnall, D. R., Disarmed Gq 

882. 
Yarros, V. S. 

Chicago's surrender, 273. 

I. W. W. judgment, 87. 
Yellott, O. I., 293. 
York, England, health insuraij 

tem, 489. 
Y. M. C. A. 

China, 84. 

Community federation and, 

Tennessee, 901. 
Young visiter, 566. 
Y. W. C. A., 128. 

Blacklisting, 668. 

Boycott attempted, 912. 

Indust. secretary for the 
org., 582. 

World's, 880. 
Youth, 255. 



Zinc, Joplin, 657. 
Zionism, 774. 
Zoning, 571. 

Economy of, 732. 

Portland, Ore., 582. 

Progress, 149. 
Zunser, Charles, 737. 



TwoS 






New York 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

ii2 East 19 street 



ten; 



Governor Smith on the Housing Crisis 



v. 



Two Sections 



V 




Section I 



S OKC/W 



i Gc, 



the 



/ 



V 




FALL BOOK NUMBER 




Vernacular and Revolution 

Aristides E. Ph outrides 

A Poet of the Commonplace 

Paul Lyman Benjamin 

The Immigrant 

Allen T. Burns 

Recent English Books on 
Social Science 

Harold J. Laski 

Autumn Books of Social 
Import 



Section II 



en Days in Vienna 



John Lovejoy Elliott 



:tober 2, 1920 



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Envious and foul disease, could there not 

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the age of twelve. 

" Small Pox and Its Prevention " 
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Number I Madison Avenue 

New York, N. Y. 



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i\ A Housing Policy for New York 



By Alfred E. Smith 

GOVERNOR, NEW YORK STATE 



T.al 9J| 
100k wil 



MMEDIATELY upon taking office as Governor of 
New York State, I charged the Reconstruction Com- 
mission, which I then appointed, with the duty of making 
an exhaustive inquiry into the subject of housing in order 
at the state might embark upon a permanent and constantly 
jeveloping policy in relation to this most vital subject. In 
larch of 1920, I transmitted to the legislature a report of 
e housing committee of the Reconstruction Commission and 
[rged that the proposals made therein, which looked toward 
£ stimulation of housing construction and toward the estab- 
ment of permanent housing standards for the state, should 
immediately enacted. My housing program was entirely 
iored by the legislature and regulatory legislation only was 
sed. Even these temporary expedients proved weak and 
las been necessary to call the legislature into extraordinary 
sion in order to strengthen these regulatory measures and at 
same time to see that the state loses no more time in em- 
rking upon a permanent housing policy. It is essential that 
ilding construction be stimulated. The commercial and 
nomic supremacy of the state is threatened by housing that 
inadequate both as to quantity and as to standards. It has 
come necessary that some drastic measures be enacted that 
ill encourage capital to come back into the building field. 
Among the most practical of these seems to be the exemp- 
on of new construction from local taxation for a period of 



-in CM 

ad**! 
lt isticsjJ 

my """ 

if, * ssa 



0# j 



THE SURVEY 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 

Associate Editors 

EDWARD T. DEVINE BRUNO LASKER 

WILLIAM L. CHENERY PAUL L. BENJAMIN 

JOSEPH K. HART 

S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 

Published weekly and Copyright 1920 by Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. de'Forest, presi- 
dent; Arthur P. Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 25 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign postage, 
jW.25; Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed 
ni8 ten days in advance. When payment is by check a receipt 
oill be sent only upon request. 

Sntered as second-class matter, March 25, 19*19, at the post of- 
fice, New York, N. Y., under the act of March S, 1S79. Accept- 
ance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1318. 



The Survey for October 2, 1920, Volume 45, 



time sufneient to cover the greatly increased cost of building, 
and thus place new construction on a fair, competitive basis 
with buildings undertaken before the war. Our state land 
banks ought to be encouraged and further developed. The 
bonds of the bank should be purchased by the state itself and 
everything possible done to develop this into a real home- 
building bank. If all of the inducements which this extraor- 
dinary session of the legislature will offer to voluntary capital 
to come back into the building market are not successful the 
various communities of the state ought to be in a position to 
meet the emergency which may at any time become grave. 
Municipalities should, through the police power of the state, 
be enabled either to build or lend their credit to the building 
of homes. The most far reaching of all would be the develop- 
ment of a system of state credits for housing. This, however, 
requires a constitutional amendment and probably further 
study is necessary to develop the best means for undertaking 
so important a step. The permanent housing policy which I 
have advocated for the state takes this into consideration. 
Provision for the permanent housing policy must provide for 
machinery that will carry it on. 

The existing accommodations are far from the standards of 
adequacy that a normal family has the right to expect. I was 
conscious that the state was facing a problem of housing, both 
from the fundamental point of view, and from that of the 
shortage in the supply, when I asked the Reconstruction Com- 
mission to study and to suggest a permanent policy for the 
state in this regard. 

The evils of bad housing are only too apparent in New 
York city — but study and experience here have shown me 
that an inadequate standard of housing exists in nearly every 
city and town in the state. The tenement house law has some 
measure of beneficent effect, but in the smaller communities, 
investigation shows that housing is without even elementary 
supervision as to safety and sanitation. 

Nor is the situation of such recent growth as is popularly 
supposed. Since the tenement house law of twenty years ago 
was passed, nothing constructive has been done. We rested 
with that achievement and every attempt to aid in developing 
a solution for other communities has met with failure. 

Building houses for some groups in the population has be- 
come an unprofitable business. Hence, these groups have for 

No. I. 112 East 19 street, New York city ? 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



a generation lived in the left-over housing, or in the cheapest 
and most poorly-planned type of home that a grudging and 
unrealizing community would provide. As a result of the 
present emergency, a still larger portion of our population is 
being forced back into houses of a standard below that which 
we have accepted as decent American homes. 

Except for the report of the Reconstruction Commission 
and the findings of the joint committee, we have been aided 
by no state agency in the consideration of this very important 
problem. In the enactment of labor laws we are guided by 
the Industrial Commission. In the enactment of health 
measures by the State Health Department. In matters af- 
fecting the conservation of our natural resources, by the Con- 
servation Commission. The Banking Department, the Insur- 
ance Department, and other state agencies all deal with special 
subjects that need executive or legislative action. But in 
housing, dealing with the elementary need of shelter and es- 
tablishing homes, there is no state or local agency to aid the 
legislative and executive branches of the government, either 
in meeting an emergency, or what is more important, in help- 
ing to establish a permanent housing policy for the state. Such 
a policy does not necessarily mean the building of houses by the 
state, but it does mean the establishment of housing standards 
and of local development that should underlie any future 
growth of the cities of this state. 

I have, therefore, recommended a law which will create in 
each community having a population of over ten thousand a 



local housing board, which shall be charged with the duty 
of finding a solution for the local housing situation. These 
local boards should be required to prepare within a period to 
be determined by the local authorities a plan for the future 
development of the city and should consider local housing 
ordinances. A state agency should be created and the local 
boards should be required to report to it at stated intervals 
so that there may be available at all times a body of informa- 
tion applicable to this subject. 

The state agency, on the other hand, should first of all be 
directed to report to the next legislature on a method for the 
development of a system of state credits for housing purposes. 
Through the state agency information should be made avail- 
able to local communities that will aid them in their housing 
program. 

These agencies, both state and local, should be unpaid, but 
so far as the state agency is concerned, adequate appropria- 
tion for its expenses should be made. 

I am hopeful that the present housing crisis will convince 
the people of the state that action is needed. Their pressure 
will bring action from the legislature who are their repre- 
sentatives. The situation should send us forward and the re- 
sult of the emergency should be progressive additions to th& 
record which this state has made for laws affecting hum; 
needs. 

Albany, September 25. • 



I 

rib 

";: ■ 






Jacob H. Schiff 



IT is not easy to write about a dear friend when the heart 
is overflowing with affection and sorrow at his loss and 
yet to respond to Mr. Kellogg's plea to vouchsafe a glimpse 
of the Jacob Schiff that I knew seems a tribute that may be 
appropriately laid upon the altar of friendship. Therefore I 
write now and with the hope that later a more complete story 
of Mr. Schiff's citizenship will be written for the Survey 
by someone who can write of him more impersonally and 
with perspective. 

More than a quarter of a century has passed since a mutual 
friend provided the opportunity for me to meet Mr. Schiff, 
to pour into his understanding ears the despair that an inex- 
lerienced girl felt at her first acquaintance with the condi- 
tion of people living in the crowded East Side of Manhat- 
:an. Immediately did this busy banker respond to the 
:roubled visitor and thereby start a fellowship in friendship 
;nd social interests that, for all the years that have followed, 
never failed on his part. Money help was given and with- 
out conditions which made possible those beginnings out of 
which grew the Henry Street Settlement and its public 
health nursing programmes. What was perhaps more valu- 
able than even the material aid was the support of measures 
of vital importance to the people about us, but often strange 
and remote from the experience, the interest and the tradi- 
tions of Mr. Schiff and his associates. I recall his visit to our 
neighborhood one day when in answer to inquiries about in- 
dustrial conditions, he learned of an impending strike in the 
J garment trades. Though protesting against strikes as a 
method for settling labor difficulties, he readily agreed to 
bring the manufacturers to a conference — the Settlement to 
bring the workers and the contractors. He left the confer- 
ence convinced of the oppressive position in which the em- 
ployes in this branch of the trade had been placed, and all 
through a long-fought out struggle furnished money to re- 
lieve the needs of the families of the strikers until they, tri- 
umphant, were able to contract better terms for their labor. 



Mm 



I TOD 16 

lowna 

- 



falytj 



oiu!;t: 
It**; 

ateooQ ;■ 

ies, Jut ^ 
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ofcogjM . 



His sense of justice offended repeatedly brought forth a g 
lant fighter for the oppressed, and his reverence for the sa 
tities of others was as marked. Devout and steadfast in 
own faith, he could give generously to a visiting commit 
of women from Cuba who petitioned for the restoration 
a Catholic shrine. No interests of his business world wi 
ever allowed to supplant his spiritual or altruistic interes 
He cherished intensely the preservation of the high princip 
upon which America has been built and particularly t 
right of asylum for the oppressed. In our contact with 
many nations of the world, Mr. Schiff saw not peril to Am 
ica but obligation and responsibility; and he gave evidence 
this in his support in money and in encouragement of an en 
less variety of projects for help and education. In not a fe 
he was a pioneer. Years ago, before aid in the form 
" scholarship " was accepted by the philanthropically dispose 
Mr. Schiff readily accepted opportunities for helping childre 
in need by this respect-preserving method. 

Those who have been associated with him in social effort^ i; 
will forever prize the extraordinary letters that marked and 
recorded his breadth of interest and his depth of compassion ™ >*b ::-, 
Like his occasional open letters to the press on controversia 
subjects, they showed a high literary quality as well. Tc 
but a few has been given the experience of knowing inti " 
mately the generous miriid that could grant freedom of actior 
and speech to the individuals with whom he could not agree 
but in whose sincerity he had faith. r^^;;, 

Loving sorrow for the friend who has gone dims the eye 
and floods the heart but the outlines of a truly great citizen t;:; ..... 
are clear. He loved his fellow men and his keen mind 
never obscured by his emotions. He gave both heart an 
tellect to what, I am sure, were the greater interests of 
life. The history of measures and movements for social 
terment in America will be found in the record of IVj 
Schiff's life. 

Lillian D. Wald 



•-•■ 1 4 . 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



ity 
:se 
to 
are 
ing 
■cal 
■als 
na- 

be 
the 
ses. 
'ail- 
sing 

but 
pria- 

iwx 
ssure 
epre- 
,e re- 



After Forty Years 

THE place of the settlement in the future, discussed last 
week-end by members of the National Federation of 
Settlements at East Aurora, N. Y., will be determined 
by its old aims, modified by the newer social problems that 
surround it. This was the principal message brought to the 
settlements of America by Henrietta O. Barnett, C. B. E., 
widow of that great churchman, founder of Toynbee Hall, 
of whom a tablet in Westminster Abbey says, " Believing 
that we are all members one of another, he labored unceas- 
ingly to unite men in the service of God and by his counsel 
and example inspired many to seek for themselves and for 
the nation the things that are eternal." Though modestly 
disclaiming special knowledge of the social problems which 
are puzzling social workers in this country, Mrs. Barnett 
showed that England is faced with much the same problems 
— less complicated with the task of cosmopolitan assimilation, 
but on the other hand cumbered with a! heavier statute book, 
I with less room, less opportunity and less inclination to break 
down old conventions and to make experiments. 
1 Speaking of the early history of the settlement movement 
and illustrating her points with lantern slides — Mrs. Bar- 
nett dealt with the influences which had resulted in the found- 
1 to ing of the first settlement in Whitechapel in 1883. At that 
imar date, the Reverend and Mrs. Barnett had already lived ten 
(rears in a very small vicarage house in East London and had 
gathered around them so many followers and fellow workers 
that it became encumbent to obtain further accommodation. 
Thus arose the Hall — named after a recently deceased friend 
mold Toynbee — which has become known all over the 
orld not only as a center of philanthropic effort but as a 
actory of social ideals and a school for some of the ablest 
England's statesmen and administrators. The work under- 
ken by the settlement ranged from relief to higher education ; 
om teaching gutter children how to play, to the establish- 
ed of an art gallery; from the domestic training of state- 
pported children to classical concerts; from organizing boy 
outs to university courses; from succor by Guilds of Com- 
ssion to scientific chess; from nature study rambles to voca- 
pnal preparation for life's careers. 
It was impossible, Mrs. Barnett said, to sum up in a few 
ntences the spiritual base of so many and such varied activi- 
es, but perhaps there were three bed rock principles which 
ere beneath all that was undertaken. Put briefly they were, 
The best is not too good for the lowliest " ; " Culture comes 
y contact " ; and " Friendship is the water which makes 
haracter grow." Simple as these adages sound, they were 
orh far reaching and comprehensive when translated into 
rison reform, education of manual workers and the cleavage 
of conventional barriers erected by society. 

It could not have been easy for Mrs. Barnett to indicate, 
as she was specially asked to do, the sources which influenced 
her husband, but under cover of the pictures of Clifton, Bris- 
tol, where he was born and reared, and the beauty of which 
appealed strongly to him, and in relation to his college career 
in historic Oxford, or the shock of close contact with the de- 
graded classes of the metropolis, she managed with candour 
and reticence to indicate how the circumstances of his life 
had made the man, before the strength developed which after- 
wards enabled him to mould not only circumstances but other 
men. 

Among those he influenced when they either resided 

in Whitechapel or worked as Toynbee associates are now some 

of the leading men in England, names which represent politi- 

forces, such as Herbert Asquith, Sir Hubert Ll. Smith, 

Robert Morant, Lord Pentland, Viscount Milner, Sir 

ril Jackson, and Murray Macdonald, or ecclesiastical 

owers such as the archbishop of York, Canon Cremer, Canon 

emple and Canon Masterman, or men holding even more 

"uential if less advertised positions in the press and in the 



1 ga 

sar 
In 1 

mitt 
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i m 
teres 

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Henrietta O. Barnett, C. B. E., widow of the founder of Toynbee 

Hall, the first settlement in Whitechapel, who arrived in the United 

States last week to be the guest of the National Federation of 

Settlements 



administrative departments of the government. These men, 
and many others now scattered all over the world, carry in; 
their work if not the definite principles inculcated by Cano - 
and Mrs. Barnett in Whitechapel, at least the attitude ' 
mind from which to ponder on the problems with which th 
are faced in their respective neighborhoods, a mental outlo< 
which would change society could it be generally adopted 
universally practised. 

Mrs. Barnett was emphatic on the danger of class ignoran 
breeding class suspicion and consequent misunderstandin 
and urged that, even though the nation had now undertake 
many of the duties hitherto undertaken by the settlements in 
the departments of education, unemployment, health preserva- 
tion, and hygienic education, there still remained the para- 
mount privilege of acting as those who introduce and those 
who unite. And she quoted with quaint reverence the story 
of the lad who by introducing the right men in the right place 
brought out one of our Lord's most significant discourses. 

In the days that were past, she said, the question most fre- 
quently asked was " What is Toynbee Hall doing?" — whereas 
in the future she anticipated that the more frequent question 
would be "What is Toynbee Hall thinking?" For people 
eager to assist in the work of reconstruction had lost their way 
in the maze of new charities, fresh societies, and amid the ever 
increasing responsibilities adopted by the government coul^ 
not discern where helpfulness should end and independence t 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



-: 



demanded. Many would turn to the settlements for guidance 
in thought and by their corporate eyes, and cooperative obser- 
vation, these should be in a position to give replies that went 
deeper than palliatives. 

From this Mrs. Barnett naturally turned to social research 
and referred to the recent investigations in housing conditions, 
as well as to those which had dealt with unemployment, low- 
ering the age for pensions and its effect on the labor market, 
with the influence of factory work for girls on home njaking, 
the result of equal work for equal pay, industrial fatigue be- 
sides many inquiries on other subjects. All these questions 
were those on which the settlements ought to be able to give 
information of special value, because it would be based on 
friendship with individuals and gleaned from intimate knowl- 
edge of family experiences. 

To illustrate Canon Barnett's relation with Toynbee Hall 
after he had ceased to be its warden, Mrs. Barnett gave 
examples of his action which indicated that his thought tended 
more and more in later life to emphasize the conviction he 



had always held that the development of individual character 
was the key note of social reform, and that this development 
was best, if not mainly, obtained by the possession of the sense 
of God. To this end he had worked for the change of the 
people's circumstances which so marked his career in East 
London. To this end he had labored to reform education and 
to provide all with equal opportunities for self-development. 
To this end he had written copiously and preached with the 
power given by quiet conviction. 

Mrs. Barnett showed some remarkable slides of Westmin- 
ster Abbey where Canon Barnett worshipped and from the 
pulpit of which he fearlessly stated that the rights of the poor 
demanded sacrifices from the rich, and that the unheeded cries 
of the disinherited would, and ought, to work evil on those 
who would not hear. Through the pictures the atmosphere 
of the ancient house of prayer was subtly suggested, and the 
conference members were left realizing anew that humanity, 
however complicated its problems, could only find peace when 
it recognized that its " life was hid by Christ in God." 



On the Situation in Italy 

By Arthur Livingston 



RECENT events in Italy have not followed just the 
course that was projected by the Socialist Congress of 
Bologna, held in October, 1919. That Congress, mark- 
ing an epoch in Italian Socialism, voted overwhelmingly for a 
" maximalist " program — the " immediate " seizure of the 
means of production and transportation by the working classes. 
The plan of the Congress called, however, for an orderly agi- 
tation under responsible leadership leading up to the establish- 
ment of a central revolutionary authority under the control of 
the labor unions, which, in some way undefined, would be able 
to seize power. Everyone remembers the immediate conse- 
quences of that vote. The Socialists won notable victories in 
the November elections, dividing honors with the revolution- 
ary Catholics. The hopeful masses believed quite generally 
that the revolution had been voted in. In a few towns power 
was actually seized, and almost everywhere spontaneous riot- 
ing occurred. But the results were disappointing. Nothing 
of a permanent nature was inaugurated. One hundred and 
fifty-six Socialist deputies went to Rome and said many clever 
things in the course of a few months — the Catholics again 
dividing the honors. But it looked as though the revolution 
had talked itself to death. 

The next developments, however, were of profound signifi- 
;ance. In Turin the compact organization of the General 
Federation seemed suddenly to fall to pieces. The revolu- 
:ionary workers in the factories there began impromptu to 
form the celebrated " shop councils," quite independently of 
the labor chambers, of the trade federations and of the national 
directorate of the greater federation. And with these councils 
came a new form of agitation. Ever since the late winter of 
this year the seizure of factories has been of common occur- 
rence; and the "strike on the job" (ostruzionismo) became 
one more terror to be added to the daily torment of the capital- 
ist. Immediately the General Federation, and eventually the 
Government also, adapted themselves to the new conditions. 
The Federation recognized the shop councils ; the government 
on irrelevant grounds legitimized some of the seizures. The 
shop councils and not the old cumbersome organizations be- 
came the advance guard of revolutionary agitation. This 
movement culminated in July when the shop councils planned 
a general seizure of factories throughout Italy. For lack of 
coordination and owing to the opposition of conservative 
elements in the labor organizations this operation failed, not, 
however, without laying the foundations for the events of 
August and September where the social revolution in Italy has 
registered very material gains. 



The movement of August 20, when a policy of " obstru 
tionism " was nationally inaugurated in the steel trade, ow 
its paralyzing power to the fortunate consensus of all the 
verse elements in the Italian metallurgical industries — t 
Syndicalist Union (anarchical), the official Federation of Ir 
Workers (the F. I. O. M., affiliated with the General Fe 
eration), the Italian Labor Union (patriotic Socialist) a 
the Catholics. Taking advantage of a public demand 
high taxes on profits, and of the announced intention of 
manufacturers to resist any further demands for increa 
wages, the iron and steel workers called for such a new 
crease. The issue developed with all the formalities of cl 
airy. It was taken for granted on both sides that this str 
gle was to be a final show-down of relative strength, wh 
the real points involved would be not money but princip! 
This was made clear by the workers in their refusal to d 
sider any question as to whether the industry could stanc 
new wage increase; and by the manufacturers in their inc 
ference to the question of arbitration. In answering the 
structionism of the workers by the lock-out the manufactur 
hoped to put the question squarely up to the government 
the workers went into the shops, drew their pay, and ran t 
machines but produced nothing, had the owners the right 
close the shops? Would the government uphold the righ 
of private property to that extent? The workers answer 
the lock-ouV by occupying the factories and trying to run the 
on their own account. The government refused to allow th 
issue to be transported to the ground of legal precedent, an 
strove to effect a compromise. 

It is in this evasion that the deep significance of the Italiar. 
disturbance lies. For whether or not the present agreemen 
between labor and capital as to joint control of productio 
proves permanent or not, the principle that public policy ij 
superior to private property rights has entered into the Italiai 
national consciousness. With practically no blood-shed, an« 
with relatively little confusion as compared with the magnij 
tude of the issues involved, on a basis of free and frank pub 
lie discussion of the most vital interests of individual, grou 
and nation, Italy has set out on an experiment in cooper; 
that is headed toward a form of industrial communism. 

From this point the field is open to prediction, in w 
people will indulge in one sense or another as interest a 
temperament decide. To that large majority of Ameri 
editorial writers who have outdone each other in pictu 



t: 



u m 1 

Itftl ■■ 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



50 

\vh 

icip 
oc 
tand 
inn 
he t 

m 

it. 

ant 
ght ;: 
rigbd 

iffcrr, 
n then 



Italy as on the brink of something appalling, it may be com- 
forting to reflect that among the possibilities is the chance 
that Italy may be on the brink of solving the whole question 
of industrial unrest. And that other group of enthusiasts 
who already see Bolshevism installed within the bosom of 
the Entente may be reminded that no one of importance in 
Italy foresees any immediate prospect of a thoroughgoing com- 
munization of Italian life. The accepted doctrine there is 
still that of the revolutionaries of the Right, that a commu- 
nistic Italy cannot survive as an island in a capitalistic Europe. 
Clearly the Italian Foreign Office and the agencies of the 
international press have done little to illuminate the condi- 
tions out of which the developments in Italy have sprung. 
)ne mystification emanating from both these sources has been 
le overemphasis laid upon the Fiume question, and the failure 
point out that the real issue in foreign relations that has 
een exercising the Italian public has been Russia. To be 
ure there has been some honest self-deception in all that, 
'he riots of May-July, 19 19, were necessary to call the Ital- 
in government itself back from its absorption in the intrigues 
f Paris. But it is fair to say that taken by and large the 
[iume issue has been a pass-time of Italian politics to distract 
public mind, and especially the foreign mind, from the 
alities of Italian conditions. What those realities have been 
e can here suggest only in a most general way. 
Among them has been the complete isolation of the Italian 
wernment, of the Italian " governo," from any vital con- 
tct with public issues or with public opinion. Whenever, 
nee the Armistice, anything has been done in Italy, it has 
;en done by the parties interested in doing it; the " gov- 
no " has been a bureau of registration, empowered to take 
ignizance of established facts. It has accepted the seizure 
: Fiume by patriots, the seizure of lands by cooperatives, the 
■izure of factories by workers, the seizure of fortresses by 
wbject states (Valona), the seizure of ships by sailors, and 
seizure of public buildings by local populations. This 
ins that the respect for political democracy in Italy has 

Wn seriously and progressively weakened. In fact, do we 
owe to an Italian premier (Orlando) a syndicalistic defi- 
on of the ballot as the expression of an economic interest, 
I of the new concept of the State as the union of economic 
ups? And is not the most significant debate of the Italian 



Off 

nt, an< 



Senate the debate as to whether it should not abolish u. 

Among them, also, has been the neutralization of the Ital- 
ian army, a reality corollary to the preceding. There is no 
power on which the present Italian regime has been able 
effectively to rely. The army is moved about with the per- 
mission of the labor unions in operations only of which the 
labor unions have approved. 

Among them, again, has been the vitalization, the coming 
into self-consciousness, of various groups, assembling around 
one interest or another to transform the moral and intellectual 
texture of the nation. Vital forces in Italy to-day are the 
owners of wealth, on the one hand, and the workers on the 
other — the two great forces the clash of which is giving new 
direction to the national life. Add to these the cooperatives, 
grown powerful in numbers and in activity, which are con- 
tributing to the establishment of the new economic conscious- 
ness of the nation. Then there is the church which has 
immensely broadened the scope of its aims and its action, rous- 
ing millions of Italians to a new outlook on the social prob- 
lem. Again there are the soldiers of the late war, men who 
feel bound together by. a common effort in a great cause and 
who are determined that not all the promises of a new kind 
of Italy for the future shall remain unfulfilled. Finally come 
the " intellectuals " of the country, the heirs of what has 
been called Italian culture, men trained to critical method 
and dispassionate judgment, men respected by all classes < 
people for the brilliancy of their discussion of public que 
tions and their devotion to their ideals and to the natio 
Such groups are asserting themselves in terms of direct a 
tion; and each of them is making itself felt in proportion ■ 
its real strength. That is why Italy, today, of all victorio 
powers, presents the picture of a nation governed more 
actual public opinion than by force and by phraseolog 
That is also why, in the face of a great social transform, 
tion, " the public " is neutral between the conflicting parties 
giving no mandate for slaughter fo elements who would 
otherwise be inclined to settle great issues by the strong arm. 

There is an old phrase to the effect that " Italy will do it 
herself." It was in the spirit of that phrase that the country 
faced the consequences of the peace of Vienna. It is in some- 
thing of the same spirit that she will handle the worse mess 
inherited from Versailles. 






Italia', 
teeroen' 



policy 1 
ic Italic 
;hecl, an< 
t map' 1 
ianb ut 
ual, P "! 
Mopetaj 

lisfr I 

inW<* a 
& to** 
it PV 



THE ROAD AND THE END 

I shall foot it 

Down the roadway in the dusk, 

Where shapes and hunger wander 

And the fugitives of pain go by. 

I shall foot it 

In the silence of the morning, 

See the night slur into dawn, 

Hear the slow great winds arise 

Where tall trees flank the way 

And shoulder toward the sky. 

The broken boulders by the road 

Shall not commemorate my ruin. 

Regret shall be the gravel underfoot. 

I shall watch for 

Slim birds, swift of wing 

That go where wind and ranks of thunder 

Drive the wild processionals of rain. 

The dust of the travelled road 
Shall touch my hand and face. 




— From the Chicago Poems. 



Carl Sandburg. 



Vernacular and Revolution 

How a Return to the Language of the People Helped to 

Recreate a Great Democracy 

By Aristides E. Phoutrides 



UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS 



THE other day the telephone of a certain New York 
office rang, and a city doctor wished to be connected 
with a city lawyer. Both parties happened to be 
Greeks. The doctor was born in Thrace and is 
proud of his kinship with Orpheus, while the lawyer is an 
Ionian of Smyrna, one of Homer's birthplaces. After a 
short business chat one of them happened to refer to a 
recent work in the Modern Greek vernacular, the other com- 
mented on its "vulgar" language and that made me seize the 
end of another telephone wire and join in the debate. A 
semi-philological discussion started and continued for the Lord 
knows how long. If the gentle telephone operator knew Greek 
id had the writing microbe, she might steal plenty of ma- 
rial for a Platonic or Aristophanic dialogue, and some Wall 
reet people might have a shock if they knew that the gold- 
irrying telephone wires of Gotham were desecrated by the 
infused sounds of a heated literary symposium in Greek. The 
patient operator made us drop the subject after mutual 
imises of all of us to reassemble at our earliest convenience 
d continue our discussion. 

This episode illustrates the absorbing interest with which 
the language question is regarded by every intelligent Greek 
wherever Greeks are. It explains also how it happened that 
a translation of the New Testament into the demotike or ver- 
nacular by Alexandros Palles in 1901 created more trouble 
in Athens than the strike of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit em- 
ployes caused in Brooklyn this year. The purists who stood 
for what they call a purified language, as close to the ancient 
Attic form from the grammatical point of view as possible, 
issailed the translation as a national crime aiming to prove 
hat present-day Greece had no connection with the Greece of 
?ericles. The majority of the university students sided with 
:he purists and with youthful enthusiasm paraded in great 
crowds through the streets of Athens, heaping insults on the 
defenders of the vernacular, who were branded as "Hairy 
Ones," and smashing down the establishment of any news- 
paper which opposed the puristic point of view. They even 
demanded of the Metropolitan of Athens to excommunicate 
the "traitors." The Metropolitan, however, refused. The 
students became furious, the government called on the troops 
to control the rioters, and in a melee eight students were killed 
and over sixty others wounded. This aroused public sentiment 
in favor of the purists ; the Metropolitan had to abdicate. The 
Cabinet had to fall, and the victims were lauded as martyrs 
of a Holy Cause. It seemed like a great victory for the purists 
then. 

But the friends of the vernacular never gave up. They 
knew that the vernacular was a living language, whereas the 
puristic was only a confused artificial idiom manufactured by 
narrow-minded schoolmasters who dreamed of resuscitating 
the ancient form. They also knew that, in spite of its ap- 
parent deviation from ancient form, the vernacular had pre- 
served the more essential features of ancient Greek; above all 
its directness, its plastic qualities and its power of assimilation. 
They adhered firmly to the principle that the people were the 
only natural creators of language and that they had perfect 
right to their grammar and vocabulary while the artist's 

8 



sphere was to give the people's language its best literary ex 
pression without violating either its grammar or its words. 

The enemy, however, had established himself in impre: 
nable citadels. A generation ago, the recognized masters o 
literary style were purists. Until very recently the purists ha 
unrestricted authority over the school, the church and the state 
The daily press was almost entirely puristic. All the text 
books, from the first reader to the manuals of pathology 
mechanics, were written in the puristic. Finally, orators co 
tinued and, to a certain extent, still continue to charm t 
multitudes in grandiloquent style where dead words in de 
forms are dinned into the people's ears. The people list 
dazed and wonder and applaud, but in spite of it all they pr< 
fer to talk to each other in their mothers' tongue. The esse 
tial result of the purists' effort was to cultivate a medium 
expression that was pretentious, unnatural, superficial, form 
and pompous. With this medium the educated class its 
tended to acquire the same characteristics and to spread t 
disaster through the uncontaminated strata of the people. 

The demotikists saw the danger and proceeded to assail 
puristic citadels. The first field they invaded successfully w; 
literature. They proceeded to gather folk-tales and songs fri_ 
Asia Minor and Thrace and Macedonia and Epirus and 
tral Greece and Peloponnesus and the islands, and to circu 
their publications at home and abroad with the purpose 
showing that there was a common vernacular living in e\ 
corner of the Hellenic world and capable of artistic expres: 
of a high degree. Then they wrote poetry and novel 
drama and short-story and at last even scientific essay in 
vernacular. Though the daily press was unassailable in 
entirety, still it was induced to open some of its literary 
umns to the people's language. 

Somehow the opposition of the pseudo-classicists electri 
the progressives. John Psicharis, the acknowledged leader 
the movement, a man who combines a thorough philolog 
training and scientific spirit with unusual creative power 
determination, published his famous Ta£ei5i, Tour, 
epoch-making book for New Greece. Kostes Palamas, 
greatest of Modern Greek poets, stepped to the foregrounc 
the defender of the new ideas and declared that he was pr 
to be classed among the "Hairy Ones." N. G. Polites, 
folklorist of the University of Athens, dispatched a host 
legend and song gatherers to every town and village whe 
Greeks live. Argyres Eftaliotes wrote a history of Greece 
the vernacular and published the Stories of Old Demo! 
another book of great influence for the new era. I 

Then the Noumas, a literary weekly edited by D. P. Tang< 
poulos, made its appearance in Athens in 1903, and soo' 
proved the greatest stronghold, not only of the revolutionisi 
in literature, but of all enlightened people who saw the dea< 
ness about them, and struggled to bring about a new life in tlj 
social and political, as well as in the artistic field. The n 
weekly was very humble and unpretentious in type and pa 
It was not illustrated, and most of its material was printe 
very fine type to save space. Yet this little journal, writte 
the demotic from end to end, became a school of trainin 
the best of the younger writers of Greece and the mouth 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, ig 20 



ex- 

>reg 

so 
i hac 

state, 
text 

S o 
icon 
nth 
k 
listi 

n» 

esse: 
raw 
lima 
its 
idtl 

5. 

jilt 
lyw 
s fro 

]( 



of all recognized leaders. People began to feel a new breath. 
Atavism gradually gave ground to the loud demands of pres- 
ent-day life. Philological, educational, sociological and political 
discussions were made intelligible through a sounder logic as 
won as the medium of expression became the living vernacular. 
The victory in the literary field was complete, but its im- 
jortance was far greater than had been anticipated because its 
esults penetrated everywhere. To quote from a stirring book, 
which appeared only last year, The Contemporary Problems 
)f Hellenism, by G. Skleros: 



If there is anything living in Greece today, if there is a 
sufficient number of men with modern culture and radical opera- 
tive views, if we have the first signs of a practical reform and of 
reorganization of our social body into classes and parties of 
>rinciples, we owe it largely to the preparatory work which for 
Inany years the domotikists have been doing quietly, training our 
active and progressive youth for a far-reaching and constructive 
jocial activity. 

From this point of view, the influence of the vernacular move- 
tent on our social life is incalculable, and the social student is 
Sound to recognize it as the first enlightened revolutionary move- 
tent in Greek society since the downfall of ancient Greek civili- 
sation ; for this movement has produced the daring and dis- 
:rning workers who have already brought about the complete 
initial reform of four branches of our life by rendering them 
insitive to modern thought and progress. These are: first, art 
id literature; second, education and language; third, labor 
id social activity; and fourth, our political life itself where, 
|t last, we begin to see statesmen with new western minds and 
iou.gb.ts. To these we may add the constant improvement and 
icreasing sobriety of our daily and periodical journals which 
re inspired and written to a large extent by modern men in 
ipathy with the vernacular. 

hat the vital importance of this movement could not be 

looked by Eleutherios Venizelos is not surprising. The 

has a Periclean genius of being thoroughly familiar with 

ational and national problems without losing sight of 

ew impulses and currents of contemporary life. For a 

time he saw the significance of the struggle for the ver- 

ar and convinced himself of its soundness. But being 

versed in practical reform, he was not anxious to patron- 

e movement at a time when not only his position would 

e strengthened by it, but other problems closer to the 

f Greece, such as the redemption of six millions of 

ks from a brutal regime, demanded immediate attention. 

as well aware of the unnecessary opposition that an im- 

re attempt to adopt the program of the demotikists might 

se. 

jut he knew how to prepare the way for it and set out 
repare the educational renaissance of Greece as soon as he 
to power in 1909. In this work he chose assistants from 
g the most progressive and prudent younger minds. The 
|es of Delmouzos, Triantaphyllides and, above all, of D. 
linos, are insolubly connected with the reform. Mr. 
^ os, the secretary general to the Greek Ministry of Public 
struction, has been the most active factor in formulating a 
wk riCS °* *"^ s which were adopted by the Liberal government 
Jrcece 
Den 



rcu 



m 
jtes 
vel 
f in' 
e in 
aryi 

ectri); 

:ader. K i 



ivtr { 
)ut, : 
nas, ' 
count 

as pn 



at once and presented to the Chamber. In an article written 
by him in the June number of the Balkan Review, these bills 
are summarized as follows: 

1. Enfranchisement of the primary schools so that they should 
no longer be merely annexes to the classical gymnasia; provision 
for adequate development, and obligatory attendance on all 
classes of society for a period of at least six years. 

2. Alteration of the exclusively classical nature of the gym- 
nasia by the foundation of new modern gymnasia. 

3. Reform and enlargement of the administrative system con- 
nected with public education. 

4. Measures for the provision of an adequate number of 
teachers to satisfy the requirements of every grade of school. 

This legislation was completed by 1914, but the crisis of 
191 5 and the dismissal of Venizelos by the former king, 
paralyzed the educational progress at its initial moment. The 
work of reform seemed to have come to an end. 

When, as the Greeks say, "the knife came to the neck" and 
the Cretan statesman was forced to become a rebel against 
ex-King Constantine and all the reactionaries who grouped 
themselves about the king, he seized the opportunity to strike 
at one of the strongest roots of reaction in Greece, the artificial 
language of the purists which tended to devitalize and blind- 
fold the schoolteacher, and through him the entire youth of 
the country. At the head of the Liberal Party in Salonika he 
reached a decision which established on a secure basis the in- 
tellectual enfranchisement of the whole Hellenic people. It 
provided jar the introduction of the vernacular into the pri- 
mary schools of the country. As soon as the Liberal govern- 
ment was reestablished in Athens in 191 7, and in spite of thr 
war and its imperative demands, the new legislation regarding 
education was immediately put into effect, and with it th 
primary schools of the country, at last, taught the vernacular 
from modern text-books written by some of the masters of 
literary style who cooperated with educators for the purpose. 
One cannot exaggerate the importance of this reform for 
Greece. Once the child learns to read the vernacular as he has 
been learning to speak it, he will never return to the artificial 
and pompous puristic. The growing generation will demand 
the vernacular as its medium of expression in all walks of life 
and science. The people will be taught in a language which 
is a part of their own life, will naturally understand speakers 
and books better, will become conscious of their power to 
follow and criticize their leaders, and, above all, they will ex- 
change their former attitude of resignation to formal and 
pompous and superficial things with a vigorous demand for a 
more substantial and natural life which will prove salutary 
both to individual and society. The length and bitterness of 
the struggle will make the victory profounder and brighter. 
A new thought born of the conflict is bound to reach out 
toward a more adequate expression in indivdual, political, 
and social life. It is the guarantee of a new force which shall 
struggle toward physical and moral perfection in new Hellas. 






Mijviv atiie, &ea, JlrjXrjldSico Uy.ilxjOg 
oiXo/iiyrjv, rj fivqC ti%aiolg ai.yi c&ijxcr, 
noXXag 6? Up9l(tovs tyvxag HS'tSt npotaipev 
r/Qtacoy, avrovg di elwQia %tv-/f xinooi* 
oliavolal ts naai — Awg 6' hsUlero povXy 
l£ ov di] tit ngdha dtaaT^Tijv fytoavia 
^Tgtldrjg re oVcr| MqcHv yuxl dlog h%iM.eig. 



ANCIENT GREEK 



Moyca, TpAroyA* to 9ymo toy Iakoyctoy A)(iAeA, 
ton epMo! n'oAoYC noTiceTOYC A)(aioyc <)>apmakia, 
kai ttAhBoc cctciAc W£tc AcBcntikcc cton Aah 
onA&p)(HrcoNf, Ki'eSpefe Me ta KopuiA toyc ckyAoyc 

Kl'OAA TA OpNIA (TOY AlOC jtci eij(£ H TNWMH OpiCCl), 
An'THN ApXH CAN T71ACTHK6 M6 TO TOprO A)(lAeA 

TlA T P c * o rrp<OTA<l>eNTHC rioc kai x<opicAN 01 Aio toyc. 



THE VERNACULAR 



M'cftta, 0ea, ttiv ooyV t°" n^ifiou 'AxiW-eto;, 
tt|V oXe^otav, fjtt? eyive jtpo^eva; dvaoUJjirYcaxv xckuiv 
eI; tou; 'Axoiou;. 
xcA obiEOteitav dc; tov "Aottv jcoWA? yewaia? yuxa.> 

T)(Mjixi>V, 

tu>v 6jioUiJv xd coi^ata ey^vovto popd taw xuvwv 
ital oovEiov jcavtfcv; ei&ovs, 8id vd jdr|ouj#ij to tieA-i^ia 

xov Aw>;, 
dtp' Stov jrpwtov l<piXovziKr)Gtxv xod 5iQO&hpTtrv cS? 

£x*e«t 

6 'ATpti&TK 6 dexiY<>5 xal 4 9ew>; A/ Uew;. 
PURISTIC GREEK 



The first paragraph of the Iliad in old Greek and in the two forms for which the " rev- 
olutionists " and " reactionaries " respectively are contending as a medium of expression 



The Immigrant 

What Can Versus What Must Be Done With Him 

By Allen T. Burns 



DIRECTOR STUDIES IN METHODS OF AMERICANIZATION 



t 



POPULAR precepts, 
prescriptions and 
formulas for the im- 
migrant have almost 
made him the victim of dis- 
agreeing doctors. All these 
remedies for the feared or 
suspected gaps and fractures 
in our national physique have 
a common quality. They are 
required, compulsory, and 
not to be refused. Here is 
what some of them say: 

The immigrant must be 
naturalized ; must drop his 
mother tongue and give up 
its newspapers; must read 
md write English; must 
catter and settle among na- 
ve born ; must adopt all cus- 
mary, especially legalized 
.jractices, such as the doctor 
at child-birth and the keep- 
ing of the Puritan sabbath. 
He must accept our labor 
organization as it stands and 
forswear attachment to all 
things from the land of his 
birth. 

Starting with these form- 
ulas, a study of Americaniza- 
tion is easy. You get the 
statistics on how many immi- 
grants have become natural- 
ized within a fixed period. 

The nationalities or races showing a large per cent of naturali- 
zation are desirable, assimilable; those with a small per cent, 
undesirable. Moral: restrict, exclude, discharge or deport 
people showing this regrettable indifference to citizenship. 

Perhaps you investigate by nationalities how many immi- 
grants have joined existing labor unions, accepting an entirely 
prearranged agent of industrial democracy with passive acqui- 
escence. When you find that later immigrants have not en- 
tered in large numbers the organizations which earlier immi- 
grants have had an active hand and effective voice in forming 
and officering, you conclude with the Federal Immigration 
Commission: "The constant influx of immigrants to whom 
prevailing conditions seemed unusually favorable contributed 
to the failure to organize. . . . Their presence in con- 
stantly increasing numbers prevented progress among the older 
wage-earnmg class." 

The compulsionist obtains statistics of the number of foreign- 
language papers and their circulation in the United States. 
Finding the figures to be in the hundreds and hundreds of 
thousands respectively, he deduces that the immigrants are 
living in another world, following different currents of thought 
10 



BOOKS THAT ILLUSTRATE A NEW 
THEORY AND METHOD OF NA- 
TIONAL SOCIAL SURVEY 

The Americanization studies made in the last two years and 
financed by the Carnegie Corporation will be published dur- 
ing the fall and winter, beginning October 1, by Harper & 
Brothers, with the following titles and authors: 

Schooling of the Immigrant 

Frank V. Thompson, superintendent of public schools, 

Boston. 
America via the Neighborhood 

John Daniels. 
Old World Traits Transplanted 

Robert E. Park, professorial lecturer, University of 

Chicago. Herbert A. Miller, professor of sociology, 

Oberlin College. 
Immigrant Health and the Community 

Michael M. Davis, Jr., director, Boston Dispensary. 
A Stake in the Land 

Peter A. Speek, head of Russian section, Library of 

Congress. 
New Homes for Old 

S. P. Breckinridge, assistant professor of household ad- 
ministration, University of Chicago. 
Adjusting Immigrant and Industry 

William M. Leiserson, chairman, labor adjustment 

boards, Rochester and New York. 
The Immigrant Press and Its Control 

Robert E. Park, professorial lecturer, University of 

Chicago. 
The Immigrant's Day in Court 

Kate Holladay Claghorn, instructor in social research, 

New York School of Philanthropy. 
Americans by Choice 

John P. Gavit, vice-president, New York Evening Post. 
Summary 

Allen T. Burns, director, Studies in Methods of 

Americanization. 



L 



from the native-born. Form- 
ula: suppress foreign-lang- 
uage papers or make them 
bi-lingual, a prohibitive cxM 
pense, or by control of thei 
advertising, censor what the; 
print. 

The inquiries aimed 
finding prescriptions seem 
have made some omission 
Other questions bob 
which cannot be downed 
formulas. What is t 
answer to the charge th 
those becoming naturaliz 
most quickly, also sho 
speed in becoming denatio 
alized, or internationalize 
Does the persistance of 
old national affection af 
all prove the undesirability 
extended courtships and 
gagements before life-1 
pledges to a new state? 

Then too, immigrants s 
denly exhibit labor union 
their own making. They 
mand an eight-hour day, 
day of rest in seven, a liv 
wage for eight hours woj 
They insist on having th] 
own leaders, an organizat 
in which they take a vi 
part. What is to be don| 
The demands seem Am 
ican, but the procedure transgresses the previously arranj 
program. Has the earlier quest for categorical recipes foun 
will o' the wisp? 

The same prescribers seem to be getting somewhere w 
repressions of the immigrant press, when the provost mars 
suddenly announces its indispensability to the successful ope ; 
tion of our draft. Purveyors to the people's needs find 
press a channel to the attention of prospective purchasers whosi 
money is just as good as that of readers of papers in English 
" Suppress or not suppress? " That is the question. 

Apparently, inquiries ending in a " must " have a way o 
miscarrying. In a democracy social forces disarrange the bes 
laid plans of investigators. Surveys, social research and pr 
grams fall into disrepute because their answers don't sta 
answers. The human factor behaves unaccountably and in 
jects new elements into situations to the confusion of socia 
prescribers. Can inquiries into social conditions be of an 
more use to self-determining folk than those which have bee 
ending in imperatives so soon out-of-date? 

The Studies in Methods of Americanization of the Carne; 
Corporation, has tried to take another cue. It would end m 
logically in exhibitions and expositions than in prohibitions 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 






[.prescriptions. The aim has been to produce as accurate as 

[ possible a description of all the forces in the fusion process and 

their workings. The irresistible currents of popular decisions 

[have always been in mind. Not to direct but inform them has 

sen as high as the aim has been. This aim included a search 

[for all the appreciable forces in the relations of native and 

Iforeign-born, an examination of the various combinations of 

'these forces and a comparison of the results of these different 

(processes. 

1 he outcome of such an inquiry yields no futile " musts." It 
exhibits what can and what cannot be done, given certain 
factors of human desire, prejudice, predisposition. A study 
of how certain situations have developed throws light on what 
can be done in the future. It seeks to answer the practical 
American question of what can be done, not what must be 
done. The answers will never be categorical but will offer 
alternatives. If policy a is followed in a given situation, re- 
sults x and y in certain proportions will ensue; but if policy 
b is adopted, results x and y in different proportions from a 
will follow and also result z. So in these studies questions 
had to be framed in ways to bring out comparisons rather than 
finalities. 

In a study of immigrant relations, light is needed not only 
on big questions of policy but also on questions of technique in 
relations which have become fairly stable. Immigrants and 
citizens show a persistent desire for the former to learn Eng- 
lish. So the administration of schools for this purpose, the 
pedagogy of English as a foreign tongue, and the training and 
pay of teachers come in for study. Such matters are outside 
the field of controversy, as everyone is agreed in looking only 
for the procedure that works best for an agreed end. The 
same situation exists for problems in our naturalization pro- 
cedure, our legal machinery, our health administration. The 
Americanization study has carefully observed practices in these 
fields and even conducted a few experiments in order to dis- 
cover the most effective technique. Such reports interest the 
specialists and administrator and offer nothing especially new 
as to method. 

The multiti |ious decrees and injunctions for the immi- 
grari'f are in the kid of undetermined or unsettled public policy. 
M lods illur kting this field are of some general interest. 
/1 such x-c . id alternatives and possibilities as are offered 
le questions stated, what methods throw adequate light 
jhem ? 

ieids of study had to be selected where the interplay of 

an forces and the fluctuations in relationships were taking 

ce and could be observed and reported. Fairly static con- 

itions suffice for the technical inquiries, but the ebb and flow 

\ the tides of human life must be scanned and searched for 

ie persistent currents of desire, resistance, response and 



'operation. Such social research looks for the human reac- 
ms that are as definite, as calculable and as imperative as 
ose of gravity or explosives. Mighty rivers can be damned, 
namite can make safe harbors and channels for world fleets/ 
woe betide the bungler or meddler who tries to harness 
se forces without understanding all the laws and possibilities 
^ their behavior. 
Fortunately the immigrant today is active, if not in erup- 
tion, in many fields. He yields plenty of human documents 
for study and comparison. His industrial and political rela- 
tors have become the foremost news if not issues of the day. 
His racial survivals, his New World expedients are so obtru- 
sive as to be the objects of curiosity, if not suspicion. Industry, 
politics, government, communities, newspapers, family life, vol- 
untary organizations all offer panoramas of the vital forces of 
immigrant and native-born relations and reactions. 

Statistics and formal questionnaires throw relatively little 



light on the underlying forces in such situations. Descriptions, 
personal experience, detailed reports are needed to show why 
one mixture of human ingredients results one way, another 
combination a second way. Usually only a comparison of re- 
sults and precedent factors will bring out the significant differ- 
ences. So the work of the Americanization study has been 
largely that of first class reporters who dig to the bottom of 
a story until every relevant fact is disclosed. Various stories 
were then compared, and their contracts showed the results 
of different policies and practices. Such a method can better 
be illustrated than described. 

A vexing question of public policy is whether private schools 
of immigrant origin can be brought into conformity with re- 
quired standards of public education, and yet the body politic 
not be arrayed in hostile warring forces. How the latter can 
result was illustrated when Austria-Hungary sought to com- 
pel the use of her official languages by alien people. Compul- 
sory use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools 
is part of the proposed standards in this country. Massachu- 
setts educators have sought to secure such authority from their 
legislature. The opposition of immigrant citizens was so 
great that the dominant party quickly heeded it. The decision 
was so pointed as to suggest fear that other action would be 
as fatal to the party's power as was a similar policy to the 
power of the dual empire. Yet the neighboring state of New 
Hampshire has passed an even more drastic law with scarcely 
any opposition and is enforcing it with the hearty cooperation 
of the Roman Catholic bishop of the state. The latter, too, 
is a French Canadian as are most of his parishes, the very ele- 
ment that led the opposition to such a law in Massachusetts. 

Now what made the difference? Since political parties, 
their desire for office and immigrants' votes are not negligible 
factors, how can such diverse results come about? Only a 
thorough inquiry into all pertinent events in both states gave 
the answer. In Massachusetts the drive was made as a direct 
criticism of these immigrant schools. Those to be affected 
were, in no way, made a part of the movement or assured of 
inclusion in its resulting administrative machinery. The im- 
migrant was not reassured of the right also to teach his mother 
tongue while being required to conform to all public educa- 
tional standards. The New Hampshire procedure was a de- 
cided contrast. As in Massachusetts there was little state 
standardization of any schools, public or private. The move- 
ment was conceived and promoted as a forward step in edu- 
cation for the whole state. Little public school districts would 
have to give up some of their independence as actually as the 
private schools. The bishop and his supporters were invited 
to become leaders in this progressive move. He and his flock 
were assured of minority representation in the official body for 
carrying out the law. Freedom to teach their own language 
was guaranteed. Today the state superintendent of schools 
makes his inspection visits armed with all the authority of the 
law, but also with his way prepared by an explicit pastoral 
letter to all priests and teachers enjoining obedience to the law. 
To be sure, the bishops of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire are decidedly different persons, and the support of pos- 
sible opponents might have had to be secured in an entirely 
different way. But complete pictures of the two situations dis- 
close how the impossible in Massachusetts was achieved with 
harmony and satisfaction in New Hampshire. 

A similar suggestive contrast is produced by the same repor- 
torial method applied to the question of immigrants' member- 
ship in labor unions. The anthracite coal fields had to be 
cited as the great exception to the Federal Immigration Com- 
mission's finding that the recently arrived foreign-born retarded 
labor organization, as, for example, in the steel industry. 
Were there other differences between the hard coal and steel 
{Continued on page 29) 



A Poet of the Common-Place 

By Paul L. Benjamin 



THE poetry of Carl Sandburg, the poet who loves 
the common folk, and who weaves into the meshes 
of his song the simple, homely things of life — the 
Kansas farmer with the corn-cob between his teeth, 
the red drip of the sunset, the cornhuskers with red bandannas 
knotted at their ruddy chins — cannot be shredded apart from 
Carl Sandburg, the man. Indeed, as I write I seem to be 
chatting with him about his work and about the moving 
things of life, the deep, rich things, of running waters, of 
companionship with birds and trees, of love and tenderness, 
of life among those who sweat and toil — those secret, hidden 
things which only those who are ambassadors to men can 
truly know and understand. 

I see him leaning across the table in the little Italian res- 
taurant, the most human, the most intensely alive man I 
have ever known. It is his face that is arresting — beautiful 
as the faces of strong men are beautiful, as Lincoln's is — a 
brooding face — gnarled and furrowed — cleft chin — a mouth 
that loops itself into smiles or that booms with deep laughter 
— " granite " eyes that glow — steel gray hair. Though strong 
and compelling, and though inevitably the conversation whips 
about him he has something of the artlessness of the child 
combined with that uncanny directness and simplicity which 
children possess. 

As he talks you feel the touch of greatness upon this 
modest, lovable companion; you feel that he is one of those 
rare spirits who know back alleys, newsboys and farmhands, 
the crooning of the prairie, and the dust of the long road. 
You see him leaving school at thirteen to be buffeted by the 
prairie blizzards as he drives a milk wagon, toiling in brick- 
yards, swinging a pitch-fork in the husky gang of the thresh- 
ing crew, shoveling coal, washing dishes, soldiering during 
the Spanish war, working his way through Knox College. 
These vignettes of his life quiver in your mind as he talks — 
and what an infinite range of subjects it is. " Poetry," I 
hear him say, " is written out of tumults and paradoxes, ter- 
rible reckless struggles and glorious lazy loafing; out of blood, 
work and war and out of base-ball, babies and potato blos- 
soms. For me there is a quality of poetry in : ' Quiet as a 
wooden-legged man on a tin roof ' or ' Busy as a one-armed 
paper-hanger with the hives.' That glove working woman 
the Survey featured once, talked a speech as vivid as Irish 
or Chinese poetry at its best. Something like, ' When I look 
out of the window at night the evergreens look like mittens.' 
She put a fine, wonderful, vividness of gloves and mittens en 
masse oppressing her life. One felt humdrum choking a soul 
of art — and so — tragedy." 

There are flashes in his conversation that tell of the pains- 
taking, persistent effort that has given him a mastery of his 
tools; the growth from the rondeau stage to the perfecting 
of a gesture of his own, the critical judgment which has led 
him to discard a mass of his work, publishing only a modi- 
cum of what he has composed, the quiet determination to 
give his own imaginative treatment to the life about him, the 
compressing of limber words into creative art during the odd 
snatches of a busy journalistic career. 

All this is reflected in his two volumes of poems, Chicago 
.Poems, and Cornhuskers (Henry Holt and Company), and 
in his magazine verse, for few persons present their slants at 
life so fully as does he in his work. 
12 



One would hardly suspect this lover of vagabonds and of ^ 
children, this journalist who writes with a tang and a verve, 
whose industrial studies and articles on the Chicago race riots \ 
have won wide recognition, this delightful companion with 
his genuine touch of humor, this scoffer at those who strut 
and preen themselves, of being one of our great American 
poets. Louis Untermeyer, one of the outstanding critics of 
contemporary poetry, considers that he ranks with the three 
greatest poets in these states — the other two being Robert 
Frost and E. A. Robinson. It is this same Sandburg who in 
1914 won the Levinson prize offered through Poetry, and 
who in 1918 shared with Margaret Widdemer the five-hun- 
dred dollar prize of the Poetry Society of America. 

To those readers of the Survey who in English " Lit " 
have dissected poems with a forceps or measured them with 
a calipers, or who have been lulled by the tinkling of certain 
poets, much of Sandburg's verse may not seem to possess the 
divine afflatus. Such readers may be bound by the inhibi- 
tions of culture. But come with an open mind and a love 
of freshness and vigor and kindly treatment and you will 
find that his poems possess a moving rhythm, a rhythm that 
brawls and roars at times, and then that can be infinitely 
tender and exquisitely sweet. He does not shrink from using 
limber words, from using the idiom of the alley, the racy slang 
of the corn-field, or the argot of the steel-mill. They have 
the rhythm of life, with deep undertones, with delicate shad- 
ings, soft melodies that stir an inner sense of beauty, emo- 
tional connotations that express profoundly more than the 
nice use of words or their masterly groupings, rhythms that 
suggest intimations of subtle music, melodies that haunt like 
stirrings among the leaves on autumn nights. Some of the 
poems, it is true, have simply the rhythm \ of high voltage 
prose, and to many of these he has given yJ an * form; some 
of these quiver and leap with the rush of V A as his tirade 
against Billy Sunday, called To a Co. ' • n »s^rary Bi^k- 
shooter, which begins: -J <j 

You come along — tearing your shirt — yelling ^uout Jesus. 
Where do you get that stuff? 
What do you know about Jesus? 

one of the most biting, caustic, ironic indictments in the Eik a 
lish language. In contrast to such pieces as this, and Chicagc 

Hog Butcher for the World, 

Toolmaker, Stacker of Wheat, 

Player with Railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler; 

Stormy, husky, brawling, 

City of the Big Shoulders: 

you have the fragile Troths, 

Yellow dust on a bumble bee's wing, 
Gray lights in a woman's eyes, 
Red ruins in the changing sunset embers: 
I take you and pile high the memories. 
Death will break her claws on some I keep. 

r 

or the beautiful Gone which has been set to music by Rupert 
Hughes : 

Everybody loved Chick Lorimer in our town. 
Far off 

Everybody loved her. 
So we all love a wild girl keeping a hold 

On a dream she wants. 
Nobody knows now where Chick Lorimer went. 
Nobody knows why she packed her trunk — a few old things 
And is gone, 






' \ 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



I 



Gone with her little chin 
Thrust ahead of her 
And her soft hair blowing careless 
From under a wide hat. 
Dancer, singer, a laughing passionate lover. 

Were there ten men or a hundred hunting Chick? 
Were there five men or fifty with aching hearts? 
Everybody loved Chick Lorimer. 

Nobody knows where she is gone. 

Somewhere Whitman says: " But I am that which unseen 
comes and sings, sings, sings." So, those who feel melody 
which " unseen comes, and sings, sings, sings " will turn with 
recurring frequency to Sandburg. They will discover that 
there are certain poems; such as Loam, Gone, The Road 
and the End, The Answer, The Prairie, At a Window, Joy, 
Between Two Hills and many others which will become 
part of the dear, remembered things, some of them touched 
with heartbreak or a mist of tears. 

Though written in the so-called " new " forms these are 
handled with a masterly technique, particularly in the nice 
use of words, for it is evident that Sandburg loves words; 
he can caress them, make them rasp and burr, go on velvet 
feet, cry like the aching call of a bird to its storm-lost mate, , 
or whisper like the flutter of hidden wings. But the words 
are only a part of the pattern. One might as well brush the 
dust from a white moth's wing or catch the elusive charm of 
a young girl's loveliness as separate the words from the poem, 
no matter if done with consummate skill. 

It is, however, this poetry of the common-place, this abhor- 
rence of book-language, this reliance on folk idiom, this pic- 
turing of the simple, homely things that interests us now. 
With it, and this is probably most significant to readers of 
the Survey, is the humanness and simplicity of Sandburg, 
his use of social material for so many of his themes, his infi- 



nite pity and tenderness, his stripping bare of social injus- 
tices, and his love of the common folk. Edith Wyatt in a 
letter expresses much of it in the apt phrase, " Indeed he is 
a species of nature student of city life." Many of these 
poems, Cripple, Anna Ihmroth, Population Drifts, Mill 
Doors, They Will Say, although for me not among his most 
delicate, beautiful pieces, are the ones which most justify an 
account of him here. 

Together with rhythm and a sympathy and understanding 
of life, is his ability to chisel a picture with a few bold, swift 
strokes, with a compactness and compression of language, 
with an intensity and singleness of vision, with an economy 
of words which gives a peculiar, at times startling effect to 
his images, an almost biblical brevity. In Smoke and Steel, 
just published (Harcourt), he says: 

The wind never bothers — a bar of steel. 

The wind picks only — pearl cobwebs — pools of moonshine. 

After all, Sandburg's books are to be lived with, to finger 
over, to love as one does the faces of children or the caress 
of chubby fists, to go to when disillusionment threatens, to 
feel the great, throbbing, singing heart of America through 
all the inquisitions and repressions, to whiff the pungency of 
new-mown hay or the fragrance of the furrow turned by the 
plow, to catch the sweep of the prairie or the tang of the 
woods, or to see " the grey geese go five hundred miles and 
back with a wind under their wings." A glimpse of the real 
Sandburg is a paragraph in his review of Ransome's book 
on Russia, written for the Chicago Daily News: "And then 
going on as though the human race is essentially decent and 
sweet and out of the trampling of this vintage of blood and 
tears, out of a brute earth of cold and hunger, we will yet 
come through clear-eyed with an understanding of what we 
want to make of the world we live in." 



Recent English Books on Social 

Science 



1 

IT IS typical of the English temper at this time that the 
bulk of national thinking should bend in the direction of 
,'social reorganization. Pre-war England has been too com- 
pletely unmade for the old formulae to be of service. Not, 
iMeed, that they do not reappear, but they come as thin, wan 
f, hosts to survey a kingdom over which they no longer enjoy 
dominion. What the new age is to be no man can prophesy, 
jiave that it is to be a new age. Trade unions that have doubled 
in strength; a government whose foreign policy is dictated 
by the will of labor; subject races that revolt for the magic 
of a phrase and prove, as in the case of Egypt, that the phrase 
has magic in it; a youth which rejects with scorn the older 
notions of democracy, as void of substance; these are the symp- 
toms which meet one on every hand. As yet, indeed, there is 
chaos rather than integration, and there is not a little of that 
experimentalism abroad which is afraid not to examine even 
the second-rate lest suggestiveness escape it. But even when al- 
lowance is made for much empty play with words, the amount 
of admirable work that is being done is astonishing. Nothing 
of it, indeed, seems, at the moment, destined to permanence. 
But a good deal has about it the marks of that quality from 
which, ultimately, a great book is born. 

By all odds the most important piece of recent English 
thinking is Mr. and Mrs. Webb's Constitution for the Social- 
ist Commonwealth of Great Britain (Longman's). This ad- 
mirable volume is a survey of the institutional reconstruction 
necessary in Great Britain and is written out of an experience 



to which no other English writers can pretend. It covers the 
whole ground, and its suggestiveness is hardly less great in 
what it describes than in what it demands. Mr. and Mrs. 
Webb suggest a twofold parliament — one assembly devoted 
to social, the other to political affairs. In the first a system 
akin to the committee system of Congress would be estab- 
lished; in the second the classic cabinet form is retained. In 
industrial organization Mr. and Mrs. Webb go further 
towards the acceptance of a modified guild socialism than they 
have previously done, and their plan for revised local govern- 
ment, upon which they are the highest living authorities, is the 
most brilliant piece of thinking this subject has received. 

Readers of Mr. Gleason's articles in the Survey know how 
much the thinking of British labor has been affected by the 
guild socialist movement. Men like Mr. Tawney and Mr. 
Hodges have alike come under its sway. The chief exponent 
of guild socialism is G. D. H. Cole, and his latest volume, 
Chaos and Order in Industry (Methuen), is a helpful survey 
of the present position. It is, indeed, rather skilful journalism 
than a profound survey, but anyone who is desirous of know- 
ing what motives and policies are in issue will get a clear no- 
tion from this book. Mr. Cole, at one time the leader of the 
radical left, is now, by the march of events, almost at the 
center of his party. The basis of distinction lies, it appears, 
in the method to be pursued. A growing body of opinion is 
in favor of direct action, instead of the process of political 
and industrial negotiation, with the strike as a reserve weapon, 
which is the present technique of labor. Of this attitude, Wil- 
liam Mellor's Direct Action (Leonard Parsons) may be 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2j iqzo 



taken as the authoritative voice. Mr. Mellor is the labor edi- 
tor of the Daily Herald, and he sympathizes with the tactics 
and end of the Russian revolution. Compromise does not enter 
into his calculations. The parliamentary system is, in his view, 
so dead that to dally with it is to desert the true, that is, the 
industrial field of action. Conquer democracy in the work- 
shops, and the socio-political democracy will follow of iteslf. 
The attitude is probably too uncompromising and logical to 
be acceptable to the mass of the movement, but it represents 
a tendency which may well continue to grow if Mr. Lloyd- 
George's ministry remains long in power. 

Mr. Mellor and his friends are greatly influenced by the 
Russian example. Upon 'Russia there flows an ever-increasing 
stream of books from the English press. Two of them are 
worth noting. R. W. Postgate's The Bolshevik Theory 
(Grant Richards) is, without pretence at depth or originality, 
a clear and coherent account of what bolshevism is and the 
purpose it involves. Mr. Postgate is a little timidly sympa- 
thetic to bolshevism ; on the issue, for example, of the dictator- 
ship of the proletariat, it is clear that the idea of despotism 
therein involved leaves him a little uncomfortable. Eden and 
Cedar Paul's Communist Ergocracy (Allen and Unwin) 
has no such scruples. It is a thoroughgoing defence of bol- 
shevism, both in purpose and practice. The book is interesting 
and well written, and it seems to have been eagerly acclaimed 
by the Socialist Labor Party in this country. But to most 
observers it will, I think, seem as nearly related to English 
facts as Campanello's City of the Sun, or Bacon's New At- 
lantis. Mrs. Snowden's Diary (Cassell) of her journey 
to Russia with the British labor delegation is almost equally 
hostile, but it need not, I think, be taken seriously; for since 
she has signed the report of the delegation, which is at variance 
with her own conclusions, it is clear that her observations are 
not of great value. Most people accept Bertrand Russell's 
famous Nation articles as a well-balanced survey of Rus- 
sian facts. 

II 
On social history and theory there are some books, either 
recently or about to be published, of great interest. Most 
important of all is Graham Wallas' The Social Inheritance 
(Allen and Unwin), which will be published in the early 
autumn. It is Mr. Wallas' first book since 191 4, and in many 
ways his wisest. Like his Great Society, it is a psychological 
analysis of civilization, and though many will be doubtful of 
the psychology, none will deny either the startling power of 
observation or the almost uncanny insight into the details of 
social structure. In particular there are two chapters, one on 
the technique of administration and one on vocational organi- 
zations, which seem to me to open a new epoch in their respec- 
tive fields. It will, moveover, be of great interest to compare 
Mr. Wallas' explicit condemnation of the influence of a 
monarchical system with the Webbs' indifferent approval of it. 
Mr. Wallas' book is essentially a study of the adaptation 
of man as a bi61ogical organism to an environment made in- 
creasingly complex by social traditions. It is a plea for experi- 
mentalism. Mr. Harold Cox's Economic Liberty (Long- 
mans) is a book of a very different kind. It is the ablest 
recent defence of that "system of natural liberty" of which 
Adam Smith was the classical exponent. Mr. Cox is an op- 
ponent of state action of every kind; his philosophy is an in- 
dividualism in excelsis. Man is by nature selfish, and all at- 
tempts at the legislative equalization of conditions he regards 
as flying in the face of nature. He denies the capacity of the 
government as an administrative agent. He urges that only 
the system of private property as it now exists can stimulate 
the kind of endeavor upon which a well-built state can be 
founded. Regulation of hours, the policy of a minimum wage, 
a wider system of national education, all these he regards as 
doles to a class which should attain their advantages by their 
own effort. Few people, I think, will be tempted to accept 
his argument, but it is, at one angle, a valuable corrective to 
our present temper. For there is undoubtedly a spirit abroad 




which regards government enterprise as a corrective for alii 
social disease and is scornful of that moral change in the in-' 
dividual which, ultimately, is surely a problem beyond the}, 
reach of mechanical improvement. In harmony with Mr/\ 
Cox's plea is Lord Emmott's pamphlet (P. S. King) 
Nationalism. As a great business man Lord Emmott look 
with despair at the solution of our industrial questions pro 
posed by such men as Mr. Smillie. Government control, everJ 
more government operation, hampers motive and decrease; 
production. The root of economic prosperity is, for him, th< 
competition of man with man for the sale of their products 
Nationalization, he thinks, would be the death blow to in- 
dividual exertion. Lord Emmott, I should urge, only shows 
how singularly incapable a great business man can be wher 
he comes to the discussion of political philosophy. But it is. 
none the less urgent to remember that we have to find in a 
system of nationalized production motives that are not less 
provocative than those of private production. It is easy to 
reply that the motive of public service is adequate, but much 
more, as Lord Emmott sees, depends upon the institutions 
in which the formula is clothed than its exponents are willing 
to admit. 

Three books on social history deserve a passing word. C. E. 
Raven's Christian Socialism, 1848-54 (Macmillan), is the 
first full attempt to tell the history of a little known episode 
in the long record of English social experiment. Though he 
undoubtedly overestimates its importance, Mr. Raven is, I 
think, successful in rescuing it from the contempt of Mr. and 
Mrs. Webb, and he shows a very interesting relation between 
its ideals and those of guild socialism. Mr. C. R. Fay's Life 
and Labor in the Ninteenth Century (Cambridge University 
Press) is by all odds the most delightful summary of recent 
English economic history that has appeared. Its real learning 
is never obtrusive, and anyone who desired to understand how 
greatly the controversies of today arise from past issues could 
hardly do better than study his pages. From that they can 
go to F. E. Green's English Agricultural Laborer, 1870- 
1920 (P. S. King) which, in everything but style, is worthy 
to rank by the side of the Hammonds' notable book on the 
earlier history of the same subject. Mr. Green is a well- 
known expert on rural problems, and if his indignation at times 
leaps beyond all bounds, that only adds spice to his narrative. 
The solution of the English land question is not yet in sight, 
but when it comes I venture the guess that Mr. GiWn's 
knowledge will play no small part in its formulation. 

I have not the space to do more than note a number of books 
which are all of them useful. C. R. Attlee's Social Worker 
(Allen and Unwin) is a competent manual of technique by 
a recognized English expert. A. J. H. Hetherington's Inter- 
national Labor Legislation (Methuen) is an excellent sur- 
vey of the work of the League of Nations, which suffers 
somewhat from its author's official enthusiasm for the league. 
Mr. Hugh Dalton's Distribution of Income (Routledge) is 
a book that has long been expected. It is probably the best ex- 
isting book in English upon its subject, and it sets out, with 
scientific precision and detail, the attitude of most economists 
in the Labor Party. Delisle Burns' Principles of Revolution 
(Allen and Unwin) is, like all the Burns' books, both ex- 
cellently written and usefully apropos ; it will explain the mys- 
teries of a difficult issue to many who have desired guidance 
upon it. A. Mansbridge's Experiment in Working Class 
Education (Longmans) is an enthusiastic account of the 
Workers' Educational Association, which should be read in 
conjunction with that body's own recently issued summary 
of its immediate aim. Lastly, I should like to mention a book 
which, though over a year old now, does not seem to have 
penetrated to America. Colonel Burrell's Parliamentary 
Grants (Geeves) conceals under its modest title a study of 
the whole technique of national finance in this country, and 
I know no more indispensable volume for anyone who would 
appreciate the issues of the campaign for a national budget in 
America. Harold J. Laski. 




DO 



AS the days shorten, we are no longer content to look for 
books " in the running brooks " but, with Horace, yearn 
for " a good supply of them by the fireside." To the men 
land women who spend their lives in the routine and frequent 
I emotional strain of social work, especially, the refreshment of 
books strong in qualities that compel thought and inspire genuine 
optimism is almost a necessity. Unlike the " tired business man 
(of Broadway fiction) they cannot find adequate mental recrea- 
tion only in vapid plays, inane jazz music and sentimental novels, 
not because of mental superiority, but simply because such 
amusements, taken in large doses, fail to give pleasure The 
fall catalogues of the principal American publishing houses, 
therefore, are welcome harbingers of pleasant evenings to come. 
In the following pages we merely attempt to set before our 
readers some of the most important news concerning forthcoming 
books in the different fields of social science and practice, some 
of them hitherto unannounced. 

Social Forces 

A new series, to be known as The Social Welfare Library, 
with Edward T. Devine as editor, will be launched in October 
by The Macmillan Company with the publication of a valume on 
Community Organization, by Joseph K. Hart. Other volumes 
already in preparation are: 

Social Work, by Edward T. Devine 

Industry and Human Welfare, by William L. Chenery 

Treatment of the Offender, by Winthrop D. Lane 

The Story of Social Work in America, by Lilian Brandt. 

All these books are by present and past staff members of the 
Survey, but the series as a whole is not going to be a family 
affair. Mr. Devine's book, which will give a general view of 
the field of social work in America at the present time, and Miss 
Brandt's, which will sketch its development from Colonial times 
to the Twentieth Century, are intended as a background for 
more specialized studies, of which Dr. Hart's discussion of 
Community Organization and the volumes by Mr. Lane and Mr. 
Chenery may serve as illustration. The editor's idea of the place 
which the series will fill is expressed in the following extract 
from his introduction to the volume which is to be the first to 
ajgjiar, the one by Dr. Hart: 

a PDuring the past ten years social workers have been at school in 
' tfhnique. Processes of diagnosis and of specialized treatment 
tUlve been persistently pressed upon their attention. Such broad 
T n Tcts of our common economic life as had been effectively presented 
, L jjl Professor Patten's New Basis of Civilization have been allowed 
\ sink into a secondary place, when not altogether ignored. The 
a Maining schools for social workers have not unnaturally empha- 
sized the technical aspects of investigation and treatment; and 
"special periodicals devoted to one or another department of social 
practice have further favored this tendency. 

Within limits this is a necessary and beneficial development. 
Knowledge of procedure which has proved to be successful, mastery 
t , of technique, critical analysis of experience, familiarity with case 
' records, are essential in social work as in every vocation. The 
clanger is that we may become so absorbed in the particular manner 
in which a group of chosen individuals are to be treated — in their 
reactions, favorable and unfavorable — as to lose altogether the 
larger view of the conditions under which they live, the social 
forces which are operating upon them independently of our inter- 
vention, the motives which do in reality determine their general 
course of action. Similar over-specialization may occur in those 
forms of social work which are concerned with group interests or 
We common welfare as distinct from family case work. _ Com- 
munity organization, for example, may develop a technique in 
which selected problems are followed to their most intricate rami- 
fications in calm disregard of entire lack of interest in those prob- 
lems by any existing community of human beings. 

In either case this tendency may be fostered by excessive sensi- 
tiveness to the good opinion of those individuals who at the time 
are regarded as authorities in the field in question. An actual 
dread of general popularity, coupled with an intense desire for the 
approval of one or more "experts", a mutual admiration guild 



based on proficiency in a special form of service, an intellectual 
aristocracy which substitutes inner satisfaction for objective tests 
of social utility, are the logical outcome of an over-elaboration of 
"technique" when not controlled by the observations and criticisms 
of economists, by the dicta of common sense, by the facts of our 
common social life as plain people see and interpret them. 

A social agency, created, let us say, to care for neglected chil- 
dren, or to furnish facilities for wholesome recreation, has con- 
stantly to ask, not only, What are the most approved methods of 
child care? What rare and interesting obstacle has a playground 
leader uncovered? but also, Are children on the whole less 
neglected as a result of the activities of the agency? Is the leisure 
time of the community more profitably employed, and by what 
test of profit? Are the problems on which attention is so minutely 
concentrated the fundamental, the more urgently pressing ones? 
Case records are useful for instruction, but they may contain little 
information about the deeper needs even of those with whom they 
deal, and none at all about the needs of their neighbors. 

The Social Welfare Library will attempt to contribute to the 
interests of those who are engaged in what is broadly called 
" social work," including not only that directed toward the relief 
and rehabilitation of individuals and families but that which is 
undertaken for the community as a whole. The editor's desire 
is that the studies which appear in this library shall do something 
to supply the deficiency to which attention has been called; that 
they shall contribute to social thinking rather than to technique, 
while not undervaluing the latter; that they shall add to the gen- 
eral knowledge of the social conditions in the midst of which social 
work is done rather than re-analyze processes already sufficiently 
established; that they shall aid in a human appreciation of the 
difficulties caused by sickness, poverty, and maladjustment, rather 
than in making converts to some one way of meeting these dif- 
ficulties. 



Health 

The principal new book in the public health field, probably, is 
Sir Arthur Newsholme's Public Health and Insurance, the 
author's recent American lectures, which is just off the press 
(Johns Hopkins). The Community Health Problem is treated 
by Dr. Athel C. Burnham, of the Health Service of the American 
Red Cross (Macmillan), and the Control of Sexual Infections 
by Dr. J. Bayard Clark, whose long experience in this field was 
further widened by his service with the Medical Corps of the 
United States Army (Macmillan). Hygiene, Dental and Gen- 
eral, is the title of a book by Prof. Charles E. Turner, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His main purpose is that 
of demonstrating the relation of dental prophylaxis to general 
health (Mosby). Stephen Coleridge, the banner bearer of con- 
scientious objectors to vivisection, offers a new book on The 
Idolatry of Science (Lane). Lavinia Dock's short History of 
Nursing, a condensation of her monumental history (Putnam), 
has already appeared. Harriet Bailey, formerly assistant super- 
intendent of nurses, Johns Hopkins University, in Nursing Men- 
tal Diseases (Macmillan) summarizes the recent advancement in 
this special field on which she is at present the advisor of the 
League of Red Cross Societies at Geneva. 

Personal hygiene is represented in the fall lists principally by 
four new books, or more, on "life extension": Dr. William 
Henry Porter's Eating to Live Long (Reilly and Lee) ; Why Die 
so Young? by Dr. John B. Huber, of Fordham Medical School 
(Harper) ; Old at Forty or Young at Sixty, by Robert S. Carroll, 
medical director of Highland Hospital and author of the recent 
" Mastery of Nervousness " (Macmillan) ; Life: A Study of the 
Means of Restoring Vital Energy and Prolonging Life by Serge 
Veronoff, of the College de France, describing the recent ex- 
periments in grafting glands for the purpose of prolonging life, 
which have been so widely discussed (Dutton). A new edition 
is announced of Pyle's Manual of Personal Hygiene (Saunders). 
The Physical Vigor of Women by Edwin E. Jacobs, president of 
Ashland College (Marshall Jones), and the Shibboleths of 
Tuberculosis by Marcus Paterson, M.D., medical supervisor of 
the Brompton Hospital Sanatorium (Dutton) are intended for 
the intelligent layman. 

IS 






16 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



Education and Child Welfare 



Amherst College is celebrating its centenary next year with the 
publication of a new series of studies to be known as The 
Amherst Books. The first volume of this series, now in the 
press, The Liberal College, by President Alexander Meikle- 
john, a collection of papers and addresses on educational prob- 
lems, will be looked forward to with general interest. The 
College and New America by Jay William Hudson, The Culture 
of Ideas by Remy de Gourmont, in a new translation, and The 
Reform of Education by the Italian philosopher Giovanni 
Gentile, are other contributions to the liberal interpretation of 
higher education, announced by Harcourt, Brace and Howe. 

Teaching as a profession is the subject of The Career of an 
Elementary School Teacher by Fanny Street, secretary of the 
English Teachers' Christian Union (Oxford University Press), 
of The Teacher by F. B. Pearson, school superintendent of 
Columbus, Ohio (Vocational Series, Scribner), and of a comedy 
in three acts, $1,200 a Year, by Edna Ferber and Newman 
Levy, in which a professor gives up his pauper's respectability for 
the affluence of a millworker (Doubleday). 

Child psychology and mental measurement are treated both 
scientifically and descriptively in a number of coming books: 
How to Measure by G. M. Wilson, professor of vocational edu- 
cation of Iowa State College of Agriculture, is intended as a 
practical guide for teachers (Macmillan). Evelyn Dewey, Emily 
Child and Beardsley Ruml have compiled a manual of tests used 
in the psychological survey of the children in the public schools 
of New York city which, together with a description of the 
results of various tests, is coming out under the title: Methods 
and Results of Testing School Children (Dutton). A transla- 
tion of Paul Godin's Growth During School Age and its Appli- 
cation to Education (Badger) deals with the problems of adoles- 
cence. Feeblemindedness in Children of School Age by Dr. C. 
Paget La Page, is the result of extended practical experience 
(Longmans). In story form is Development, by W. P. Bryher, 
with an introduction by Amy Lowell, which describes the 
thoughts and impressions of a sensitive English girl who has 
travelled much with her family (Macmillan). A general survey 
of the literature of adolescence, a handbook for those who have 
not time to read the many special studies in this field, is Prof. 
Frederick Tracy's Psychology of Adolescence (Macmillan). 
The relation of Mental Development and Education is treated in 
a new book by Prof. M. V. O'Shea of the University of Wis- 
consin (Macmillan). Children's Dreams, a study by C. W. 
Kimmins, is the result of a study of the dreams of more than 
six thousand school children, both normal and abnormal (Long- 
mans). 

The effects of local, state and national legislation on our 
system of education are described by John H. Keith, principal 
of the State Normal School of Indiana, Pa., and Prof. William 
Chandler Bagley, of Teachers' College, Columbia University, in 
The Nation and the Schools (Macmillan); while Prof. F. G. 
Bonser, also of Teachers' College (and a frequent contributor 
to these pages) is bringing out a new book on The Elementary 
School Curriculum (Macmillan). The Curriculum is also the 
title of a book by Kenneth Richmond which pleads for greater 
simplicity, elasticity and unity (Dutton). " Red-blooded young 
Americans who are getting tired of school " are invited to read 
Your Biggest Job — School or Business, by Henry Louis Smith 
(Appleton). 

A collection of papers by twelve contributors on A Day Con- 
tinuation School at Work (Longmans) embodies the results of 
one of the English pioneer experiments before the Education act 
of 1918 made the schooling of juvenile workers obligatory. 



Recreation 

In Evening Play Centers for Children (Dutton) Mrs. G. M. 
Trevelyan gives a sketch of the movement started in 1897 by 
Mrs. Humphry Ward at the Passmore Edwards Settlement 
London, and practical details of the methods employed. G. 
Sherman Ripley, a boy scout executive and camp director, has 
written a book on Games for Boys (Holt) which may fill a gap 
in the literature of recreation of which there has been consider- 
able complaint. In Roads to Childhood (Doran), Annie Carroll 
Moore, the well known head of the children's department in the 



New York Public Library, discusses the whole subject of. 
reading for children. Among many new books for children, one 
may single out as of special social interest a new collection o: 
short stories intended to picture American life, by many wel 
known authors to be published under the name of Americans Al 
(Harcourt). 

The new interest in the movement to broaden musical apprecia 
tion is producing two more authoritative books: The Needs o 
Popular Musical Education by Sir W. Henry Hadow, with 
preface by the Rt. Hon. H. A. L. Fisher (Oxford), and Wha 
Music Can Do for You by Harriet A. Seymour, head of th 
Seymour School of Musical Reeducation, New York (Harper) J 
The last named contains chapters also on the ethical and 
therapeutic value of music A Manual of Gymnastic Dancing '[ 
by S. C. Staley and D. M. Lowery (Association Press) gives 
detailed, illustrated and graded specimen dances and discussed 
the subject in relation to recreation and personal aesthetics. 

Industry 

The end of new books on the industrial unrest is not yet in 
sight. Labor and Revolt by Stanley Frost (Dutton) is a dis- 
cussion of what the author describes as the " Red program." 
The recent debate between Governor Henry J. Allen and Samuel 
Gompers at Carnegie Hall on the Kansas plan is perpetuated 
(Dutton). For the general reader, the most important contri- 
bution on this theme is undoubtedly Whiting Williams' What's 
on the Worker's Mind (Scribner), sections of which have already 
appeared in various periodicals. Mr. Williams, it will be 
remembered, at the beginning of this year worked as a laborer 
in railroad yards, iron mines and shipyards and kept a careful 
diary of what he learned. Labor's Crisis by Sigmund Mendel- 
sohn (Macmillan) discusses profit sharing and other devices to 
stabilize labor. The Workers At War by Frank J. Warne 
(Century); Men and Steel by Mary Heaton Vorse (Boni), 
which gives the results of a first hand study of the steel strike; 
Samuel Crowther's Why Men Strike (Doubleday) ; Ray Stan- 
nard Baker's The New Industrial Unrest (same), all deal with 
the biggest immediate social issue. 

Methods of Industrial Management are discussed in Carter L. 
Goodrich's The Frontier of Control: A Study of British Work- 
shop Politics, which is introduced by R. H. Tawney and has been 
warmly recommended to Survey readers by Arthur Gleason, who 
has seen some of it in proof (Harcourt), and also in a little 
reprint from the Trade Supplement of the London Times of Ten 
Minute Talks with Workers (Doubleday). The most impor- 
tant new book in this field, just out, is Personnel Administration 
by Ordway Tead and Henry C. Metcalf ( McGraw-Hill ).< 

Trade Unionism and Labor Problems, Second Series, by Tohn 
R. Commons (Ginn) brings up to date his selection of impepoknt 
contributions on this subject. A completely revised andjke>et 
edition of Commons' and Andrews' Principles of Labor I bis- 
lation is announced by Harper's. j- ei 

Labor as an International Problem, edited by E. John Si^uino 
(Macmillan) and International Labor Legislation by f ei ao 
Frederick Ayusawa (Longmans) are of timely interest in =w 
of the beginnings of labor legislation by the League of Natiins. 

Two announcements concern woman in industry: Careers i : or 
Women by Catherine Filene, director of the Intercollegiate Vo- 
cational Guidance Association (Houghton Mifflin); and Frances 
Donovan's study of women employed in restaurants, The Wonian 
Who Waits (Badger), a chatty book the material for which was 
obtained by the author as a waitress in many kinds of eating 
places. Only one new book deals with Junior Wage Earners, a 
study by that name made by Anna Y. Reed, assistant to the di- 
rector general, United States Employment Service (Macmillan). 
Among other aspects it deals with the knotty problem of the 
division of responsibilities between school and public employment 
bureau. 

Among the most important new historical studies of industry 
are The Early English Cotton Industry by George W. Daniels, 
of the University of Manchester (Longmans) ; The Position of 
the Laborer in a System of Nationalism by Edgar S. Furniss, 
Hart, Schaffner and Marx Prize Essay, discussing the labor 
problem of England from 1660 to 1775 (Houghton) ; and C. R. 
Fay's Life and Labour in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge). 
Ellen Louise Osgood, coordinator of the Julia Richmond High 
School, New York, has prepared a History of Industry for high 
school use (Ginn). 



P 



:n 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



17 



Americanization 

\ No intelligent student of present day conditions in the United 
States can afford to neglect the Americanization Studies made 
under the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation which their 
djirector, Allen T. Burns, describes on another page. From an 
announcement by the publishers (Harpers) we note that the 
first volume to be issued is The Schooling of the Immigrant by 
Frank V. Thompson, superintendent of schools, Boston. The 
readers of the Survey will be advised when the other volumes 
are about to appear. A revised edition is announced of John R. 
Commons' Races and Immigrants in America (Macmillan). 
Democracy and Assimilation: The Blending of Immigrant 
Heritages in America, might almost be the title of the Carnegie 
studies, but is that of a book by Julius Drachsler who attempts 
an original analysis of the outstanding facts concerning our 
various immigrant groups (Macmillan). The Problems of 
Americanization by Peter Roberts, secretary of the International 
Committee of the Y.M.C.A., will attract many who know of his 
remarkable practical success as an Americanizer (Macmillan). 

The fifth volume of The Polish Peasant in Europe and 
America by William I. Thomas (Badger) deals with the Polish 
immigrant in America and points to the causes of failure in his 
assimilation. 

Of new text books for immigrants only one is announced: 
Rfi<W and Guide for New Americans by A. W. Castle, of the 
Division of Immigrant Education of the University of the State 
of New York (Macmillan). 

Fiction is a favorite means of interpreting our different racial 
groups to each other: Sholom Ash, the Jewish poet, in Uncle 
Moses (Dutton) gives another intimate story of life on the East 
Side of New York. Hungry Hearts by Anzia Yezierska 
(Houghton Mifflin) is a series of short stories illustrating phases 
of the yearning of millions of new Americans for opportunity 
and spiritual freedom. 

Americans by Adoption by Joseph Husband (Atlantic), The 
Story of America by Alberto Pecorini (Marshall Jones) and 
Neighboring New Americans by Mary Clark Barnes (Revell) 
will be reviewed in an early issue of the Survey. 



Civics 

Morris Knowles' Industrial Housing is, perhaps, the most 
timely of announced books on applied civics. The author is 
y*ll known to Survey readers, and his book covers everything 
#^ c om selection of site to management of industrial towns 
McGraw-Hill). Forests, Woods and Trees in Relation to 
leHygiene, by Prof. Augustine Henry, Dublin (Dutton), and 
^■'Chapters in Rural Progress by Kenyon Butterfield (Macmillan) 
W° are the only other books in this field of a distinctly practical 
J v nature. 

In a presidential year, political treatises must be expected to 
predominate. Rededicating America, the Life and Speeches of 
Warren G. Harding, and The Progressive Democracy of James 
Cox are both announced by the Bobbs-Merrill Co. which, of 
course, vouches for the absolute accuracy of everything these 
two volumes contain. Freedom of Speech by Prof. Zechariah 
Chafee, Jr. (Harcourt), in comparison, is what castor oil is 
afier too much pudding. For those who want to know some- 
thing about current issues, Moorfield Story has written a book 
on Problems of Today (Houghton Mifflin), and Morris Edmund 
Speare and Walter Blake Norris a book of selections from con- 
temporary prose discussing important questions of the hour: 
Vital Forces in Current Events (Ginn). 

Jailed for Freedom, by Doris Stevens, the suffragist (Boni), is 
a somewhat personal recital of the struggle so happily ended. 
Dynamic Americanism by Arnold B. Hall, of the University of 
Wisconsin (Bobbs-Merrill) also deals with current problems, 
which are presented in systematic handbook form by Augustus 
Lynch Mason in Guiding Principles for American Voters (Bobbs- 
Merrill). Democracy and Ideals by John Erskine, who was 
chairman of the Army Educational Commission of the A. E. F. 
(Doran) ; The United States: An Experiment in Democracy by 
Prof. Carl Becker, of Cornell (Harper) are also worth noting. 

With its seventh volume, A Community Recreation Program, 
the report of the Cleveland Recreation Survey (Cleveland 
Foundation) comes to an end. It is the biggest undertaking of 
the kind and will shortly be reviewed as a whole. 



1 



Government and Politics 

Perhaps the only epoch making contribution to this subject is 
Walter Rathenau's The New Society (Harcourt), already re- 
viewed in the Survey from the original German edition. 

More entertaining, probably, will be Arthur James Balfour's 
Essays, Speculative and Political, including his speeches on Irish 
nationality and home rule (Doran). Surprises are in store in 
two books announced by Macmillan: a two-volume work on 
Democracy by Viscount Bryce, and The Breach in Civilization, a 
discussion of the schism in modern civilization, by Herbert Croly, 
editor of the New Republic. 

American political institutions are discussed by B. K. Long in 
The Framework of Union — a comparison of our own with other 
federal constitutions (Oxford) ; American Political Ideas by 
Prof. Charles E. Merriam (Macmillan); Political Systems in 
Transition by C. C. Fenwick (Century), and ex-Senator Petti- 
grew's The Course of Empire (Boni). The Non-Partisan 
League is newly described in a book under that name by Andrew 
A. Bruce, of the University of Minnesota (Macmillan Citizen's 
Library Series) ; and in The Despoilers, stories of the North 
Dakota Grain Fields by Edmund Buttree (Christopher). 
George Creel is going to tell How We Advertized America — 
the story of the Public Information Bureau (Harper); and 
Raymond B. Fosdick is credited with a new book on American 
Police Systems — though we fail to see when in these hectic 
times he can have found time for so important a study (Century). 
A new book on Nationality by Sidney Herbert, the Welsh student 
of current history, is announced by Dutton. 

Economics 

The Acquisitive Society by R. H. Tawney (Harcourt) is said 
to be a book of considerable originality by those who have seen 
the English edition. It outlines a new principle of economic 
function which must take the place of property right as the 
guiding principle if our social structure is not to founder on the 
rocks of wastefulness and class struggle. Profits, Wages and 
Prices, by Prof. David Friday, of the University of Michigan, 
deals with the present problem of high cost of living and ends 
with a chapter on the all-important question: How Can Real 
Wages Be Raised? (Harcourt). 

Of new textbooks there are quite a number. We note one on 
Elementary Economics by Prof. Thomas Nixon Carver, of 
Harvard, which is meant for high schools and bears, the pub- 
lishers tell us, on improved citizenship (Ginn). Economics for 
Today, by Alfred Milnes, also is advertized as somewhat ele- 
mentary (Dutton). Economics by James Cunnison, director of 
the Glasgow School of Social Study and Training, avoids the 
technical and is written for the general reader (Dutton). 
Wealth: Its Production and Distribution, by Prof. A. W. 
Kirkaldy (Dutton) also is a book for the layman or student. 
Modern Economic Tendencies by Sidney E. Reeve (Dutton) is 
an economic history of America. Frederic C. Howe, in a new 
book on Industrial Democracy and the Political State (Huebsch) 
lays bare the effects of economic privilege on our political and 
social life and discusses means of attaining to freedom from its 
controlling influence. 

Socialism 

A number of quite important contributions are just off the 
press or announced and may, it is to be hoped, help to dispel the 
appalling ignorance on this subject which prevails among as- 
sumedly educated Americans for whom everything is uniformly 
" red " that does not fall within the accepted political and 
economic programs of " our Fathers." J. Bruce Glasier's Mean- 
ing of Socialism (Seltzer) represents the current understanding 
of the subject by the rank and file of the British Independent Labor 
Party. Edward R. Pease, former secretary of the Fabian Society, 
has revised and brought up to date Thomas Kirkup's Primer of 
Socialism, a brief book putting facts tersely (Black). Hartley 
Withers' The Case for Capitalism (Dutton) inspires respect 
because the author is one of England's recognized liberal financial 
authorities and not a ranter. H. M. Hyndman's Evolution of 
Revolution (Boni) is a history of communism seen through the 
eyes of a man temperamentally always on the minority side. A 
Constitution for the Socialist Commonwealth of Great Britain 
by Sidney and Beatrice Webb (Longmans) is an attempt to 






MMM 



18 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



synthesize the somewhat scattered programs of British socialists 
on the various outstanding problems of government and ad- 
ministration. These Things Shall Be by George Lansbury, 
already reviewed in the Survey, is now included in B. W. 
Huebsch's pamphlet library which also announces An Analysis 
of the Purposes and Conceptions of Socialism by Max Hirsch. 
The Social Interpretation of History by Maurice William (pub- 
lished by the author) is an attempted refutation of the Marxian 
economic interpretation of history. E. S. P. Hayes, author of 
The Decline of Liberty in England, has brought out a small book 
on The Case for Liberty (Dutton), which out-Bellocs Belloc in 
attacks on the " servile state " of the socialists. 



Sociology 



A number of forthcoming books have already been mentioned 
which might be included in this section; a few of the more general 
and theoretical books, however, fall into no other classification. 
Among these we note an announcement by the University of 
Chicago Press of a volume in preparation by Robert E. Park 
and Ernest W. Burgess, consisting of readings selected to define 
and illustrate the concepts and principles of sociology; this is 
sure to be a valuable contribution. This house, by the way, also 
announces for early publication the proceedings of the National 
Conference of Social Work and those of the American Sociologi- 
cal Society, for 1920. Prof. Samuel Grove Dow, of Baylor 
University, well known to Survey readers, has just got out an 
Introduction to the Principles of Sociology (Baylor Un. Press). 
Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Columbia University, has in the 
press a volume of Studies in the Theory of Human Society, 
ranging from the struggle for human existence to mass psychology 
(Macmillan). Dr. Inge's Romanes Lecture on The Idea of 
Progress (Oxford) confutes the author's reputation as "the 
gloomy dean." Sociology, Its Development and Application, by 
James W. Dealey, of Brown University (Appleton), is described 
as a practical survey of sociology. The same publisher an- 
nounces a study of Sociology as Ethics by Edward Cary Hayes, of 
the University of Illinois. 

Specialized contributions are Prof. A. A. Goldenweiser's The 
Ground Work of Civilization (Knopf) which, to judge from the 
announcement, will make available to the reader his remarkably 
successful exposition, as a lecturer, of the relation of present 
social problems to the known facts about primitive men and 
their evolution. Problems of Population and Parenthood, second 
report and chief evidence taken by the National Birthrate Com- 
mission of Great Britain (Dutton) opens up for discussion the 
whole problem of racial deterioration which has been made so 
vital by the war. Feminism and Sex-Extinction by Arabella 
Kenealy (Dutton) takes the position that the elimination of 
sexual differentiation from many social functions is bound to 
result in racial injury. The discussion is on a scientific level but 
not without direct relevance to issues of immediate concern. 
Readings in Rural Sociology, by Prof. John Phelan, of Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College (Macmillan), covers familiar 
ground, but comprehensively and systematically. 



Religion and Ethics 



The trend of the religious press toward the discussion of 
social questions continues. Most clearly is this exhibited in the 
Problem Discussion Series of the Association Press which is 
divided into World Problem Studies, Life Problem Bible Studies 
and American Problem Studies. In each of these fields original 
contributions emphasizing the modern responsibilities of the 
Christian citizen have either just been published or are under 
way. This press also is to be commended for making available 
to a wide circle of readers in handy form the reports of the 
Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook. The 
volume on The Missionary Outlook has just been published; 
another one on industrial reconstruction is promised for an early 
date. 

The Macmillan Company has an even larger list of important 
new books which illustrate the tendency named. Father John A. 
Ryan, author of The Church and Socialism, has compiled a 
volume on Social Reconstruction, from lectures given at Fordham 
University and, with Joseph Husslein, S. J., is editing a collection 
«of Catholic documents on the relation of The Church and Labor 



— announced as the first volume of a series. Roger W. Babs< 
has expanded into a book his talks on Religion and Business whi 
have given rise to so much discussion and criticism. Rev. Willi* 
T. Manning, rector of Trinity Church, New York city, in T 
Call to Unity, supports a moderate view on social and 
economic questions which those who know only his intemperate 
sermons on the " red " danger would not expect. Prof. George 
Burman Foster's Christianity in Its Modern Expression deals 
with the changing expression of Christian fundamentals. A 
Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, edited by Shailer Mathews 
and Gerald Birney Smith, is announced as " the first dictionary to 
set forth in one volume for popular use our present knowledge " 
in this field. Owen A. Hill, S. J., in Ethics, General and 
Special, presents the Catholic position on such matters as the 
labor problem, marriage and divorce. Shall We Stand By the 
Church? by Prof. Durant Drake, of Vassar College, is described 
as an impartial inquiry. Bishop Francis J. McConnell, in The 
Church and Its Property, tackles the kernel of that problem, as 
many people see it, namely the relation of church members to 
employment of labor, profit-making, investment, philanthropy, etc. 

The English edition of Religion and the New Psychology by 
Rev. Walyer S. Swisher (Marshall Jones) was immediately sold. 
Community Programs for Cooperating Churches (Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches) is the report of the Church and Community 
Convention held at Cleveland in May, and is full of incisive dis- 
cussion on the problems of the local church. The Pilgrim, a new 
magazine, though started by leaders of the Established Church, 
has among its announced contributors many prominent thinkers 
of other denominations and of no denomination at all. Its 
editor, Canon William Temple, founder of the Workers' Educa- 
tional Association, is one of the greatest and most saintly men 
modern England has produced. 



Social Psychology 



Freud's psycho-analytical discoveries are being carried into 
ever widening fields of study and have given occasion to import- 
ant re-statements of general psychological facts. Mysticism, 
Freudianism and Scientific Psychology, by Prof. Knight Dunlap 
(Mosby) relates the theories of Freud to mystical psychology: 
Andre Tridon, author of Psychoanalysis, is issuing a new book 
on Psychoanalysis and Behavior (Knopf) in which the investiga- 
tions of Jung, Adler and Kempf, as well as those of Freud, are 
examined. Axel J. Uppvall has performed an obviously interest- 
ing psycho-analytical operation on Strindberg, with special refer- 
ence to the Oedipus complex (Badger). Dr. Gustave Geley's 
From the Unconscious to the Conscious (L'Etre Subconscient) is 
announced as an important contribution to the study of hypnotism, 
spiritualism and the subconscious mind in relation to psycho- 
analysis (Harper). A. G Tansley's New Psychology and its 
Relation to Life, just received, attempts a new analysis of the 
working of the mind (Dodd, Mead). The Secret Spring, by 
Harvey O'Higgins, is a more popular and non-technical exposition 
of psychoanalysis. 

Professor Bogardus' Essentials of Social Psychology (Un. of 
Southern California Press) is re-issued in a new and enlarged 
edition. In The Foundations of Social Science, James Mickel 
Williams shows how the social sciences, politics, economics and 
sociology, rest upon psychology as their indispensable basis 
(Knopf). The Psychology of Social Reconstruction by George 
White Patrick (Houghton Mifflin) is a psychologist's defense of 
the existing social structure and of — beer. Everett Dean Martin, 
the popular Cooper Union lecturer, is bringing out a book on The 
Behavior of Crowds in which he examines, more especially, the 
mass mind as it has manifested itself in America during and 
since the war. Social Conscience by Asam Abet (Coop. Pub- 
lishing Co.) seems to be a somewhat rambling disquisition (in 
story and verse as well as straight-forward discussion). 

Among special studies, mention should be made of Dr. 
Katherine B. Davis' Study of Women Delinquents in New York 
State (Century). The author is one of our leading criminolo- 
gists — if that term be still permissible now that crime has so 
largely been reduced to psychopathic elements — and has been 
helped in this book by a number of other trained investigators. 
Thought and Expression in the Sixteenth Century by Henry 
Osborn Taylor (Macmillan) follows that author's Mediaeval 
Mind and, in two volumes, gives a scholarly survey of the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



19 



psychology of the Renaissance. Much of the literature on edu- 
cation in appreciation of art is superficial; Herbert S. Langfeld's 
The Aesthetic Attitude (Harcourt) discusses the fundamental 
distinctions between aesthetic and other forms of pleasure. 

American Concerns Abroad 

Limitations of space only permit us to mention a very few of 
the large number of coming books on foreign politics and social 
conditions abroad. 

The " acid test " is rapidly developing into a gas test, if one 
compares the amount of American effort to help Russia in her 
present distress with the literature on her predicament that is 
pouring from the presses. John Spargo's fourth book about 
Russia (or is it the twelfth?), The Greatest Failure in All 
History, is announced by Harper. The Bolshevik Theory by R. 
W. Postgate (Dodd) goes into the history of the Marxian 
doctrine and attempts to show how it developed into the present 
communist and bolshevik theory. Ambassador Francis intro- 
duces Andrew Kalpaschnikoff who relates, in A Prisoner of 
Trotsky's, what happened to him in the fortress of St. Peter and 
St. Paul (Doubleday). The author was recently laid out by 
William Hard in the New Republic. George Lansbury's What 
I Saw in Russia (Boni) is an unpretentious traveller's tale. He 
tells of the effects of the Allied blockade. The New World by 
Frank Comerford (Appleton) is announced as " a study of the 
Bolshevik menace." We have not yet been able to review, and 
may therefore mention here, several titles published during the 
summer: The Russian Republic by Col. Cecil L'Estrange M alone 
(Harcourt) ; Bolshevism at Work by William T. Good, the 
Manchester Guardian correspondent (Harcourt) ; The Russian 
Peasant and the Revolution by Maurice G. Hindus (Holt); 
Sovietism; The ABC of Russian Bolshevism according to the 
Bolshevists, by William English Walling (Dutton) ; The Descent 
of Bolshevism by Ameen Rihani (Stratford) ; Facts and Fabrica- 
tions about Soviet Russia by Evans Clark (Rand School). 

Is Mexico Worth Saving by George Agnew Chamberlain, 
consul-general at Mexico City, 1917-1919 (Bobbs-Merrill) ; The 
Public Finances of Mexico by Walter F. McCaleb (Harper), 
and Intimate Pages of Mexican History by Mrs. Nelson 
O'Shaughnessy (Doran) give a background of knowledge to the 
understanding of the most recent changes in the house of our 
neighbor. Interest in the Far East is represented by Japan's 
Foreign Policies by A. M. Pooley (Dodd), and A. S. Roe's 
Chance and Change in China (Doran). Turkey has almost 
been forgotten since the armistice. Talcott Williams, the emi- 
nent journalist, who was born and brought up in that empire, is 
reading proofs of Turkey — A World Problem of Today (Double- 
day) ; and Lord Eversley is getting out a new and revised edition 
of his The Turkish Empire: Its Growth and Decay (Dodd). 
Under the Turk in Constantinople by C. F. Abbott (Macmillan) 
is another English importation. 

The American Academy of Political and Social Science has 
had the enterprise of commissioning Robert W. Balderston, who 
was for several months in Germany with the Friends' Service 
Committee, to collect a representative symposium of articles on 
present industrial conditions in that country. This volume of 
the Annals, partly written by Germans and partly by American 
students in Germany, will appear in November. 

Africa, Slave or Free, by J. H. Harris (Dutton), has 



HOW WILL YOU VOTE? 

Will you let the old parties fool you again? 

There is a Third Party in the field. Wage- 
eavners, farmers, Forty-Eighters and social 
workers combined to form it. 

Surely ycu will not cast your ballot before 
reading the Third Party platform. A f>-ee copy 
will be sent ou application. 

Send a postal card- today! 
FARMER-LABOR PARTY 

166 West Washington St., Chicago, HI. 



attracted much attention in England. The author is the secre- 
tary of the Anti-Slavery and Aborigines Protection Society; and 
the book is introduced by Sir Sydney Olivier, former governor of 
Jamaica, whose own contribution to the race question, a number 
of years ago, revolutionized English administration in the West 
Indies. 

Brief mention should be made of the South American Series 
(Scribner) with its authoritative volumes on the various re- 
publics; the new volumes announced are Spanish America, Its 
Romance, Reality and Future, by C. R. Enock, and Men, Man- 
ners and Morals in South America by J. O. P. Bland. 

Of American war relief work the stream of narratives is 
ebbing out; The Red Cross in Italy by Charles M. Bakewell; 
The Passing Legion — How the American Red Cross met the 
American Army in Great Britain, by George Buchanan Fife; the 
American Red Cross in France by Fisher Ames Jr. (all Macmil- 
lan) tell us what we have done; and Arthur Sweetser, in The 
League of Nations at Work (Macmillan), what we are out of. 



Biography 



The most inspiring book for social workers during the past 
year has been the Life of the Late Canon Barnett by his widow; 
let us see what the new biographies have especially in store for 
us. Comrades in our task of social reform are portrayed in 
The Life of Lord Courtney by G. P. Gooch (Macmillan) and 
Stephen Paget' s Sir Victor Horsley; A Study of his Life and 
Work (Harcourt); The Making of Herbert Hoover by Rose 
Wilder Lane (Century) ; Margaret Fuller: A Psychological Bio- 
graphy, by Katharine Anthony (Harcourt); My Years of Exile 
by Eduard Bernstein, the German socialist leader (Harcourt); 
The Life and Letters of Hamilton Wright Mabie by Edwin W. 
Morse (Dodd). 

Among representative Americans in the new gallery are The 
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (Houghton); Accepting the 
Universe by John Burroughs (Houghton) ; and John Burroughs, 
Boy and Man, by Clara Barrus, M.D. (Doubleday) ; George 
Taylor Winston's A Builder of the New South — Daniel Augustus 
Tompkins (Doubleday) ; new books on Poe, Emerson, Riley 
(Bobbs-Merrill) and Mark Twain (Harper). 

Among other lives of special interest are Herbert Adams Gib- 
bons' Venizelos (Houghton) and William H. Mallock's Memoirs 
of Life and Literature (Harper). Francis G. Peabody is telling 
the story of his parents in A New England Romance (Hough- 
ton) ; and of course, everybody will want to read the Letters of 
William James (Atlantic) of which such charming examples 
have been given in the Atlantic Monthly. 

The Social Factor in Fiction 

Here are merely a few suggestions for the reader of fiction 
who prefers folks to duchesses and real live modern conflicts to 
the introspection of diseased aesthetes: Poor White by Sherwood 
Anderson (Huebsch) is the story of a human "misfit" in which 
it is not at all certain whether the modern industrial society in 
which he moves is not the misfit and he the real thing. The 
Golden Book of Springfield by Vachel Lindsay (Macmillan) 
shows that "village" in the year 2018. Free Soil by Margaret 
Lynn (Macmillan) involves a struggle for land in Kansas. 
Blind by Ernest Poole (Macmillan) is advertised as " a story 
of these times." 



Rupert Blue 



The Mayor of Paris 

conferred a silver medal on Frances 
Stern for her social service in the 
19th ward, where she substantially re- 
duced the death rate. " Food for the 
Worker," by Stern and Spitz, will help 
any social worker toward such ac- 
complishment. One dollar at any book 
store or from the publishers. 
WHITCOMB & BARROWS Boston 



Surgeon-General, U. S. Army, says: 

" Dr. Stokes' work is a splendid presentation of 
the subject, and a book which should be in the 
hands of all workers who are participating in the 
fight against the scourge of syphilis." 

The author is DR. JOHN H. STOKES, 
of The Mayo Clinic 

At Bookstores or 




$2.50 



W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY, Philadelphia 



20 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



SOCIAL STUDIES 




Conducted by 
JOSEPH K. HART 



WE do endless amounts of reading about social and 
economic problems — the general public, social workers, 
teachers and statesmen alike: how much substantial 
thinking is done? We are saying that the future of civiliza- 
tion will be determined by a social intelligence which shall 
recognize the values in both our traditions of the past and our 
hot-blooded impulses for the future but shall call both to ac- 
count in the interest of democracy. Such social intelligence, 
however, is not synonymous with knowledge. Endless read- 
ing will not give us what we need. We must have individual 
reaction to problems and conditions — reactions which are 
personal, critical, appreciative. 

In addition, therefore, to the regular contributions to the 
field of social knowledge that have marked its work in the 
past, the Survey will now carry at least through the regular 
school year, a column of Social Studies, planned to be of ser- 
vice to individual students and to groups and classes in colleges, 
training schools and normal schools. In this column the effort 
will be made to break up by means of questions, subjects of 
current social interest into their challenging and vital aspects, 
and then to furnish such references as will facilitate further 
research. The studies will appear in each issue, and an effort 
will be made to present the sociological and the economic 
aspects alternately. 



WORLD PROBLEMS AND AMERICA 

{Based on John Love joy Elliott's article, page 35, this issue) 

IWhat is the real basis for America's interest in social 
• and economic developments in Europe? 

a. What were the roots of America's sympathy for starving 
Europe during the war? Why has that sympathy so largely 
subsided ? 

b. What are the various attitudes in this country toward the 
present distress of Austria? Can any one of these be called " the 
American attitude " ? What can be done to make America under- 
stand the fate of Central Europe and its ominousness? 

c. What are the limitations of present relief work in Austria? 

d. Merely in her own interest, can America afford to pass 
by these questions of international suffering? Will she be 
unaffected by the development of more racial hatreds and jeal- 
ousies, of more bitter economic competitions? By the financial 
and trade status of the struggling nations? By the experiments 
of European labor? In what ways will these affect America? 
How rapidly? What can be done to build a wise policy of inter- 
national economic relationships? 

2 The first need of Europe is a return to a self-supporting 
• basis. What is preventing this? What part is 
played by: 

a. Change of sovereignty over raw materials (e.g. coal) ? 

b. Disorganization of transportation due to actual war losses? 
Due to labor disturbances? 

c. Experimentation in " soviet," " communal " or " coopera- 
tive " organization of industries? 

d. Strikes and lock-outs in labor disputes? 

e. Lack of materials through the interruption of trade rela- 
tions by economic blockades, prohibitive rates of exchange, etc.? 

f. Disorganized currency and unwise methods of public 
finance ? 

g. Exhaustion of the people physically and psychologically? 



3 The second need of Europe is to establish a new, intel- 
• ligent and adequate network of financial and trade 
relations. 

a. Is it advantageous to any group or nation to have Central 
Europe so completely paralyzed? 

b. Is it possible that private efforts to rebuild private enter- 
prises will not solve the economic complications? E.g. " Banks 
should not be permitted to seek a maximum profit with a mini- 
mum of effort in utter disregard of national sentiments." Is 
this a reasonable statement? (Compare our American housing 
crisis, in which much blame is laid upon the banks for refusing 
building loans and favoring speculative investments.) 

c. Is there a sound basis in political economy for the sugges- 
tion that the nations must work out an international Bill of 
Rights in regard to their economic relationships? Can a sound 
economic structure exist while one nation can refuse supplies 
from its natural resources to other nations in dire need? Does 
such a suggestion involve the breakdown of the principle of 
private property or of the principle of national monopoly in the 
essential raw materials of production? 

d. What will be the steps in stabilizing the currency of the 
various European nations? How long is it likely to take? Is 
the premium on American exchange an advantage or a dis- 
advantage to the United States? Financially? Commercially? 
Politically? 

e. In twenty years, when the starved children of Austria 
come to maturity, what will be the attitude of that nation: toward 
its economic competitors? toward its internal economic organiza- 
tion? Will it be enterprising or traditional, daring or cautious, 
suspicious and egotistical or friendly, constructive or crumbling? 
How will these attitudes affect the United States? 
References: 

Elisha M. Friedman: Labor and Reconstruction in Europe. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 216 pp. $2.50; postpaid $2.60. 

Lane: The Peace Treaty and the Economic Chaos of Europe. 
Swarthmore Press, London. 143 pp. 

Homer Folks: The Human Cost of War. Harper & Bros. 
326 pp. Price $2.25; postpaid $2.50. 

F. A. Vanderlip: What Happened to Europe. Macmillan. 
188 pp. Price $1.50; postpaid $1.65. 

Buxton, C. R. and Dorothy F.: The World After the War. 
Frederick A. Stokes & Co. 155 pp. Price $2.50; postpaid $2.70. 

W. S. Culbertson: Commercial Policy in War Time and After. 
D. Appleton & Co. 478 pp. Price $2.50; postpaid $2.70. 

Keynes: Economic Consequences of the Peace. Harcourt, 
Brace & Howe. Price $2.50; postpaid $2.75. 

Garvan: The Economic Foundations of Peace. Macmillan. 
580 pp. Price $3.25; postpaid $3.50. 
. The Survey: Aug. 16, pp. 610, 620, 644; Feb. 7, p. 513. 



The above books may be obtained through the Survey Book Department. 



The SURVEY in the CLASSROOM 

CPECIAL PRICES for classroom use have been 
^set at substantial reductions from the regular sub- 
scription price of $5 per year. Five or more sub- 
scriptions sent in at one time may be had at the 
following rates: 



Full year, $3.25 
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School year (9 mos.), $3.00 
Three months, $1.00 



For any term not included in the above and not less 
than three months, 35 cents per month 

In bundles sent to one address, 10 cents per copy 

A new volume of the Survey opens with this issue. 
Subscriptions dated to begin with it will give the 
subscriber an unbroken file. 

112Eastl9St. THE SURVEY New York 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



21 



BOOK REVIETVS 



THE MODERN SPECIALIST IN UNREST 

Engineering Foundation. 18 pp. Paper. Price $0.25; by 
mail of the Survey $0.35. 

This article is the third in a series of three papers by Dr. 
Southard, the author of Mental Hygiene in Industry, the first 
being The Movement for a Mental Hygiene of Industry (Mental 
Hygiene, Jan., 1920), in which he states, " the issues for the non- 
medical readers, especially for those advanced engineer employ- 
ment managers, and other industrialists who see more in industry 
than either its 'efficiency' aspect narrowly taken, or its 'welfare' 
aspect narrowly taken." The second paper deals with Trade 
Unionism and Temperament; Notes on the Psychiatric Point 
of View in Industry (Mental Hygiene, April, 1920). 

In this, the third paper of the series, the author appeals to the 
psychiatrists themselves to take an interest in the " new com- 
munity function of the psychiatrist," i.e., the relationship of 
psychiatry to industry. He stresses the value of the psychiatric 
social worker in public (hospital and medico-legal cases) and 
private practice in mental diseases, and also in what he terms 
social practice, the field lying between private and public practice. 
In discussing the position of the psychologist vs. the phychiatrist 
and the old argument as to whether a problem should be con- 
sidered as educational or medical, the author concludes that the 
two, psychologist and psychiatrist, can work together without 
friction and with benefit to all concerned, under the head of 
mental hygiene. As an example he cites the work of Professor 
Yerkes, psychologist, with the psychiatrists at the Psychopathic 
Hospital. 

In planning for a mental hygiene department in an industrial 
plant, Dr. Southard has what he calls a " working party " made 
up of a psychologist, phychiatrist, and psychiatric social worker 
(plus a skilled statistician when possible). Such working parties 
are already found in advanced juvenile courts, and it is the 
belief of the author that industry is the nearest problem of 
mental hygiene today in view of the so-called industrial unrest, 
" a problem met apparently with not too great intelligence if we 
can judge by the nullities and silent dispersal of certain national 
industrial conferences in our country." 

Such a mental hygiene working party is not for the purpose of 
supplanting the personnel manager or any executive of the plant, 
and its investigation would probably be occasional rather than 
permanent. Dr. Southard believes, however, that as soon as the 
value of group and individual mental tests for the elimination of 
the unfit is recognized, the psychologist will become a permanent 
factor and his work will be, not merely the elimination of the 
individual from a certain plant, but a contribution to the problem 
of promotion upon the lines of vocational psychology. The 
psychiatrist will serve as a consultant — except in very large 
plants — will be in close touch with the psychologist and social 
worker, will have their records at his disposal, and his function 
will be preventive rather than curative of the general conditions 
Df unrest. The social worker may also well become a permanent 
lement in the plant, though her work will be done in the com- 
munity, especially among the families of those industrially 
"sabled in, or even of those discharged from the plant. 

It is chiefly with the grievances that come to the attention of 
ae employment manager that the psychiatrist will find his work, 
uch as cases of removal from the payroll because of dishonesty, 
ndifference, resentment of supervision, or of criticism, etc. 
' Where do all these grudge-bearers, agitators, drinkers, fighters, 
ad lazy persons go? We may well talk of the solution of such 
roblems as a duty to the community; but it should not be long 
efore industrial plants themselves recognize the efficiency and 
elfare virtues of attending as strictly to their human outgo as 
their human intake." 
^Then follows a summary of the findings of the British Royal 
Commission on Industrial Unrest for 1917, showing the nature 
of the commission's work. Says Dr. Southard, " The com- 
mission speaks of psychological conditions and remarks that the 
great majority of the cases of industrial unrest specified in the 
!) district reports have their root in certain psychological con- 
ditions." The psychiatrists and medical men in general must feel 
that the blanket term, psychological conditions, covers a good 
many psychiatric difficulties. Thus, whoever follows the strong 




WOMEN AT THE POLLS 



To know the value of your vote read the 
following books: 

A WOMAN'S POINT OF VIEW: 
Some Roads to Peace 

by Harriot Stanton Blotch 

A record of facts with constructive conclusion and a 
strong program for progress by one of America's fore- 
most thinking women. The New York Tribune has 
said of it, " ' A Woman's Point of View ' is informed 
with so strong a conviction and so keen an intelligence 
that it is likely to make its own way even against the 
common weariness." Price, $1.25. 

THE YOUNG WOMAN CITIZEN 

by Mary Austin 

Thinking men as well as women will welcome a book 
which sets forth trustworthy guideposts for a working 
philosophy of citizenship. It is a brilliantly written 
discussion for all world citizens of the responsibilities 
that are assumed with the right to vote, together with 
comprehensive survey of the development of the citizen 
from the age of the savage tribe to the present era. 
Price, paper $1.00; cloth $1.75. . 

Citizenship Pamphlets 

A SPUR TO THE RELUCTANT 

VOTER 

by R. D. Leigh 

An answer to the often repeated objection that vot- 
ing is not a woman's responsibility. Price, $.20. 

MORE THAN THE VOTE 

by R. D. Leigh 

This deals with the question of the woman and her 
community and shows the increased power given to the 
vote through community action. Leaders in women's 
clubs and community workers will find this material 
valuable. Price $.20. 

TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 

by L. C. Staples 

A pamphlet written for leaders who are interested 
in promoting a more intelligent citizenship among 
young people. It analyzes the background and knowl- 
edge necessary for intelligent voting. Price, $.20. 

THE NEW COMING OF AGE 

by Mildred Boardman Leigh 

This pamphlet will be especially valuable as a text 
in citizenship and for community classes, but it will be 
of interest alike to the new voter — young or old — in 
that it describes the group system and the place of the 
independent voter. Price, $.20. 



Bookshops Everywhere or 

THE WOMANS PRESS 

600 Lexington Avenue New York City 



22 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



TWO BOOKS BY 

Harold J. Laski 

of the London School of Economics 

AUTHORITY IN THE MODERN 
STATE 

The issues that lie at the very center of guild socialism, 
the soviet, and the League of Nations. $3.00. 



STUDIES IN THE PROBLEM 
OF SOVEREIGNTY 

A discussion of the essential character of the modern 
state. $3.00. 

New Books Soon to Be Published 
AND THE KAISER ABDICATES 

By S. Miles Bouton 

The story of the death of the German Empire and 
the birth of the Republic told by an eyewitness. 



THE GROPING GIANT 

Revolutionary Russia as Seen by an American Democrat 

By William Adams Brown, Jr. 

A vivid and impartial picture of the parties contending 
for power in Russia. 

Complete List of Fall Publications Sent on Request 



YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

New Haven, Connecticut 
19 East 47th Street New York City 



SOVIET RUSSIA 

Official Organ of the Russian Soviet Government Bureau. 



The weekly issues of this periodical contain all the latest 
information of an economic, political, diplomatic, educational, 
and medical and otlv r nature concerning the Russian Soviet 
Republic. Especially important is the 

ANNIVERSARY NUMBER 

issued in honor of the third anniversary of the foundation of the 
Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. This number will 
appear November 6, will have forty pages of text, including maps 
and illustrations and will cost, like all the other weekly issues 
of this paper, only ten cents. 

At all News Stands. 

Subscription price : $5.00 yearly, $2.50 for six months. 

Address : SOVIET RUSSIA— Room 304, 110 West 40th Street, 
New York. 



MODERN MAGIC 

A Personal and Household 
Budget and Account Book 

By CARO D. COOMBS 

As part of her work for the Russell Sage Foundation, Miss 
Coombs made a special study of personal and household 
accounts. The result, "Modern Magic," is the most popular 
budget and account book yet offered. Paper, 60 pages, 50 
cents. Special rates by the hundred. 

Whitcomb & Barrows, Publishers 

Huntington Chambers, Boston 



trend to individualization in medicine, psychiatry, in education 
both intellectual and moral, and even into the law courts, must 
be convinced that individualization should proceed to greater 
lengths in industry. There is nothing more widespread in modern 
sociology than certain ideas that group action is the be-all and 
end-all of progress and failure in social developments. It may be 
(or as I suspect it may not be) that group experience leads to 
group thought, group thought to group action as the ordinary 
course of events in social developments. But whether these 
developments are group matters or not, it remains true that most 
of the information which we possess concerning group psychology 
and group psychopathy is derived from the psychology or the 
psychopathy of the individual. If this statement be accounted 
true then I do not need to insist that the psychiatrist is rather 
more likely than any other expert to know how the main lines 
of unrest will run. And since the individual is the big problem 
of the psychiatrist, he ought to have a message for industry." 

Dr. Southard closes his paper with a plea for the psychiatrist 
not to " hide his light under a bushel," but to take on new com- 
munity duties and together with the psychologist, the social 
worker and the industrialist, try to fit these psychopathic per- 
sons into industry more advantageously than is now being done. 

June J. Joslyn. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY 

By J. J. Findlay. Longmans, Green & Co. 304 pp. Price 
$2.00; by mail of the Survey $2.20. 

Whatever its absolute merits, this volume of Professor Find- 
lay's is of great significance as indicating two things: first, the 
growing interest of English educators in the subject of sociology; 
second, the manifest effort in England as in America to place 
social work upon a truly scientific basis. The author, while 
primarily an educational administrator and not a professional 
sociologist, nevertheless has attained a definite grasp of certain 
fundamental principles in the science of society. His book is a 
very thoughtful piece of work, but the reviewer confesses to 
losing his way frequently in the course of the argument. The 
first one or two chapters start off with a fine plunge into the 
concrete, and throughout the volume concrete illustrations are 
introduced with telling effect, but for some reason or other (per- 
haps summer vacation weather) the fundamental ground plan 
of the book failed to grip the imagination of the reader. 

Professor Findlay frankly makes his start from an experience 
of thirty years in trying to understand one type of social group 
— namely, the group life of the school, but he by no means con- 
fines himself to the school group. The burden of the book has to 
do with the study of social origins, social power, the family, 
the neighbourhood, the state, religion, social classes, occupation 
and leisure, leadership, discussion, government and law. In the 
preparation of these topics the author quite evidently has im- 
mersed himself in the work of Professor Cooley, Graham Wal- 
las, Maciver, Hobhouse, Benjamin Kidd and Trotter. Out 
of the discussion it appears that the first problem of modern 
society is to achieve an adaptation which will enable the indivi- 
dual to think wholesale, as it were; to think and feel and 
organize in terms of large groups of people, to control move- 
ments rather than men, " to guide the energy of opinion." As 
a corollary to this position the author frankly accepts the 
machinery of social organizations with their directors, secretaries, 
committees, symbols, etc., and therefore tacitly refuses to sup- 
port the criticism that the various social movements, social re- 
form organizations and all such machinery are grinding social 
life down to a mechanistic dead level. 

Equally strong emphasis is laid upon the necessity of limiting 
the tendency to exalt the state as a whole over community life. 
The, author offers also a sturdy criticism of the instinctive char- 
acter of social life which, while it does not tell the whole story, 
at least suggests a very sound antidote to the reckless use of the 
term " instinct." 

An excellent illustration of the application of the evolutionary 
principle to social institutions is found in the discussion of the 
family: "While, however, there is no evidence that the course 
of evolution is likely to diminish the value of the family, we must 
admit that the complexities of modern life demand a careful 
review of its status over against the claims of other groups." 

Considerable attention is given to the industrial problem as a 
phase of social life, in the course of which the author emphasizes 
the demand for craft organizations or such institutions as the 
Whitley councils as a way out of industrial and moral chaos. 

That the author is not merely a closet philosopher is clearly 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



23 



revealed by his emphasis upon the problem of leisure. He insists 
that the two problems of city life, conceived in terms of civic 
development, can be reduced to the one issue : " How can we 
arrange the city, its housing, its social fashions, its civic activi- 
ties, so that everyone can find outlet for his leisure?" 

In spite of the great crises through which Britain has been 
passing these last few years the book is not pessimistic in tone. 
Neither is it dizzy in its optimism. Arthur J. Todd. 

THE NEW UNIONISM 

By J. M. Budish and George Soule. Harcourt, Brace & 
Howe. 344 pp. Price $3.50; by mail of the Survey $3.75. 

At the conclusion of the war many persons believed the 
relationship between employer and employe had substantially 
improved. The events of the last two years have shown, how- 
ever, that any gains that were made during the war were merely 
temporary, due to the emergency and that with the passing emerg- 
ency there quickly disappeared the spirit of cooperation which, 
to a certain extent at least, marked the period of hostilities; so 
that today the community is looking more eagerly than ever 
for a way out. 

In the efforts and achievements of the clothing workers, as 
described in this book, every sincere believer in progress will 
find not only a chapter of industrial history of vital and absorb- 
ing interest but also a ray of hope for real advancement. 

After tracing the history of the different industries engaged in 
the manufacture of men's and women's apparel, the authors give 
a vivid account of the growth of the unions in the various trades 
into which the work is divided. It is pointed out that the 
industry is one of the largest in the United States, that most of 
the workers are foreigners and that, until recently, those engaged 
in some of the largest branches of the trade suffered from long 
hours and bitterly small wages. The miserable conditions in the 
sweatshops are described and quotations given from investiga- 
tion of government and private agencies. The time is recalled 
— not so very long ago — when, after a long day's work in the 
shops, men and women carried with them to their tenement 
homes bundles of unfinished clothing on which they and all the 
members of their families, including the little children, would 
work until the small hours of the morning, in order that they 
might earn a livelihood. With the growth of the unions there 
followed improvements in the condition of the workers, shorten- 
ing of the hours of work, wage increases and, above all, the 
elimination of the horrors of sweatshop labor, until today the 
manufacture of men's clothing, in which the conditions were 
worst, has become one of the best paid industries of the country. 

But interesting as is the story of the developments within the 
industries themselves, of the physical growth of the unions and 
of the improvements in the lot of the immigrant worker, this 
portion of the book is really an introduction to what constitutes 
by far its most stimulating and vital part — an analysis of the 
philosophy and outlook of the very remarkable group of unions 
which has developed in these trades. The most powerful is the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, organized in 1914 
as the result of a split in the older and more conservative United 
Clothing Workers of America, affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor. In the six years that have intervened, the 
Amalgamated has become the dominant union in the men's 
lothing industry. It now controls almost all the workers except 

ose engaged in the manufacture of overalls. Its philosophy is 
rankly socialistic, as is that of other unions in the industry. 

A very interesting comparison is made between the aims of the 

ade unions of the older tj r pe and those of the new unionism. 
t is pointed out that the older unions accept the present order 
f society and endeavor, within it, to improve the conditions of 

e workers. The new unionism looks for radical changes, and 

s philosophy is based upon the conviction that eventually the 

age system must be abolished and the control over industry 
laced in the hands of the workers. This radically different 
point of view of the newer unions is shown to affect all of their 
contacts with their employers and their attitude toward many 
controversial questions. 

It is pointed out that, whereas the older unionism objects 
to sabotage as contrary to the principle of " a fair day's work for 
a fair day's pay," the new unionism, looking forward to the time 
when it will control industry, not only opposes sabotage — which 
is directed against the individual rather than against the em- 
ployers as a whole — but is receptive to improvements in machin- 
ery and management, more receptive than the older unions. 

An account is also given of those other activities of the newer 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIilllF 



NEW HARPER BOOKS 



CALIBAN 

By W. L. George 

To the discriminating reader this novel by the young Eng- 
lish realist who is now lecturing in America is already the 
novel of the fall. 

" It is much more than a novel of newspaper making. It is 
a compact revelation of social forces. . . . ' Caliban ' is the 
soberest, weightiest novel that Mr. George has given us." — 
New York Evening Post. $2.00 

THE FOOLISH MATRONS 

By Donn Byrne 

Places this young American writer in the vanguard of mod- 
ern realists. 

" What makes a successful wife ? " asks this novel — and 
finds the answer in terms of human expression. It is the story 
of four women who constitute a molecule of social New York 
— three " foolish matrons " and one who is wise. A powerful 
novel of marriage and the interplay of lives. 

PRINCIPLES OF LABOR 
LEGISLATION 

By John R. Commons and John B. Andrews 

The rapid changes in labor legislation since the first edition 
(January, 1916), have made necessary a complete revision. 
This, the Fourth Edition, incorporates the legislative enact- 
ments to June 1st, 1920, and analyses the present labor trend 
toward further labor laws. An invaluable book for the 
student of world development. $2.75 

PEOPLE OF DESTINY 

?y Sir Philip Gibbs 

Sir Philip Gibbs sees Europe dying. The future he believes 
lies in the new world. In this book he tells with his own 
rare charm why, after spending months among us, he thinks 
we are the modern " people of destiny " marked to carry out 
the high designs of fate. $2.00 

Americanization Series 

Here for the first time is a study of the methods of the 
various agencies and influences actually at work American- 
izing our immigrants. Each book — the result of an expert's 
investigation — will cover the whole field of immigration in 
relation to a particular problem. Many of the conclusions 
reached are new and startling. The studies will cause an 
entire revision of accepted thought in Americanization work. 

THE SCHOOLING OF 
THE IMMIGRANT 

By Frank V. Thompson 

This is the first of eleven studies of Americanization — a 
survey of the small accomplishment compared with the 
patriotic fervor in immigrant education. The whole trend 
of educational legislation is critically examined, and sugges- 
tions are made to reorganize the work as a whole. A book 
for everyone interested in immigrants and their education. 
Maps and Diagrams. $2.00 



AMERICA VIA THE 
NEIGHBORHOOD 



By John Daniels 

is the second of the Americanization studies. This book 
shows how neighborhood groupings of immigrants — their 
natural method of combining resources with the less recent 
immigrants in an attempt to cope with their new problems in 
America — can be made an aid and not a hindrance in their 
Americanization. Illus. $2.00 

OLD WORLD TRAITS 
TRANSPLANTED 

By Robert E. Park and Herbert A. Miller 

This book, the third of the Americanization Series, is a 
study of how the native traditions, prejudices, tastes of the 
immigrant may be modified to blend with those of America ; 
it aims to preserve the best in the immigrant's old-world 
traditions and to replace with the best American traditions 
any detrimental old world prejudices. $2.00 



Est. 
1817 



HARPER & BROTHERS 



NEW 
YORK 



F. 



ilium: 






\ 



1 



24 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2j 1920 



FOLK DANCES AND GAMES 

For Recreational Centers 

Dramatic Dances for Small Children. 

Shaf ter $2.00 

The Song Play Book. Wollaston and 

Crampton 2.40 

The Second Folk Dance Book. Crampton 2.40 

The Playground Book. Sperling 2.40 

Dramatic Games and Dances. Crawford 2.40 

The Folk Dance Book. Crampton 2.40 

The Festival Book. Lincoln 2.40 

AND 12 OTHER BOOKS 

We publish the largest line of Folk Dance Books in the U. S* 
Illustrated Circular with Tables of Contents on request 

A. S. BARNES & CO. 

30 IRVING PLACE NEW YORK 



WHAT IS CHILD LABOR? 
AND WHAT ABOUT IT TODAY? 

New light is thrown on an old problem — and from 
many different angles — by the discussions in the 

CONFERENCE NUMBER 

of 

THE AMERICAN CHILD 

A Quarterly Journal of General Child Welfare. 

Send fifty cents for this number and a list of new, 
important pamphlets. 

National Child Labor Committee 
105 East 22nd St., N. Y. City 



MOTHER AND CHILD 

a new magazine which 
" fills a gap in literature on health activities " 

Published by 
AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION 

1211 Cathedral Street Baltimore, Md. 

SEND FOB SAMPLE COPY 



" THE CHURCH AND INDUSTRIAL 
RECONSTRUCTION " 

By the Committee on the War and the Religious 
Outlook, appointed by the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America and the General 
War-Time Commission of the Churches, 105 East 
22d Street, New York. 

Association Press, New York, 304 pages, $2 

"The Survey," September 1, says editorially that 
it applies " Christian teachings to contemporary so- 
cial and economic issues with vigor, wisdom and 
courage." 



unions the future development of which gives promise of remark- 
able results. Cooperative production and distribution are being 
undertaken by the workers and even a bank for the financing of 
their projects with money deposited by the unions and their 
members. In education the plans and achievements of the 
newer unions are shown to be no less noteworthy. The new 
unionism does not want merely to supplement existing agencies 
until such time as the boards of education shall properly function 
but regards education as " perhaps the most conscious expression 
of all its aspirations." The Amalgamated has organized elab- 
orate courses in history, economics and other cultural subjects 
in addition to simpler courses in English. It has arranged 
symphony concerts and dramatic recitals for its members. " The 
new unionism believes that labor must create its own educa- 
tional agencies because they are a step toward the mental and 
spiritual emancipation of the people." 

Although the authors have no doubt tried to be impartial, the 
book is clearly the product of partisans rather than the work of 
unbiased observers. No mention is made of any of the short- 
comings of the newer unions, nor are the difficulties and per- 
plexities of the employer in his contact with them dealt with 
(except in connection with seasonal idleness). The book is also 
singularly impersonal — a fact to which the authors themselves 
call attention in an introductory note. There seems to be a 
conscious application of the economic interpretation of history. 
In the opinion of the authors, industrial conditions inevitably pro- 
duced certain results ; the very unusual leadership in a number of 
the unions had little or nothing to do with it. The book is, 
however, an excellent one; the authors have a thorough knowl- 
edge of their subject and a broad outlook over the industrial 
problem. Both because of its own merits and because of the 
importance and interest of the subject matter, the book should be 
widely read. Alexander M. Bing. 

THE NEGRO FACES AMERICA 

By Herbert J. Seligmann. Harper & Brothers. 319 pp. 
Price $1.75; by mail of the Survey $1.95. 

Those who know from first-hand experience the facts of race 
relations in the South and throughout the nation, whether they 
are so-called radicals or conservatives, owe Mr. Seligmann a 
debt of sincere thanks for presenting so clearly and so forcefully 
the fundamentally sound reactions of broad-minded white and 
Negro citizens to the withering, hateful dogma of race prejudice 
which has already brought to the nation serious and needless 
disaster. 

Mr. Seligmann, like his associates in the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People, belongs to the group of 
white Americans, in whom the Negroes have great confidence. 
His book should be read by those who wish to know what 
Negroes think and feel. 

In justice to the white South, however, and without minimizing 
the indisputable evidence which Mr. Seligmann has so ably 
presented, it should be clearly stated that there are today in the 
South many white people of culture and official position, both in 
large and in small communities, and often in opposition to the 
prevailing public opinion, who are openly helping worthy Negroes. 

Mr. Seligmann's severe arraignment of the American press, 
particularly the southern press, for its general indifference to the 
wrongs which have been inflicted upon the Negroes; his clear-cut 
statement of the undeniable challenge, which oppressed black men 
and exploited black women of America, make to all Americans, 
regardless of creed or section; his complete summary of the 
handicaps under which Negroes lead their every-day lives; his 
psychological analysis of the fear that prevails among white 
people and makes them believe that Negro progress — and even 
scant justice for black people — spells " social equality," (which 
is, at bottom, the bogy raised by unscrupulous politicians, who 
refuse to attribute " fading out " among Negroes to the passion 
and lust of white men) ; his just criticism of the system of force 
which white men have exercised to keep down the Negro race, 
regardless of the merits of its individual members or of the race 
as a whole — all these elements give strength to The Negro Faces 
America and justify a wide reading and sympathetic under- 
standing. 

The book is not pleasant reading. It could not be — and tell 
the truth. For the benefit of those who are beginning to walk in 
a new field of knowledge, the book should be given sub-headings 
or side-headings. It should also have some of the more salient 
points printed in italic or dark-face type. A working biblio- 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 




Volume I General Problems of Health 
II Industrial Health 
" III The Health of the Child 



Volume IV Moral Codes and Personality 

V Adaptation of the Individual to Life 

VI Conservation of Health of Women in 
Marriage 



To every thinking citizen these volumes will be of interest and value. 
To the physician, nurse and social worker they are necessary equipment for 
reference and study. 

Price $3-00, postpaid, the set of six volumes 

Bookshops Everywhere 

or 

THE WOMANS PRESS, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City 



Advocate of Peace 

Monthly Official Organ American Peace Society 
Founded 1828 

Edited when national and international 
currents converge. 

Favors a "law governed world, a peace 
through justice." 

Furnishes news, texts of state papers, 
articles by specialists, and reasoned 
editorial opinions about the world 
that is and is to be. 

Arthur Deerin Call, Editor 

George Perry Morris, Asst. Editor 

Mail your subscription today 

$1.50 

American Peace Society 

612, 613, 614 Colorado BIdg. 
Washington, D. C. 



Next Survey Book Number November 27 

Survht readers are not only book readers but book buyers, for 
themselves and for the public and institutional libraries with 
which they are connected. They buy books, pamphlets, reports, 
periodicals. Advertise in the Survey and you reach one of the 
most highly selected, intelligent audiences in the country. Bates 
on request. Closing date, Novmber 15. 



112 E. 19th St. THE SURVEY 



New York 



TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES 
OF UNREST 

it is necessary to keep informed about the 
socialist and labor movement. The 
Socialist Review is the most compact 
and comprehensive record available of 
this radical movement. 

Special combination offer 

Harry W. Laidler's " Socialism in Thought 
and Action " 

($2.50 at the booksellers) 

Annual subscription to 

The Socialist Review, $2.50 

Both for four dollars 

THE SOCIALIST REVIEW 

70 Fifth Avenue, New York City- 
Enclosed find four dollars in payment for the 
combination offer above described. 

Name 

Address 



25 



THE PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Jfasi Sntentatttfttai (ttonfmnr? of Unttwn pjgatriattH 

It was an epoch-making conference at which problems of vital mo- 
ment to women everywhere were presented and discussed by authorities of 
international repute. 

The addresses, with discussion, have been classified under the follow- 
ing general titles and published in six attractive volumes : 



\ 



26 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



Industrial Service Specialists 



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289 Fourth Avenue 
NEW YORK CITY 



LABOR'S NEXT MOVE 

If you are to cope successfully with the problems 
presented to every employer by the present hysteria of 
industrial unrest you must anticipate labor's moves. 
Only by keeping one jump ahead can you keep the 
wheels turning steadily and avoid the constant turmoil 
experienced by the man who has to meet labor situa- 
tions as they arise. 

BABSON'S REPORTS 

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graphy and a list of the agencies which are definitely concerned 
with the problem of cooperating with Negroes for theiri im- 
provement, might well be included in a new edition. 

Hampton Institute. William Anthony Aery. 



THE CASUAL LABORER AND OTHER ESSAYS 

By Carleton H. Parker. With an introduction by Cornelia 
Stratton Parker. Harcourt, Brace and Howe. 199 pp. 
Price $2.00; by mail of the Survey $2.20. 

The method and the approach of the late Carleton H. Parker 
are brilliantly epitomized in the first essay in this posthumous 
collection. It is entitled Toward Understanding Labor Unrest. 
Mrs. Parker states that it was not written for publication in any 
form. It was probably designed to clarify Professor Parker's 
own views. Had he lived, his thesis would undoubtedly have 
been elaborated into a book. As it is, however, it is one of the 
fine achievements which earned for the splendid We-sterner so 
warm a place in the admiration and affection of many Americans. 

Carleton H. Parker was distinguished from other students of 
American industrial affairs by the emphasis he laid upon the light 
which may be borrowed from recent psychological researches. 
He was not alone in turning to psychology for information con- 
cerning industry. Robert F. Hoxie, of the University of Chi- 
cago, who also was lost just as he matured, had begun to point 
out the value of inquiry along somewhat similar lines. Professor 
Parker was, moreover, influenced by many distinguished Ameri- 
can scholars, not least by Prof. John Dewey and Thorstein 
Veblen as well as by many who are strictly psychologists. But, 
after all, his point of view and his contribution were original 
and his own. Nobody else has seen industrial developments from 
the same angle. 

Strange to say, Carleton Parker's most poignant industrial 
experience came out of a hideous agricultural episode. As execu- 
tive secretary of the State Immigration and Housing Commis- 
sion of California he investigated the Wheatland Hop Fields 
Riot of August 3, 1913. Some 2,800 persons had been as- 
sembled on this ranch to harvest the hops. As a result of con- 
ditions unspeakably degrading, as his report showed, meetings 
of protest were held and were addressed by I. W. W. speakers. 
The attempt of a sheriff's posse to disperse the crowd resulted in 
the killing of four men — two pickers, a deputy sheriff and the 
district attorney. Episodes as sanguinary and as shameless have 
occurred in many places; West Virginia and Colorado recently. 
But never before had such an outbreak enlisted the interest of 
so able an observer. Wheatland remained in Carleton Parker's 
mind, and he traversed the realm of contemporary science in 
order to explain the situation to himself. 

This book and his great gift to present knowledge of labor 
unrest are the fruits of that severe research. Briefly, his thesis 
was that the conditions of modern industry repress and render 
abnormal some of the most fundamental and most precious in- 
stincts of mankind. Because almost every normal activity of 
men is frustrated by the very conditions of casual labor abnormal 
and dangerous expressions are had. Thus sabotage was to him 
the symptom of a dangerous condition. Logically, therefore, the 
destructive tendencies of the I. W. W. would be attacked by re- 
moving the conditions which produced them. That doctrine, 
backed scientifically, is of inestimable significance. The man who 
envisaged it and gave it utterance has served the republic more 
fruitfully than have a whole host of prosecuting attorneys. 

Just now the agents of repression are in the ascendant, but 
ultimately the victory is with the followers of Carleton Parker. 
For, once the truth is seen and uttered, its work goes on. The 
Casual Laborer is thus a chapter for the future. Those inter- 
ested to know how this labor problem will be handled when thost 
in authority have been educated will do well to read this delight- 
ful and illuminating book. It marks the road. 

William L. Chenery. 

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 

By William H. Bartlett. Enlarged and Revised. T. Y 
Crowell Co. 162 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Survei 
$1.40. 

In spite of its enlargement since publication in 1912, this hand 
book is still commendable for its compactness. Henry Campbel 
Black, editor of the Constitutional Review, has accomplished th 
double task of including explanations of the recent changes in th 
national constitution and of broadening the discussion of thos 
elements in it which have assumed special importance throug, 
the war. B. L. 



v :. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



27 



BOOKS IN GENERAL: SECOND SERIES 

By J. C. Squire. Alfred A. Knopf. 273 pp. $2.50 net; by 
mail of the Survey $2.75. 

It is not easy to imagine one of the editors of the Nation or 
the New Republic or the Freeman or the New Review choosing 
Solomon Eagle for his pseudonym. Yet that is the pen name of 
J. C. Squire, long the literary editor of the New Statesman, its 
editor in 1917, and since 1919 editor qf the London Mercury; 
and it is to be found on the second series of his essays, now pub- 
lished under the title Books in General. The original bearer of 
the name was a poor maniac who, according to Mr. Squire, 
during the Great Plague of London used to run naked through 
the streets with a pan of coals of fire on his head, crying, 
" Repent, repent." There is something fascinating, to be sure, 
in letting one's imagination stray so far afield as to picture the 
w,hole editorial pack, so clad and in full cry, down Fifth avenue, 
calling each after his kind for that breed of repentance which is 
his weekly concern. There has been nothing like it since the days 
iwhen steaming coteries of persecuted religionists raced under 
f duress down a thoroughfare of medieval Rome. When all is said 
• and done, the odds would be on a certain long-legged scribe on 
the staff of the Freeman. 

But whatever the pseudonym he uses, there is a certain non- 
chalance and detachment on the part of Mr. Squire which has 
in it more of the study or the lounging room of a Wayside Inn 
'than of the plague-stricken city and its prophet. There is nothing 
steaming or breathless in these engaging essays. A middle- 
westerner would recoil at the way in which he deftly tears James 
Whitcomb Riley asunder; he does the same with Lloyd George. 
Here is a bystander rather to whom poets and premiers and 
\ prophets are all so much of the passing show, and he is more 
likely to write of their lack of shoe-laces than their evangels. 

The essays are written nonetheless by a man who is up to his 

elbows in the active currents of political and social thought in 

England and are therefore a capital antidote to the overtension 

among social workers. They bring out that saving salt of human 

., nature which made Thomas Nelson Page delight in a kinky- 

[headed pickaninny in spite of the dour cloud we call the Negro 

[problem. For example, the very last essay tells us not only how 

la fire alarm at night played hob with the author's own literary 

intentions but the fire itself, a consuming warehouse blaze, turned 

[upside down those careful notions of economic salvage which all 

■good citizens own in public. Mr. Squire lets the cat out of the 

'.bag and we get a notion perhaps why Solomon Eagle liked his 

pan of coals. To quote: 

. . . My emotions, when looking at it (the fire) had not been 
entirely base; I had felt, not merely a sensuous pleasure in the 
glories of that golden eruption under the blue roof of night, 
but wonder at the energies we kept under, their perpetuity and 
their, source, and the grandeur of man, living amid so much 
vastness and power, valiantly struggling to cope with things 
greater than himself, save that they have no souls. And I 
thought that in the perfect and hygienic state where the firemen 
would find water, water, everywhere, where the Super-Hose 
would be in use, where everything would be built of fireproof 
materials, and where extinguishers of a capacity not conceived 
by us would be available as a last resort, the wise sovereign 
would set apart beautiful large buildings, all made of timber, 
L filled with oil, tar and sugar, surrounded with waste land and 
fronted by a wide reflecting river, which would periodically be 
I. set on fire for the consolation and the uplifting of men. I don't 
I want a big fire made impossible. Paul U. Kellogg. 

.THE DAWN OF MODERN MEDICINE 

By Albert H. Buck, M.D. Yale University Press. 288 pp. 
I Illustrated. Price $7.00; by mail of the Survey $7.30. 

The " dawn " of modern medicine is laid, perhaps somewhat 
arbitrarily, about the beginning of the Eighteenth Century; the 
eater part of the volume, however, deals with the development 
medicine in the first half of the Nineteenth Century, supple- 
nting the author's previous work on The Growth of Medi- 
e. This history is classified partly by countries and partly by 
chools " ; and while most of the space is given to an account of 
achievements of the great pioneers, the book as a whole 
sents a picture of continuity of effort and cooperation in 
arch which surrounds each biographical sketch with the 
e of a larger movement. Unfortunately, this social inter- 
tation is not carried quite far enough; the book barely 
'cates the reaction of a changing social viewpoint on medical 
tice and on major concerns of the medical schools. B. L. 



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"Work-a-day Economics 
For Women" 

Women, as they enter upon the new duties imposed 
by their citizenship, find themselves hard up against 
the question — What is our economic system ? They 
haven't the time to make an exhaustive study of 
this system but — they want to be informed! 

THE ASSOCIATION MONTHLY has arranged 
for a series of short articles by Winifred L. Chap- 
pell on " Work-A-Day Economics for Women Citi- 
zens " to begin with the September issue and run 
through the entire year. These articles will be con- 
temporary in character and illustrated by current 
events. 

Subscriptions to THE ASSOCIATION MONTH- 
LY to begin with the September number should be 
entered at once. Clip the attached coupon and mail 
it today! 



THE ASSOCIATION MONTHLY 
600 Lexington Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 

Please enter my subscription to THE ASSOCIATION 
MONTHLY for one year, beginning with the September issue. 
You will find $1.50 enclosed. 

NAME 

STREET 

CITY 

STATE 



V 



28 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION la 

• professional organization of four thousand 
members. Following Its war work It la enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known as the 
" Books for Everybody " movement for which 
It la making an appeal for a two million dollar 
fund. It la rendering library service to the 
Merchant Marine, Coast Guard and Lighthouses 
and plans to promote libraries for the sixty 
million people now wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; to help business concarne and 
factories to establish libraries In their plants; 
to promote the use of good books on American 
Ideals and traditions. 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF HOSPI- 
TAL SOCIAL WORKERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, 
pres. ; Social Service Department, Massachusetts 
General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss 
Ruth V. Emerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, 
American Red Cross. Washington, D. C. Organ- 
ization to promote development of social work 
In hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR COMMUNITY 
ORGANIZATION— Elwood Street, Secretary, 
1105 Starka Building, Louisville, Ky., furnishes 
Information and advises on establishment and 
development of community councils, councils of 
social agencies, and financial and social federa- 
tions. Exchanges material and Information 
among Its members. Trains executives for 
community organization. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR 
LEGISLATION — John B. Andrews, sec'y; 111 
B. 23rd St., New York. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men'a compensation, health Insurance; on* 
day's rest In seven; efficient law enforcement 
AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION, 
formerly AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND 
PREVENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— 
Gertrude B. Knlpp, exec. Sec'y; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urgea prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; birth registration; maternal nurs- 
ing; Infant welfare consultations; care of ohll- 
dren of sre-school age and school age. 
AMERICAN CITS BUREAU — An Agency for 
organizing and strengthening Chambers of 
Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and 
commercial organizations; and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership. 
Address our nearest office— 
Tribune Building, New York. 
121 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION — Miss Lenna F. Cooper, Sec'y, Battle 
Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organ- 
ized for betterment of conditions in home, 
schools, Institutions and community. Pub- 
lishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres. ; C. G. Hoag, 
Sec'y; 1417 Locust St., Phila. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles to Review and other publications), 11. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— 105 W. 40th St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and tho promotion of sound sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Annual membership dues, 22.00. Mem- 
berships Include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dlr. 
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Frank J. Osborne, exec, sec'y; 
21 W. 46th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis. 
treatmeut and prevention. Publications free 
•n request. Annual membership dues, 16. 
CANADIAN CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC WEL- 
FARE — President J. Howard Falk ; General 
Secretary, F. N. Stapleford, 189 Church Street, 
Toronto. Next meeting, Montreal, September, 
1921. Annual fee $1.00. A yearly meeting to 
discuss the problems of public welfare. Com- 
mittees on Health, The Family, Immigration, 
Housing, Industrial Relations, Recreation. 
CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMER- 
ICA — 166 Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L 
Bmmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, 
Director. To arouse public Interest In the 
health of school children; to encourage the 
systematic teaching of health In the schools; 
to develop new methods of Interesting children 
In the forming of health habits; to publish and 
distribute ' pamphlets for teachers aqd public 
health workers and health literature for chil- 
dren; to advise In organization of local child 
health programme. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED) — 
I Madison Ave., New York. Organized In Feb- 
ruary, 1919, to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of all 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
beat advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While Community Service (Incorporated) 
hair In organizing the work. In planning the 
pr /im and raising the funds, and will, If de- 
,d, serve In an advisory capacity, the corn- 
unity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, de- 
termines policies and assumes complete control 
•f the Ktcal work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. 8. 
Braucher, sec'y. 



■C8ENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
■ellogg, aec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human 
Dherltances, hereditary Inventory and eugenic 
possibilities. Literature f ree. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 11 
Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles S. 
Macfarland, gen'l aec'y; 1*6 E. 22nd St., New 
York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, aec'y; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y; 
Miss Inez Cavert, asa't research aec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and 

Goodwill; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund de S. Brunner, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. C. O. GUI, field aec'y. 
Commission on Relations with France and 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
gium. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, 
105 East 22nd Street. New York. 
HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal; G. P. Phenlx, vlce-pres. ; F. H. Rogers, 
treaa. ; W. H. Scovllle, aec'y; Hampton, Va. 
Tralna Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government acbool. Free lllus- 
trated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn, 
chm. Greets girla at ports; protects, visits, ad- 
vises, guides. International system of safe- 
guarding. Conducts National Americanization 
program. 

THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DIS- 
ABLED MEN — John Culbert Farles, dlr., 101 
East 23rd St., New York. Maintains free Indus- 
trial training classes and employment bureau; 
makes artificial limbs and appliances; publishes 
literature on work for the handicapped; gives 
advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of 
disabled persons and cooperates with other 
social agencies in plans to put the disabled man 
•' back on the payroll." 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laldler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object — to promote an Intelli- 
gent Interest In Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership 23, 15, and 
125; Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review." 
Special rates for students. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE — Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; James W. Johnson, acting 
sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to 
colored Americans the common rights of Ameri- 
can citizenship. Furnishes in formation regard- 
ing race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 
90,000 with 314 branches. Membership, $1 up- 
ward. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TRAVELERS 
AID SOCIETIES — Gilbert Colgate, pres.; Rush 
Taggart, treas. ; Virgil V. Johnson, sec'y.; 25 
West 43rd St., New York. Composed of social 
agencies working to guide and protect travelers, 
especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 
NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG 
WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social, Intellectual, moral and spiritual In- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and aoclal edu- 
cation; camps; restrooma, room registries, 
boarding bouses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 
seas work. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 166 East 22d St., New 
York, 35 State branchea. Industrial and agri- 
cultural Investigations: legislation; studies of 
administration; education; delinquency; health; 
recreation; children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, 
INC.— Chas. F. Powllson, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material which visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperatea with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groupe In community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 
paigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL 
HYGIENE — Dr. Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dlr.; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V. Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 
it Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. "Mental Hygiene"; quar. ; 12 a year. 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve. 
managing director; George D. Eaton, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y: 121 East 22nd 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities 
at coat. Includes New York State Committee. 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 

— Robert A. Woods, aec'y; 20 Union Park, Boa- 
ton. Developa broad forma of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and 
nation, for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
— Allen T. Burns, pres.. New York; W. H. 
Parker, gen. aec'y, 316 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago. General organization to dtscuaa prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and increase effi- 
ciency of agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
nual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Memberahtp It. 48th 
annual meeting Milwaukee, June 22-29, 192L 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 
Delinquents and Correction — Mrs. Martha ». 

Falconer, Philadelphia. 
Health — Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 
Public Agencies and Institutions — R. F. Beasley, 

Raleigh. 
The Family — Frances Taussig, New York. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions — Soph- 

onlsba P. Breckinridge, Chicago. 
The Local Community — Howard 8. Braucher, 

New York. 
Mental Hygiene— Dr. Thomas W. Salmon. New 

York. 
Organization of Social Forces— Otto W. Davis, 

Minneapolis. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born In America 

— Grace Abbott, Chicago. 
NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 
— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y. Address 120 East 
69th St., New York. Girls* club; recreation and 
educational work In non-sectarian self-govern- 
ing groups aiming toward complete self-support. 
Monthly publication, " The Club Worker." 21 
a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOB PUBLIC 
HEALTH — NURSING — Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N. exec, sec'y; 166 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of Infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription Included In membership. 
Dues. 12.01 and upward. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 
— Mrs. Edith Sbatto King, mgr., 120 B. 22d St,, 
New York. A cooperative guild of social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
structively through members for professional 
standards. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION 
— 381 Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Hatfield, 
M. D., Managing Director. 1.. formation about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing 
probleme and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
" Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE- For social 
vice among Negroes, L. Holllngsworth Wood, 
pres. ; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, sec'y. ; 127 
East 23rd St., New York. Establishes cooper- 
ative committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNIOS 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 84 W. 
Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Standi 
for self-government In the work shop tbrougt 
organization and also for the enactment 01 
protective legislation. Information given. Offi- 
cial organ. " Life and Labor." 
PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIA 
TION OF AMERICA — H. S. Braucher, sec'y; ] 
Madison Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor 
hood and community center activities and ad 
ministration. Special attention given to munlol 
pal recreation problems. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOCNDATION- 
Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causa 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Better 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, am 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im 

provement of Living Conditions — John M. Gleni 
dlr.; 12t E. 22d St., New York. Departments 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Educs 
tlon. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loam 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, LI 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pat 
llcatlons of the Russell Sage Foundation off* 
to the public in practical and Inexpensive ton 
some of the most Important results of Its 
Catalogue sent upon request." 
SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— W< 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Cbllds, sec'y; 11 
9tb St., New York. Clearing house for Inform! 
tlon on short ballot, city manager plan, count 
gov't. Pamphlets free. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE — An Institution for U 

training of Negro Youth; an experiment I 
race adjuatment In the Black Belt of the Soutl 
furnishes Information on all phases of the 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and met! 
Robert R. Moton, prln. ; Warren Logan, ti 
A. I- Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee. Ala. 






im 



dt 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



29 



'• 



n 



. The Immigrant 

(Continued from page 11) 
situations which leave other possibilities than a general con- 
demnation of the economic relations of the immigrant? The 
complete stories of labor organization campaigns in the two 
industries give the answer. 
John Mitchell organized the hard coal men on an indus- 
( trial rather than a craft basis. The immigrant unskilled la- 
[ borer with his frequent changes of employment cared nothing 
[ for the various departments and divisions of industry which 
I usually mark off separate unions. He could be interested in 
an organization which took in every worker in the mines. 
Immigrant leaders were used as organizers; printed matter in 
all the languages of the laborers was circulated; meetings, 
even branches were conducted for the different national groups ; 
they had representation in the official bodies. In short the im- 
migrant was an actual not nominal active member of the union. 
The result was the tremendously strong organization which 
conducted the successful strike of 1903. 

The story of steel workers' organization is different. It 
was tried many times by an old craft union left from the days 
when the skilled men dominated the industry. They sought 
largely by old-time methods to bring into their ready-made 
organization such immigrants as came within their so-called 
jurisdiction. Other craft unions might or might not conduct 
campaigns at the same time. The immigrant never responded 
in appreciable numbers. In 1919, a joint committee of all 
crafts having jurisdiction in the industry conducted a cam- 
paign along the Mitchell lines in the anthracite field. Re- 
cruits joined the general organization first and secondarily the 
specialized unions. And they passed readily from one to the 
other with shift of jobs. The foreign-language leaders and 
literature were employed. The immigrant was given so ac- 
tive a part in the organizations that these became known as 
alien unions. When the steel strike broke out the cry of the 
steel companies was that immigrants, dominated the unions. 
Similar tactics in the packing trades and the railroad shops 
and maintenance of ways produced the same results. The 
a ,;' hard-coal fields are no longer the exception to the dictum 
uid maintenance of ways produced the same results. The 
> problem has become one of alternatives; the persistence of old- 
'co'oti time American Federation of Labor methods with the immi- 
»» grants' drag on labor's advance; or the application of new 
m methods which may cause decided shifts in union leadership. 
The illustrations of the method used indicate also the uni- 
versal essential for the effective fusion of native and foreign- 
Dorn. Always the securing of the actual, self-assertive partici- 
oation of the immigrant in the activities and vital interests of 
America was found necessary for organic union. This was 
Jut to discover that the only way to attain the kind of Ameri- 
anization set up by the study as the goal of all effective 
iiethods was through learning by doing. 
Americanization has been considered as the union of native 
d foreign-born in all the most fundamental relationships and 
ivities of our national life. For Americanization is the unit- 
of new with native-born Americans in fuller common un- 
derstanding and appreciation to secure by means of self-direc- 
n and self-government the highest welfare of all. Such 
ericanization should perpetuate no unchangeable political, 
estic, and economic regime delivered once for all to the 
ers, but a growing and broadening national life, inclusive 
the best wherever found. With all our rich heritages, 
ericanism will develop best through a mutual giving and 
:aking of contributions from both newer and older Americans 
n the interest of the commonweal. This study has followed 
an understanding of Americanization. 



1 




The Cleveland Foundatio n 

RECREATION SURVEY 

A Study of the Causes and 
Effects of the Spare Time 
Activities of Cleveland 



Made under the General Direction 
of Rowland Haynes 

1 

Director of the Cleve- 
land Recreation Council 



STUDIES OF RECREATION 
INFLUENCES 

Delinquency and Spare Time: H. W. 
Thurston 

School Work and Spare Time: F. G. 
Bonser 

Wholesome Citizens and Spare Time: 
J. L. Gillin 

STUDIES OF AGENCIES 

The Sphere of Private Agencies: L. E. 
Bowman and Others 

Commercial Recreation: Charlotte Rum- 
bold and Raymond Moley 

Public Provision for Recreation: Row- 
land Haynes and S. P. Davies 

SUMMARY VOLUME 

A Community Recreation Program: 
Rowland Haynes and C. K. Matson 



The seven volumes are published uni- 
formly, bound in cloth, at SOc, postpaid, 
per volume; $3.50 for the set. 



Raymond Moley, Director 



THE CLEVELAND 
FOUNDATION 

1215 Swetland Bldg. 
Cleveland, Ohio 



30 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

" Another impression: that people apparently refer to old Surveys, as 
inquiries continued to come in for weeks after the advertising." — Amer. Red 
Cross. 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 

Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on request. 
Periodicals, Current Pamphlets, see opposite page. 



Address Advertising 
Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19 Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

DIETITIANS: Matrons, Social Work- 
ers, Secretaries. Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5 East Side; Boston, 16 
Jackson Hall, Trinity Court, Fridays, 11 
to 1. 

WANTED: Trained nurse for resident 
position with Jewish Child Caring Agency, 
in large Eastern city. 3642 Survey. 

WANTED : Trained social worker as 
general secretary for well organized Com- 
munity Work. Address Dr. J. Q. A. Mc- 
Dowell, Danville, Ky. 

WANTED: trained nurse for Superin- 
tendent of convalescent home for men near 
Philadelphia. Reply, giving training, expe- 
rience and references, to Social Service 
Department, Jefferson Hospital, Phila., Pa. 

SOCIAL WORKERS to be attached to 
venereal disease clinics and detention 
homes, salary $1200 to begin. Address Ten- 
nessee State Board of Health, Division of 
Venereal Disease Control, 321 Sixth Ave., 
No., Nashville, Tenn. 

WANTED by a large case working 
agency, trained nurse, with practical expe- 
rience in Tuberculosis, and a knowledge of 
Jewish dietetics for intensive health work 
with Tubercular families. Position open 
October 1st. Remuneration commensurate 
with qualifications. 3639 Survey. 

MATRON in child-caring institution in 
New York City. Executive ability and 
tact essential. State experience fully in 
first letter. 3648 Survey. 

WANTED : Jewish Social Worker, with 
case work experience, to direct communal 
activities in neighborhood house in large 
Eastern city. Emphasis on health and 
civics rather than clubs or classes. Salary 
good. Box 3629 Survey. 

WANTED : Capable executive, man or 
woman, as head of case work organization 
in city that numbers about 60,000 Jews. 
Write in full to 3631 Survey. 

WANTED : Young woman experienced 
in social work to do work with immigrants 
at port of entry. Must speak Yiddish. Ap- 
ply immediately in person or by letter, stat- 
ing training and experience to Department 
of Immigration Aid Council of Jewish 
Women, 146 Henry Street, New York City. 

WANTED : Experienced woman for 
club work in Settlement House. 3653 
Survey. 

WANTED : Assistant boys' worker. 
Must be able to take charge of gymnasium 
:lasses. Position open November first. Give 
full information in first letter. 3654 ^urvey. 



WANTED : Worker, Jewish, to develop 
social work in a small Neighborhood House 
in Minneapolis. Salary $100. Give refer- 
ences and experience. 3634 Survey. 



MATRON desired for National Farm 
School at Doylestown, Pa., an institution 
of approximately 100 boys, ranging in age 
from 16 to 21 years. Address Mrs. A. J. 
Bamberger, 1828 Girard Ave., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

WANTED : Experienced case worker to 
investigate applications and do constructive 
work with Day Nursery families. Salary 
$1400. Apply, Secretary, Association of 
Day Nurseries, 1430 Pine St., Philadelphia. 

WANTED : Registered visiting nurse 
for resident position in Community House. 
Salary one hundred and fifty dollars and 
room rent. Work to begin at once. Apply 
stating training, age and experience. 3656 
Survey. 

WANTED : Registered nurse for Infant 
Welfare. Resident position in Community 
House. Salary one hundred and thirty-five 
dollars and room rent. To begin at once. 
State age, training and experience. 3657 
Survey. 

WANTED : Young college man and 
wife. Resident assistants in Community 
House. Gymnasium, clubs, playground for 
man; trained domestic science or gym- 
nastic teacher for woman. State age, 
training, experience and salary expected. 
Classes begin as soon as possible. 3658 
Survey. 

SWIMMING INSTRUCTOR 

WANTED : Swimming Instructor and 
Coach for indoor tank, afternoon and even- 
ing work ; college man preferred ; state age 
and qualifications. Address Chicago He- 
brew Institute, 1258 Taylor St., Chicago. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

YOUNG LADY, expert stenographer 
secretary and office manager, two years' ex- 
perience relief work abroad, with thorough 
knowledge of French, German, Russian, and 
Yiddish, desires position in social work, 
leaving time for some university study. 
Box 3621 Survey. 

WANTED: Position in Settlement with 
Church connections as Housekeeper and 
Assistant to the Head Worker by a woman 
with nine years' experience. Successful 
with Women's Clubs. 3633 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, unmarried, desires posi- 
tion in an institution with boys. Experienced 
teacher both in grade and commercial sub- 
jects. Has had experience as assistant 
superintendent. Can furnish best of refer- 
ences. 3645 Survey. 

COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION pre- 
ferred. Young college woman wishes posi- 
tion requiring initiative and ability to deal 
with people. Accounting, syscematizing and 
personnel experience. 3644 Survey. 

SECRETARIAL position wanted by 
woman of broad experience, executive 
ability and tact, in New York City only. 
Afternoon from 2 to 6 and Saturday all 
day. 3649 Survey. 



AMERICAN college-trained man, 35, 
with educational, journalistic, and employ- 
ment experience, desires business or organi- 
zational position with advancement possi- 
bilities. 3650 Survey. 

SOCIAL WORKER with medical ex- 
perience available for resident position in 
Sanatorium. Eastern section preferred, 
preferred. Box 3609 Survey. 



ATTENDANT MALE NURSE, with 
special experience on mental cases, wishes 
position as private nurse. Know of very 
quiet, homelike sanatorium where patient 
can have very kind care in my charge. John 
J. Wilcox, Box 22, Allston, Mass. 

ONE who has had experience in Settle- 
ment and Institutional work, desires posi- 
tion. 3652 Survey. 

SOCIAL WORKER— Trained children's 
club and recreational worker, desires 
opening in New York City. 3655 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE, Assistant or Clerical. 
Welfare, Industrial or Employment. Fif- 
teen years in Protestant Ministry. Uni- 
versity work in Sociology, some in Per- 
sonnel Administration. Able speaker; Busi- 
ness Training; Local welfare. 3651 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE and case worker five years 
hospital and three years industrial experi- 
ence Western Pennsylvania desires to lo- 
cate on Pacific Coast. 3646 Survey. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

PUPIL-NURSES : Pupil-nurses wanted 
for accredited training school, located in 
Hollywood, a beautiful part of Los Angeles. 
Affiliated with General Hospital for 
adult training and County Hospital for 
contagious training. Modern Nurses' 
Home; every room has sleeping porch. 
Children's Hospital, 4616 Sunset Blvd., Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



TEACHERS WANTED 

TEACHERS WANTED for emergency 
vacancies — colleges, universities, public and 
private schools. Ernest Olp, Steger Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WANTED AT ONCE: Two Academic 
teachers, Music Teacher, Supervisor of 
Recreation. Salary $75.00 and maintenance. 
Apply M. B. Conkling, Superintendent, 
Girls' Industrial School, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma. 



If in need of Workers 

The Survey 

Classified Advertising Service 

will supply your wants 

A recent advertiser writes: 

" Considering the shortage of 
teachers throughout the country, 
we received a very satisfactory 
number of replies and have been 
able to suitably fill most of the 
positions. We consider your classi- 
fied advertisements of great value 
in bringing institutions and insti- 
tution people seeking employment in 
touch with one another." 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



31 



LECTURES 



1 



DR. EMANUEL STERNHEIM 

LECTURES 

Consultant Sociologist 

Dates, Terms, Etc. 

827 Fine Arts Building 

410 S. Michigan Blvd., Chicago, III. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE: Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
105 East '22d Street, New York. Fall 
Schedule now in preparation. 



nrcr ARpU . We asslBt In preparing spe- 
I\.ti«jl-./^r\.V-.I 1 • C | a ] arUclea, papers, speech- 
es, debates. Expert, scholarly service. Authors 
Biibabch Bubbau, 500 Filth Arenue, New York. 



OFFICE SPACE 

IFIRST FLOOR OFFICE space, about 
30 x 50, 2S9 Fourth Avenue for philan- 
thropic organization only. Rent $1600 
yearly, about half present value. Apply to 
Superintendent on premises. 



CO-OPERATIVE APARTMENTS 

CO-OPERATIVE Apartments, Colum- 
bia Heights, Brooklyn, plan endorsed by 
Co-operative League of America. Rent 
now 2-3 rooms, bath, kitchenette, $50, $75. 
Buy equity soon, reducing costs third. 
Harbor view, gardens. 3647 Survey. 



\ CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tion* ; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Stillwater, The Queen of the St. Croix. 
A report of a Social Survey by Dr. Manuel 
C. Elmer. University of Minnesota. 

.o Standard Budget for Dependent 

^Families, by Florence Nesbitt. Pp. 46. Re- 

BTvised September 1, 1920. Contains also mini- 
mum budget for the self-supporting family. 

1 Published by Chicago Council of Social 

■Agencies, 17 N. State St., Chicago, 111. 25 

Bcects. 

Ceedit Unions. Free on request to Mass. 

■ Credit Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 
Wm Rhode Island a Thoughtful Father to 
KIts Little Children? By M. B. Still- 
■well and Harold A. Andrews. From Divis- 
■lon of Child Welfare, 307 State House, 
BiProvidence, R. I. 

^■migration Literature sent on request by 
Ktbe National Liberal Immigration League, 
H Box 116, Station F, New York City. 
^m Americanization Program in Education 

■ and Recreation', by Philip L. Seman, care 
■bf Chicago Institute, 1258 Taylor St., Chi- 
HjCago. 54 pages, illustrated. 25 cents, in- 
HUuding postage. 

hid Welfare Handbook. Contains informa- 
lon of value to health officers, superintend- 
»ts of schools, teachers, librarians, visiting 
lursc >s and social workers, illustrates all 
the educational panels published by the Na- 
tional Child Welfare Association, Inc., 70 
Birth Ave., New York. 36 pages 9x12, 50 
; cents, postpaid. 



PERIODICALS 



ttoij 
bed 
111 
few 
nine 
Uiti- 
■ntin 



ty cent* a line per month, four weekly inter 
oop]/ unchanged throughout the month. 

ipital Social Service Quarterly; $1.50 a 
year ; published by Hospital Social Service 
Association, 19 East 72d St., New York. 
Mc»(ui un/ii.nt, ijuurienj , *2 a year; pub- 
lished by The National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene. SO Union Square. New York. 
■ hH>tu> Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; 
imhllghed by the National Organisation for 
''nMic Health Nursing. 156 Fifth Ave., New 
Xoik. 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 
Educational Advantages of French Switzerland 

For information concerning boarding 
schools for boys and girls in vicinity of 
Lausanne, inquire of American-Anglo- 
Swiss Educational Agency. Best references 
and patronage. MAJEL K. BROOKS, 
1928 University Ave., New York City. 



Recreation Training Scfiooi of Chicago 

(Successor to the Recreation Department 

of the Chicago School of Civics and 

Philanthropy 

One-year coarse, opening October 4, 1920 

Write for information 

B00 S. Halsted Street (Hull Honse), 

Chicago 



Domestic Science 

HOME-STUDY COURSES 

Cooking, Sewing, Diet, Nursing, etc. For teacher*, 
social workers. Institutional managers, dietitians, 
home-makers, etc. Which ? Illustrated 10O-p*ge book- 
let. " THE PEOFESSION OF HOMB-MAKING." 
«ent on request. 
BULLETINS: Five-Cent Meals, 10c; Food Values. 

10c; Free-Hand Cooking, 10c 
AM. SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS. S19 W. 691b St. Caicagi 



THE New Republic and 
The Survey are fright- 
fully fussy about their job 
printing. 

Which is one reason why 
it is so good. 

The best reason, though, 
is that most of it is done by 
lovers of type in "the house 
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SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., 112 East 19 Street, New York 



No. 1 




TEN DAYS in VIENNA 



By John Love joy Elliott 



/ 



October 2, 1,920 \ 



25 Gents a Copy 



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TEN DAYS in VIENNA 

By John Lovejoy Elliott 



HUDSON GUILD, NEW YORK 



I 



N midsummer of this year, near Rheims, climbing up 
one of the steep paths that lead- to the famous Hill No. 
108, I slipped and fell into a snarl of barbed wire. 
Though somewhat torn and a little scratched my chief 
experience was that of surprised interest, for it seemed to me 
the mass of twisted and tangled barbed wire was a sort of 
symbol of the dominating state of thinking in Europe. It was 
not a lovely sight, this rusting, barbed mass, a remnant and 
product of the war that had made the desert that lay about, 
and that, in passing, had left behind it not only the desolate 
fields but also a dangerous kind of thinking and feeling. 

As a person passes over these battle grounds he grows more 
able to understand the Europe of today. Imagination in 
most of us is not very powerful and even with the help of 
irivid descriptions and the most lurid movies I, tor one, had 
never formed even a slightly adequate idea of the destructive 
power that had swept backward and forward over this country. 
I only began to comprehend it a little when I saw the broken 
cathedral, when I walked through the streets and blocks and 
districts of Rheims, where out of 14,000 houses, 1 was told, 
only sixty had been left untouched, and as I walked through 
the subterranean passages where people of the neigh- 
borhood for years had lived, slept, eaten, held their schools 
and meetings, and said their prayers. But the effects of war 
were most apparent in the mass of weeds that now cover the 
foundations of what were formerly many small cities and 
villages, where not one single stone is left upon another above 
the ground and where the stones themselves are not visible 
because the\ have been beaten into dust. Everywhere here 
are cemeteries with their crosses, and everywhere, blocking 
progress, is the barbed wire. 1 am told that a stretch like this 
runs for two hundred miles across France and is anywhere 
from ten to fifty miles deep. In the midst of this desert it is 
easier to understand the genesis of the present state of the 
European mind. 

Equally to be remembered are the few old peasants who 
lave found here or there a broken cellar or some part of a 
ruined cottage where they are trying to find a home for their 
st years. One hears of rebuilt villages and battlefields made 
(fertile but most of the people in the villages through which I 
passed had abandoned their dwellings altogether and were 
living in tents or shacks such as the Italian laborers in America 
;iuild along the railroads. There may doubtless be much re- 
construction going on in these districts but I saw little of it. 
| Indeed, one is very much surprised to find that on these battle- 
lelds off the beaten track there are many unexplod^d bombs, 
he government is undertaking their destruction and from 
pvery direction I heard the noise of the explosions, so that 
literally the smoke of battle still hangs overhead. In the 
streets and the villages and the cities of France, in the art 
galleries and even in the hotel elevators there are the cripples, 
en who with a war handicap are trying to earn a living. In 
le churches and cathedrals at every hour when they are open 
ie sees great numbers of old and young women in black, 
eeling in the pews or before some altar. 



1 mention these things simply because it was necessary 
constantly to remind myself of them. They helped me to keep 
a more balanced point of view, when I came in contact with 
the destruction that is still going on in Europe, a destruction 
not of property, not of soldiers, but a sanctioned killing of 
children. There is a warping and dwarfing of practically a 
whole generation, not only in Austria and Germany, but in 
many of the countries in the Near East as well. 

ONE of the purposes of my jourrie) was to get a first-hand 
knowledge of the conditions of the children in Austria and 
German) and bring to them a little relief that had been sup- 
plied bv generous friends. On arriving in Vienna from 
Zurich the first impression was one of surprise. Here was a 
great citj that insofar as its buildings were concerned had not 
suffered. Its beauty and grandeur are so great that it is diffi- 
cult to recognize the situation back of the appearances. It 
may be days or weeks before the fact is revealed to the visitor 
that he is living in a nation completely in ruins — some, 1 
suppose, come and go without ever having grasped it at all. 
A. G. Gardner, the distinguished English publicist, visited 
the continent a few months before I was there and gave his 
impressions and experiences in the Daily News of London. 
Mr. Gardner's descriptions are so vivid and his judgment of 
the situation so true that I will give a paraphrase of his 
opening pages about Vienna, omitting quotation marks, how- 
ever, because the extracts are not literal. 

He says: Although pity is the first emotion awakened, it 
is a fierce tide of anger that ultimately takes possession of the 
mind, for this terrific crime in 
the heart of Europe is not the 
work of war but of peace, not 
of men blinded by the savag- 
eries of organized war but of 
men sitting securely around a 
table in Paris, deliberately as- 
sassinating a nation and plung- 
ing the whole of central Eu- 
rope into a wreckage unlike 
anything which the infamies of 
men have perpetrated in the 
past. If Vienna had been 
blotted out from above or swal- 
lowed up from beneath it 
would have been a more mer- 
ciful fate than the mutilated 
life and lingering death to 
which the peace criminals of 
Paris have doomed it. 

This may seem like strong 
language to some but one must 
remember that Mr. Gardner 
had really seen Vienna. He 
goes on further: Think of 
what it was, one of the chief 




ON HIS WAY TO THE Fll 
STATION 



35 



3* 



T H E SURF E Y FOR 



pillars of European civilization, memorable in history as the 
rock against which the Saracen invasion that threatened to 
engulf Europe broke and turned back, the capital of an 
empire, most of all the pivot of a vast economic and industrial 
svstem. Today this great city lies like a decapitated head 
which has been struck from the body — its members have been 
hacked away and strewn to the ' four winds. ■ It is levity 
ot mind which has plunged this great city into ruin. The 
political dismemberment of Austria may be justified — Austria 
in imperialism has been cruel and for long periods reactionary 
and narrow and oppressive of neighboring peoples, and bitterly 
is she atoning for it, as cruelty and reaction must be sooner 
or later atoned for — but the economic dismemberment, with 




City children bringing wood in from the country The young 
as well as the old are carrying burdens too heavy for them in tin- 
fight with cold and hwtger 

its bitter human consequences in the lives of humble folk, was 
as gratuitous as it is deadly. It could have been provided 
against if ordinary foresight had been employed. Vienna was 
the financial and administrative center of fifty millions ot 
people — Vienna is now cut off from its 'Mies and tood 

supplies, from its factories, from ever that means 

existence; it is enveloped by tariff walls. ' ■ manufacturer 
cannot go to his spinning mills without a passr jrt. 

The devices tor getting a passport from Austria to Czecho- 
slovakia surpass the absurdities of comic opera. Indeed 1 
made a long detour in iroing from Vienna to Berlin rather 
than cross the border. The cit\ of Vienna owns its own coa! 
mines but rhev are in Teschen where the Czechs and Poles 
are fighting for their possession. Meanwhile Vienna, which 
owns the coal, is almost coalless. Jugoslavia, another frag- 
ment ot this economic wreck, is clamoring for agricultural 
machinery. It cannot have it because the coal is in one frag- 
ment or the old empire, the implement factory in another and 
the untilled land in a third. The whole empire is parcelled 
out into quarreling factors with their rival tariffs, their pass- 
ports and their animosities. Each starves the other and is 



OCTOBER 2 , 1 920 

starved by the other, but while all the " members " suffer, it 
is Vienna, the heart of the economic system, which has been 
destroyed and which alone is perishing visibly. The other 
states are mainly agricultural, but here is a city which is 
blockaded just as effectually as if it were invested by armies. 
It has been starving and dying for five years — it is starving 
and dying now more than in the bitterest times of war. To 
prove this one only needs to look at the figures supplied me 
by the Department of Health: 

BIRTHS DEATHS 

1912 39.801 32,018 

1913 37,632 32,130 

1914 36,442 31,480 

1915 29,257 33,052 

1916 23,491 33,494 

1917 s 20,688 40,260 

1918 19,257 44,131 

1919 24,347 39,417 

Or the table of births and deaths in the city for the first 
twelve weeks of this year: 

BIRTHS DEATHS 

First week 389 740 

Second week 419 757 

Third week 450 704 

Fourth week 384 829 

Fifth week 479 741 

Sixth week 378 1,032 

Seventh week 409 1,045 

Eighth week 453 1,102 

Ninth week 358 1,054 

Tenth week 415 1 ,020 

Eleventh week 461 944 

Twelfth week 449 799 

The figures in this table are quoted by Mr. Gardner. 

It is one of the most difficult things in the world to give a 
true picture of any great city. There are in it so many ele- 
ments. The facts and figures given above are undoubtedly 
true but their effect on the minds of the people might be ex- 
aggerated. I had been told that no one ever heard laughter 
on the streets and that the children never played — that every- 
one was starving. That is not true; children will always 
play so long as they are alive. Even when tragedy is most 
prolonged men and women laugh, if for nothing else than to 
keep their sanity. Not everyone is starving — here in the 
midst of the greatest hunger and death there has ever been 
known, save perhaps in times of pestilence, one finds many 
profiteers and people who have grown rich in war and peace. 

The profiteer has few apologists, but who can defend the 
type of journalist and traveler who visits the countries of 
Austria and Germany, and of the Near East, and ignores 
vital statistics and most of the facts, and reports in some of 
our leading journals that all is well with them? For while 
one does see some smiling faces, does see some comfort and 
iuxury, does note the recoil of human nature manifested in 
emotional excess, the spirit of these places is one dominated 
b\ wretchedness and tragedy. 

IN driving from the station to the hotel I passed a long 
line of men and women standing in front of a warehouse. 
It was my first view of the relief work which I had come 
to see. I asked the driver to stop. I was told that there 
were about three thousand people in line, some of whom had 
been there for hours. Here were perhaps the most solemn 
and sad-looking faces I had ever seen in my life. There were 
absolutely no happy faces. I saw a woman who was carrying 
what I thought was a dead child and I was about to speak 
to her when I noticed other women with children. One 
often sees a mother carrying a sleeping baby, but there wasj 
something different about these children. They lay on their J 
mothers' shoulders in a wav that I cannot describe, other thar 

i 




THE VIEHMARKT (CATTLE MARKET), THE SOURCE OF VIENNA'S MEAT SUPPLY 

Above, as it was in 1914. 'Below, as it is today 



I 



I 




■f- - 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2 , 1920 



that they had a look of collapse. They were sleeping, but it 
was the sleep of exhaustion, not of health. 

This warehouse where three thousand people receive rations 
several times a week was one conducted by the Swedes. Sweden 
has been playing a noble part in this relief work. Indeed the 
names of a number of countries come to have a very pleasant 
sound in one's ears whenever they are spoken, and anions 
these Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Switzerland are always 
mentioned. England has and is rendering great service, espe- 
cially through the Quakers. But the country that has done 
far and away the most is America. 

Even where among the relief workers and among all those 
who are in touch with the situation, one hears one single 
phrase, always spoken in a way that gives it deep significance: 
" Amerika hat ungehfuer viel fuer tins geleistet." Even when 
a person has done little himself and has little right to it, there 
is a sense of pride in the great work done by the Americans, 
both through the committee of which Mr. Hoover is the head, 
and by the Quakers. That is the only relief from the 



of the poorest quarters. Nearly all the children were without 
shoes and stockings and the rags were more apparent than 
ever. This of course is not so bad in the summer, but one 
of the things that surprises the visitor is that while one hears 
many complaints of hunger the fear of the cold is even 
greater. And even the visitor shudders, remembering the:* 
statistics on the ravages of tuberculosis. 

One of the pleasant features of these visits to the stations 
is to talk with the workers. 1 found that both among the 
Quakers and in the American commissions the method is to 
work in the closest cooperation with the Austrians themselves, 
the Americans supplying the food and keeping careful count 
of all expenditures while the Austrians do the work of dis- 
tribution. The women ladling the soup and waiting on the 
children are the wives of officers, of state officials, the wives 
and daughters of professors. One gets a hint of their edu- 
cation by the perfect English which so many of them speak; 
their culture and refinement contrasting strangely with their 
present condition. 




SUPPLEMENTAL RATIONS GIVEN BY A FRIENIlS RELIEF DEPOT 



constant depression which grows worse day by day. 

One is dsed of course everywhere to bare-foot children, but 
many of the men and women standing in line were bare-foot. 
I thought that I had seen rags in London and New York, 
but never before had I seen so many literally dressed in tat- 
ters. I saw trousers and skirts that were nothing more than 
one patch sewed on to another. 

The day after my arrival I went out, under the guidance 
of a Viennese physician, to the Relief Administration. The 
first places visited were feeding stations for school children. 
The Americans are supplying somewhere between 174,000 
and 220,000 children with at least one meal a day. The pres- 
ent program is for 300,000 in all of Austria. The stations 
are in the school houses, some of them in the health clinics, 
and some are in palaces. I was told that palaces are the 
one cheap thing in Vienna. From great central kitchens the 
food is sent to the distributing centers. I saw dinner served 
to 3,000 children in an old army barracks. This was in one 



The feeding of the apprentices is another most interesting 
and important piece of work done by Americans. Here are 
the working boys and girls between the ages of fifteen and 
twenty. At first sight this may not appeal to many as so im- 
portant a task as feeding the children, but as a matter of 
fact is is equally important. If the children can get food 
they will gradually regain their health and strength, but with 
these growing boys and girls it is a question of now or 
never. While there are many pale faces and bony bodies in 
these large groups, their real situation does not become evident 
until one inquires more deeply, and then it is not an uncom- 
mon experience to learn that a boy who looks about twelve 
years old is seventeen or over. Some few, of course, have 
grown to a natural stature, but a very large number are any- 
where from one to five years back in their growth. Yet 
they are all working. They tell you that they are carpenters, 
upholsterers, plumbers, and in spite of yourself you almost 
laugh at the thought of these children being laborers. 



T II A S U RV K Y F OR O C T () HER 2 . 1920 



y< 



Then as you ask a boy about his age and his weight and 
his wages, you notice the flush coming into liis fare you sec 
that you arc talking to the "ashamed poor." Here are those 
young workers tor whom the cup of charity is necessary but 
to whom it is painful. The) belong to the class ot labor who 
have their just pride. If there is any question about the 
need of feeding these apprentices a ghfnce at the health statistics 
.reveals the true situation. It is among these girls and boys 
tuberculosis has most increased. Here are the figures for 
boys and girls between fifteen and twenty in Vienna: 

DEATHS DUE TO TUBERCULOSIS 

1912 472 

1913 499 

1914 476 

1915 593 

1916 753 

1917 976 

1918 1,024 

1919 1,021 

While the American nation has been feeding the school 
children, the Quakers have been caring more especially for 



being constantly reexamined at the clinics and in the schools, 
the hospitals, the settlement, and at all points where feed- 
ing and relief work is done, so that it is possible to have a 
thorough!) trustworthy and scientific standard for all that 
is being attempted. 1 I visited rcvcral of the health stations 
where the children were weighed and examined by the phy- 
sician, and the principal needs indicated. One of the aston- 
ishing and helpful and hopeful sijjjns is the growth which 
the children almost invariably make, even on what would 
seem to be an unbelievably stinted diet. Fresh milk is only 
to he had for vcr\ little babies and condensed milk only for 
the very little children and the sick. One of the Ix-st experi- 
ments ot the Quakers has been the importing of two hun- 
dred cows into the neighborhood of Vienna. This ^ives at 
least a partial supply of fresh milk in those cases where it 
is most needed, and further has served another purpose. For 
one of the unfortunate outcomes of the present situation is 
that while the government undertakes to supply food to its 
citizens it has nothing but almost worthless paper money to 




■^H ', 




'mmmmsmmatsmtttK^M 



MUM J 



WEEKLY RATIONS VVR ONE PERSON IN VIENNA 



mothers and infants. It has been the shortage in milk per- 
haps more than almost anything else that has made the 
pathos and tragedy in the lives of these littlest children, and 
the Quakers have therefore undertaken to help those espe- 
cially. Not only have the Quakers urged the government 
to open health stations for mothers and babies all over the 
city, but they are the main supports of these stations when 
once the) have been opened. While it is possible in part 
I to feed and care for tie older children away from the family, 
the care of the baby necessitates the care of the mother, ex- 
cept in those very extreme cases of which I will speak under 
another heading. In these health stations for children and 
mothers the doctor naturally plays a great part. Vienna 
has always been a center for the training of physicians. It 
has many eminent doctors and the training of all of them 
las been exceptional. It is due to this fact that all of the 
clief work has had an excellent scientific basis — not only 
lave all the children in Vienna been examined, but they are 



give in return. The large cities in Austria and Germany are 
under the control of the socialists and there has sprung up 
a most harassing struggle between the peasants who are con- 
servative and the city administrations which are exceedingly 
radical. Sometimes by keeping the cows in their own con- 
trol, sometimes by giving a little stock to the peasants, the 
Quakers are seeking to bridge over one of the most trying 
of local difficulties. 

In those cases where there are children in the family food 
is also supplied to the mother. No woman is allowed to pur- 
chase supplies unless she receives the permit of the local health 
authorities. While all agencies from foreign governments 
have much difficulty in avoiding local pitfalls or connection 
with political and religious sects, there has been fine coopera- 
tion between the city administration and the foreign com- 
missions. Local committees of women are formed to check 



• The examination of the boys ot one school furnishes these figures : 
Normal. 6.5 per cent ; undernourished, 46.2 ; badly undernourished. 47.3. 






Inasmuch as Ye Have 
of These, my Brethren^ 




Undernourished children eared for in 
the American " Kinderheilstatte," Vienna 



(six years old) 



It unto One of the Least 
wave Done It unto Me! 



99 





s5& 



m im 



(') EN YKAKS 01. !• 



*m 




(nini. vkars old) 



(twelve years old) 



On«« chi/d in foo/i picture luis reached 
normal height and is easily distinguished 









42 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



up the food for sale, of course at far less than the actual 
cost, and to keep track of the health cards presented. There is 
no organization whose work I observed but is using to good 
purpose the local ability to work and to organize, and this 
makes it possible for comparatively few of the representatives 
of the American Relief Administration or the Quakers to 
superintend a great deal of distribution. Few things appeal 
more than the splendid health stations for mothers and babies. 
Sometimes, however, the situation becomes too acute, and the 
baby or the child must be sent to a hospital. The need for 
support of these excellent children's hospitals is a matter 
which cannot be overstated. 

Both consumption and rachitis among children are about 
three times as great as they were before the war. Of course 
extreme cases of consumption and rachitis could always be 
found in every city. There is hardly a single case of suffer- 
ing among the children 01 the poor that I saw abroad that 
could not be duplicated in any large city. That is why pic- 
tures and photographs call forth misgivings — a person can 
say, " I know just such a case in our own city; why should 
we go abroad to give our help?" It'is here just as it was 
in France; it is impossible to grasp the magnitude of the 
destruction in France of dwellings and fields, in Austria and 
Germany of children. 

In Tivoli near the palace of the old Emperor Frances Jo- 
seph, there is a little hospital. When I was there a few weeks 
ago there were 125 children in this hospital, which is an old 
army barracks transformed. There were only 125 chilrlreu 
in the hospital, but there were 300 extreme cases that had 
also applied for admission, and that had been told thev must 




ONE LITTLE GIKL 



be put on the waiting list. This hospital as I understand is 
supported by a New York committee, of which Dr. Glogau 
is the chairman. It was the first of the children's hospitals 
that I visited and its memory is particularly vivid. One of 
the deepest impressions that I bring back with me is the need 
of helping to keep this place open and if possible to increase 



ipacity. If the 300 children on the waiting list are any- 
thing like those that I saw in the hospital the demand for 
help is a cry that would go up to high heaven. 

The work with children and in the children's hospitals in 
Vienna, and to a large extent also that in Berlin, is accord- 
ing to the plans worked out by Dr. Pirquet, an eminent Aus- 
trian physician, whose methods I am told are producing as- 
tonishing results. Of course there is no one that is not criti- 
cized, but Dr. Pirquet's power of organization and of stand- 
ardizing treatment, his ability to select a marvelously efficient 
staff, and the splendid outcome of his work, are so far as I 
know unquestioned. The children who are able to be out 
of bed are kept in the fresh air the whole day, dressed only 
in little swimming tights. One of Dr. Pirquet's principles 
is that the mental atmosphere is a matter of primary im- 
portance. Both the nurses and the doctors are evidently 
trained to this idea and exert themselves to the utmost to keep 
the spirit of the hospital wards as cheerful as possible. In 
the. ward or on the playground, wherever one meets the chil- 
dren from every crib and corner one hears the salutation, so 
common in Vienna, " Gruess Gott, Gruess Gott." They 
are encouraged as they march to sing their jolly folk-songs. 
It is a surprising experience to meet a group of these almost 
naked children singing or chatting as they go, but one's sur- 
prise quickly turns to another feeling as one observes the ter- 
rible deformities and the emaciated bodies which most of them 
have. This is even worse in the hospitals. I had no idea 
how fragile the bones become in a rachitic patient. I saw one 
boy in the Tivoli hospital, sent in by Dr. Lorenz, and I was 
"told that his bones had broken seventeen times. This, how- 
ever, was an exceptional case. The effect of rachitis can ex- 
tend to anything from an extreme instance like this to a mere 
case of bowed legs. The disease, by the way, is often referred 
to as " the English sickness." The worst consequences of this 
disease have been caused by the blockade. 

OF all the terrible engines of war the blockade is undoubt- 
edly the worst, yet it is not generally so recognized. The 
explosion of a bomb or a mine is much more dramatic, the 
shelling of a town or city by an airplane startles the imag- 
ination, or the torpedo from the terrible submarine may cause 
more horror when you think of it, but of all these devices 
of war nothing in any way compares in actual results to the 
starvation caused by blockade. Comparatively few people 
go down in ships, and the greater part of the population of 
a city can hide from bombs; but starvation is an all-embrac- 
ing doom — practically no one escapes, and if anyone does, it 
is surely not the weakest. To them it comes most inescap- 
ably — to the children, more especially the babies, and to the 
women. As one walks through the corridors of* these chil- 
dren's hospitals one sees unquestionably its effect — first in 
the size of the children. Just as in the case of the appren- 
tices the dwarfish size stands out most noticeably. I saw 
many children who were eight who had not reached the size 
of two and a half. They were just learning to stand alone. 
Others almost as old had not yet learned so much. I am not 
speaking of one or two cases but of many which I actually 
saw and of the many thousands more which I know must 
exist. Their arms and legs and spines and chests are twisted 
and warped, and one is surprised that life can still exist 
there. It seems as if some evil spirit had touched these chil- 
dren and had left them dwarfed and twisted in body and as 
surely handicapped in mind, As I looked at them only one 
sentence was in my mind; I am not a communicant in any 
Christian church, but some of the sayings of Jesus I believe 



r; 



THE SURI' E V / O R C T O H E R 2, i <j 2 



\ 



literally and tin's is one of them: " Inasmuch as ye have done 
it unto the least of one of these, my brethren, ye have done 
Bhinto me." That sentence I believe as literally as I believe 
that I exist or that I have a body. 

I was glad to get out at last from the atmosphere of the 
hospitals, and to get back to the more normal life of the streets, 
but I soon found that I had not escaped altogether. My mind 
was constantly haunted, as indeed it always will be from 
time to time, by the thought of the children. I had been 
stopping at what is supposed to be the best hotel in Vienna, 
but the food there was so poor and the prices so extravagant 
that I had hunted up. a little restaurant on the Mozart Platz 
>vhere I took my meals. No sooner' did \ sit down than the 
of the little people from the cribs gathered around and 
made the taking of food a difficult matter. I was quickly 
Brought out of this sentimental mood by the appearance of 
flesh and blood children, ostensibly selling newspapers, whose 
eves seemed to devour whatever was on the table and who were 
jnade really happy by a piece of dry bread. Only those who 
have tried to eat the bread of Germany and Austria know 
how hungry a person must be before he wants it; but there 
was no mistaking the gratitude in the faces. As I came away 
[from the restaurant I saw a small boy sitting on the pedestal 
if the Mozart statue. It was an interesting picture of the 
d and new Vienna. The youngster had been gnawing at 
bone and was trying to crack it on the stone pedestal. He 
as so eager in his attempt and so futile in his efforts that 
thought it worth while to help him and as 1 took the bone 
my hand I saw with what fierceness he had been biting 
it. I found the attempt to break the bone not an easy 
matter, but he urged me on to greater efforts " because there 
as something beautiful inside." As soon as the bone was 
oken I beat a hasty retreat down the street, not caring to 
r atch what I suppose was a favorite occupation of our cave 
icestors. 

HE strain of the days in Vienna was to no small extent 
relieved by the making of new acquaintances, and the 
ming into contact with fine men and women. Kipling once 
aid during the war that he felt like going down on his knees 
ibefore every Frenchman. Something like that impulse must 
"affect everyone who sees the Quakers at work. As they are 
essentially a modest group one fears that they might not be 
put entirely at their ease by such a performance. You watch 
them wjth a feeling of sincere gratitude and veneration. 
There are, too, a vast number of cultivated and highly intel- 
ligent Viennese, many of them still living in their homes and 
some of them, through good fortune, still able to keep a 
measure of comfort. These people are thinking. 
; Not only are many minds at work on the present situation, 
Kit there are those who are working for a better even if a dis- 
tent future. I spent an evening in one of the most beautiful 
homes that I have ever seen, in the company of a Viennese 
woman who has succeeded in getting from the government 
permission to remove from the schools all the old-fashioned 
bistory books, than which perhaps there have been no greater 
breeders of misunderstanding among the nations, with their 
jOne-sided statement of facts, their glorification of empire and 
j military conquests. And the attempt is being made to sub- 
stitute not only the really best literature and the most beau- 
tiful pictures of all nations, but also the teaching of history 
rom a more international and rational point of view. Some- 
times it seems in these better homes that one has escaped 
temporarily at least from the tragedy of the city but it is not 
^because the middle class have suffered physically as much 
a* any, and mentally they have suffered more. 




CELLAR DWELLING TN VIENNA 

Many thousands live in these cellars — some sick'; ail miserable; 
most desperate 

Through organized labor the wages of the skilled workers 
have been pushed up more nearly to, though still far below, 
the level of prices. They tell the story of a professor who 
had fifty kronen in his pocket and the workingman five hun- 
dred. The professor said to the workingman, " I should 
think I was well off if I had as much money in my pocket as 
you have." To which the workingman replied, " Well, you 
would have if you had learned something really worth while." 
The condition of the lawyers, the doctors, the school teachers 
and the professors in the universities is truly pitiful. Today 
the better paid professors are receiving the income of an un- 
skilled laborer, say a little over $5 a week. One report says: 

The annual income of a professor in a university is under present 
conditions quite inadequate to provide for his wife and one child, 
each having one suit, one set of underwear, and a single pair of 
shoes apiece and this without making any provision for rent, board 
or heat. The additional amount of 1,200 kronen per head per annum 
for wives and children of professors is just sufficient to purchase 
one egg every other day for each recipient. We hear much of 
undernourishment among the tenement houses in all countries but 
is unusual to rind practically the entire staff of a university, professors 
and their families, suffering from the effects of malnutrition. As 
for books, scientific publications, instruments and chemicals, it is 
hardly possible for the best paid to buy them in Austria and out 
of the question to provide them from abroad. 

But today sheer physical misery seems to matter most. I have 
heard of a physicist of European fame, now full professor 
after forty-five years of service in a university, who is paid 
less than one-third of the wages of a tailor's assistant, and who 
is obliged to go to the public kitchens for food. One teacher 
writes, " No Englishman can imagine in what a state of dirt 
we have to live." 

Of course there are many attempts to relieve the situation, 
both in the matter of food and clothing and of books, but- 






1-+ 



THE SCR V E Y / OR OC T () B E R 



i q > a 




V7ENNA CHILDREN LINING UT FOR THEIR ONE DAILY MEAL OF AMERICAN FOOD 

these are not yet sufficiently extended to cope with the situa- 
tion. The relief work among the professional classes is done 
through their own organizations — the lawyers, the doctors, 
the state officials and the teachers each have their own com- 
mittees. The work of the American Relief Administration 
and its " dollar " packages is here performing an infinitely 
valuable service. In addition to the distribution of actual food 
to those in the greatest distress, these professional organiza- 
tions have opened middle-class kitchens. One sees here 
famous men who have occupied eminent places in science and 
in literature sitting down to meals which a few years ago 
they themselves would have hesitated to offer a beggar at the 
door. I ate at one of these kitchens; the whole meal war. a 
sort of dough, I suppose intended to be macaroni, mixed with 
lettuce leaves, and the only other food was a small piece of 
bread with a spot of marmalade on it. Such a meal can be 
afforded perhaps only once a day by a member of the pro- 
fessional class. The price was ten kronen — that is to say 
about $2 in our money at the old rate of exchange. 

Of course before the war one of the most honorable posi^ 
tions was supposed to be that of a soldier. Men entered the 
profession at least in good faith ; now at an advanced age many 
of them have been attempting to find new work, and often in 
vain. The week before I atrived four officers had committed 
suicide, one of them an old colonel of sixty. Considering the 
situation, however, there are surprisingly few suicides. There 
is a quiet acceptance of a situation for which they per- 
ceive no adequate remedy and for most of them it is true 
there is no future at all. 

Besides the hunger there is the lack of clothing. Most of 
the officials whom one meets present a good appearance: they 
have a single suit of decent clothes, from which they imme- 
diately change on going to their homes to put on their rags. 
For many thousands of cultivated people in Vienna there is 
absolutely no possibility of buying a suit of clothes. The Vien- 
nese are a peculiarly gentle people; of all the countries of Eu- 
rope, Austria alone was the one which passed from the old re- 
gime to the new without violence, but this does not signify a 
lack of pride, of courage or self-respect. During my stay in 
the city I saw absolutely no begging among these ashamed ' 
poor. I hope the following lines may never come to the knowl- 
edge of the man of whom the incident is told. He had been 



exceedingly kind to me an/ll 
1 had been at his hous< 
or rather his room — toj 
large numbers of middl 
class families are living inn 
single rooms. I met his'| 
wife, who is a physician and' 
u ho seemed to me to be much 
more in need of care thanll 
able to give it. On the last 
day before I left we weed 
sitting in the hotel lobt 
and I offered him a fo<j 
draft. He made some stat 
ment as they all do, abol 
knowing many poor peop 
when he accepted it, 
then after some hesitati 
said he would like to usi 
few cans of condensed m 
for his wife as she was 
1 told him that was c< 
tainly very true and that 
wife's white, sad face woi] 
haunt me always and I begged him to use it all to keep 
alive. Although a hotel lobby is the last place where i 
would voluntarily do so, he broke down completely. 

They are all living under terrible tension, just able to he 
their own and go through the day's routine. Nerves and me 
tal exhaustion are the rule and not the exception. I foui| 
the marks of it on many faces and among many classes, b J 
most of all among the women. Every Saturday and Sundjf 
almost the whole population gets on the street-cars and the rjfl 
ways and goes to the country, with packs on their backs; 
they return loaded with whatever farm produce they have iff 
able to buy. This is not the custom of the few but of the 
jority. 1 was on the outskirts of the city when a man 
woman got into the street-car with huge bundles of gn 
wood on their backs. The woman sat beside me on the pi 
form. Even after she had put her burden down on the flj 
and was trying to rest her body, her face twitched continua 
Her color was the yellowish white which one sees everywb 
and is caused by starvation and strain. All the way into 
city her hands were never quiet ; and her fingers kept pick 
at her old skirt. When they reached their destination her 1 
band took up his own load and then he and the condu 
helped to lift the heavy burden to the back of the woman 
I watched her marching bravely up the street. One w< 
have said from her appearance that she ought to be in the 
pital, not carrying a load that would have been heavy f 
strong man. 

I met many of these exhausted-looking women at the Ve 
settlement, the one large settlement in Vienna, which has 
doing splendid work for many years, and which now is 
of the finest organizations in the city. Each settlement h; 
own method of work and that of the Vienna settlemeni 
been to select as large a group of little children as possibh 
help them continuously until they have grown up. I have i 
seen more intensive work in any neighborhood house, 
war of course has doubled, trebled and quadrupled th 
mands made upon them and Elsa Federn and her asso 
hafve been making heroic efforts to cope with the situ 
They have a good plant which has been used during th 
years largely as a health center. Here again I found the 
did work of the physicians and nurses. I was told by < 
the reliable physicians working in the place that he be 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



4-5 




that more than 75 per cent of the children in the neighborhood 
were either actually consumptive or at least seriously threat- 
ened by tuberculosis. This gives us some idea of the problem 
before the settlement. I spoke one night to an audience of 
the fathers and mothers. I am used to speaking to settlement 
audiences, but never had I seen such worn and tired faces be- 
fore me; especially those of the women. After my talk, a club 
of boys sang and being Viennese of ■course sang beautifully. 
The burden of their song was, " We are young and that is 
beautiful," but it was hard to believe that it is beautiful, or 
rood even, to be young in Vienna. 

Mr. Gardner in his admirable account of Austria and Ger- 
many says that crime has not increased there more than else- 
where. In this single point perhaps I would not be able to 
agree with him, and I would base my belief on some of the 
figures that were given me. There were in 1910, 6,059 in- 
mates of prisons in Vienna; in 1919 there were 13,631. There 
has been considerable increase in crimes of violence but most 
penally in those of theft and robbery. There has, of course, 
n Austria as everywhere in Europe been a great increase in 
uvenile crime. It must also be remembered that practically no 
building has been going on for six years, with the result that 
his greatly increased number of prisoners are confined in build- 
ings never intended for such numbers. I spent one Sunday 
morning in the large prison of the city. It was built to con- 
tain 1,080 as a maximum, but at the time I was there it housed 
2,400. The newer part of the prison was built with cells, but 
in the old quarters prisoners were confined in rooms. We 
were received with great courtesy by the director of prison 
systems in Vienna. He was, I believe, an exceedingly earnest 
and, I know, a courteous gentleman. The condition of the 
prison was in no way his responsibility. I had seen him at 
the public kitchen where I had dined earlier, so that I knew 
that he too was hungry, and I knew that the official black coat 
in which he received us would quickly be exchanged for rags 
on his return home. Consequently I felt that the misery which 
I saw in the prison he, at least in part, shared. 

In going through the corridors and entering the rooms where 
the inmates were kept the first thing that one noticed was the 
overcrowding. On each door was a figure indicating the num- 
ber that were supposed to be confined in this space. Under it 
was another figure stating the number actually confined. In 
many of these rooms the old liirntafion had been 12, and the 
actual number of inmates was over 30. In these rooms the 
prisoners slept, ate and lived. Aside from the most rudi- 
mentary toilet facilities there was no furniture except tables. 
At night straw ticks or sacks were brought in and laid down 
on the floor but with the crowded condition it was not possi- 
ble to find floor space enough for each prisoner to have a sep- 
sleeping place. The ventilation was also poor. 
By far the greatest number of the prisoners whom ! saw 
were young. I talked with one boy of 12 and in one room I 
w nearly thirty young girls. They had been 011 strike that 
turning and had torn up their ticks and tried to break the 
tables. The excitement of the situation was still with them 
when we came in. Their hands were twitching and their eyes 
shining. They were all ready to make speeches on the subject 
of prison conditions. One could not doubt that they would 
have had much to say to the point. Indeed they were an at- 
tractive group; one wished them wejl, but the only thing that 
could be done was to march along with the little party and 
let the iron door slam again into its place. 

Last winter, I was told, there were long periods when 

the building had no heat. Although it was supposed to be 

heated with coal I saw a pile of wood in the courtyard which, 

ver, could not last more than a few day The Sunday 



dinner consisted of a ball of dough, covered with a sort of 
thin liquid which was called soup. ' If the rest of Vienna has 
been hungry, these prisoners — most of them young, most of 
them having stolen because they were hungry — have been kept 
ih an almost starving condition. Last winter they sent up a 
hunger cry. For two days and two nights, sometimes in re- 
lays, sometimes ail I together they screamed, "Hunger — Hun- 
ger — Hunger — Hunger," for forty-eight hours without stop- 
ping. People of the neighborhood were almost driven mad, 
for there was not a man, or woman, or child in Vienna who did 
not know that it was true. In addition to this cold and hunger 
I was told that the ticks were infested with vermin and 1 
knew that they had no soap. In this prison almost better than 
anywhere else I saw a picture of Vienna itself, shut in, starv- 
ing, without heat, and condemned by unthinking judges to a 
living death. 

The most successful prison workers do not believe that such 
methods will reform prisoners. Certainly they ought not to be 
applied to girls and boys; neither will they do any good to a 
city, to a nation, or to a people. 

IN contrast to these imprisoned youths, is the release of 
other groups from the imprisoned nation. Across the border 
of Austria, to and from other countries, long trains are con- 
stantly shuttling, carrying a great number of younger children 
who are the guests of foreign nations. Thousands of them 
are being fed and cared for far from their homes. England, 
I was told, was the first of the "enemy countries" to welcome 
a group of these children. I heard, however, an almost tragic 
side to this picture, for unless the visit is a prolonged one, and 
the restoration to health complete, the children die soon after 
their return. After all, most of them must be cared for 
within the borders of their own country. America is too far 
away to participate in this kind of hospitality, but she has 
played a leading part in helping the children, and will surely 
continue. No permanent help is in sight and no one can be 
sure when it will come. Meanwhile the work already begun 
will perhaps be more needed than ever for at least another 
year. 

There are two reasons why I hope it will go on. First, of 
the many good elements in human nature, none is so good as 
the response to children, and the richest nation of the world 
will not desert the children of the world at this time of their 
greatest need; and secondly, the effect of helping these little 
people is producing an incalculably great effect upon all peoples. 

MANY may believe it is just that the Germans and Aus- 
trians should bear the brunt of the results of the war. 
but only a depraved and perverted hatred can wish to 
penalties of starvation upon the children. Of course 
these children were responsible for the war. The 
of 1 hem who suffer most have never even heard of 
ire millions of children who will carry the marks 
but of hunger and starvation, in their minds and 
bodies and character long after all those who made the war 
have passed away. It is because this injury to the next genera- 
tion is so unjust that it is so dangerous. It is the memory of 
unjust punishment that remains longest in the mind ot the 
individual. It is the memory of undeserved suffering which 
keeps alive resentment and hatred through generations of his- 
tory. The children of the world are innocent of this war and 
the best waj to prevent another is to see to it that their bodies 
and minds are not warped and distorted, but are helped by 
the better spirit which should have come with peace. 

In getting through the barbed wire entanglements to help 
the children, we are learning a tremendously important wa\ of 
getting through the entanglements all together. 



;: 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2, 1920 



In the outlying district called the Spinnerin am Kreutz I 
was visiting a hospital for tubercular children, established by 
the Swedes, and found myself in the neighborhood of a large 
factory district. Encircling the city for a long distance rose a 
line of smokeless chimneys. The whole district was without 
life and seemed to me like a graveyard. The streets and alleys 
were empty of people, the factory doors were closed and all the 
great engines of production standing idle. In the city, too, 
were many idle workers. The great stricken city of Vienna 
cannot forever, perhaps not for long, be supported by the weak 
hands of charity, and next to immediate supplies of food there 
is nothing so necessary to its salvation as the opportunity for 
work and for self-support. To satisfy this inexpressibly urgent 
need three things are necessary : first, coal, then raw stuffs, 
and credit. As I said before, I heard perhaps more bitter 
complaints about the cold than I did about the food, and this 
was probably due, not only to memories of last winter, which 
with the exception of one brief period was moderate, but to 
the greater fear of the coming winter. Vienna is now re- 
ceiving less than 40 per cent of its needed poal supply. What 
comes in must be used for running the street railways, and for 
the partial lighting, just enough in the streets to make the 
gloom visible ; but there is no coal for general distribution and 
it is just this extra supply that is needed to save the situation. 
This, for the community, is a matter of life and death. 

One meets statesmen and scholars of world-wide reputation, 
who not only know very well what the trouble is now but 
have thought out adequate detailed plans for relief and recon- 
struction in the matter of coal, in the improvement of trans- 
portation, and for the restarting of the factories. Perfectly 
feasible plans are these. It is not at all a question of a lack 
of knowledge ; it is purely a matter of unwillingness on the part 
of the dominating powers of the world to permit the change. 

The whole of this great and crucial problem centers about 
Teschen. As I have said before, Vienna's coal mines were 
there; this 'district was the power-house for fifty millions of 
people. On the continent Teschen was as famous as it was 
important. However, Mr. Lloyd George said that he had 
never heard of it until he had taken part in disposing of it and 
some have thought this a good joke. Surely it would have been 
not only just but wise to have left Teschen for the joint use 
of all those who have been deriving their supply of coal from 
it, and who are dependent upon it, whether they were Hun- 
garians, Austrians, Czechs, or Poles. Instead the situation 



was so handled by the Peace 
become a bone of contention 
between the Czechs and the 
Poles, who are now fight- 
ing for its exclusive posses- 
sion, and while they fight 
the plight of fifty millions 
of people is steadily grow- 
ing worse. 

The Coal Commission set 
up under the Peace Treaty 
has great powers which it 
could well use to restore to 
all the communities depen- 
dent on this district for 
their coal at present, as they 
were in the past, the right 
to access and- "supply. This 
coal field is not the prop- 
erty of either the Czechs or 
the Poles but the common 
resource of the industrial 



Commission that Teschen has 



Si- * l Xi 






The first train starting for an " enemy country 
be fed and cared for. 



world that has been built up upon it. The freeing oi 
Teschen would set going all these smokeless factories ofj 
which I have spoken, and many more, and do more tharj 
anything else to stop the ruin that is spreading in central 
Europe. 

The breaking up of such economic unity as formerly existed 
makes all the talk about the brotherhood of the world little 
more than a bitter farce. Austria-Hungary was an economic 
unit, a single texture of industrial, commercial and financial 
interests; Vienna was the center for textile manufacturers, 
paper manufacturers, machine works, leather factories, beet 
growing and dozens of other industries. The need of rei 
tablishing these is primary and the time is fearfully pressing. 
The methods that should be used for getting coal, machinery 
and credits are not vague— they are well known and such men 
as Dr. Frederick Hertz an'd many others have printed de- 
tailed statements of them time and time again. It is true th.Tt 
the coal supply is short all over the world. It is limited here 
in America, but by comparison we have felt nothing of such 
shortage. If America wanted to deliver even a million tons of 
coal to the French with an understanding that an equal 
amount should be allocated to Austria it could set going this 
machinery of industry and of self-support. If the people of 
Vienna can get coal and credits they can save themselves. In 
the long run they are the only ones who can do it. 

Repeatedly I have been asked: What is happening in Vi 
enna?- This I have tried in part to answer here, but a more 
important question is: What is going to happen to Vienna? 
If political and economic relief does not come, and come quick 
ly — as Mr. Gardner says — "We can write Vienna off the 
map." 

BUT Vienna is not a place on a map. It is the men, worn 
en and children whom I have endeavored to describe as 
I found them. The influence of the people of America was 
never before so potent in Europe as it is to-day, and there is 
no question of greater importance than how this influence is 
to be used. The effect of the work of main American organi- 
zations and of many American men and women in Europe is 
helping to lay the foundation of that better order of which we 
have all been talking for so many years and of that peace and 
mutual trust which is the greatest need of the world today. 
One often hears the term " peaceful penetration " used with 
a sinister significance, but these people working abroad have 
found a method of "peaceful penetration" that is not sinister. 

They are working their way 

• * ' — ' through and are clearing the 

way as they go ; they are 
quietly demonstrating a 
method to the world. It 
was in speaking of a 
method and policy similar to 
this in spirit that Abra- 
ham Lincoln said : " We — 
even we here — hold the 
power and bear the respon- 
sibility. We shall nobly 
save or meanly lose the last 
best hope of earth. Other 
means may succeed ; this 
cannot fail. The way is 
plain, peaceful, generous, 
just — a way which if fol- 
lowed, the world will for- 
ever applaud, and God must 
forever bless." 






*% 



OFF FOR ENGLAND 



with children to 




A RATTERY OF HELP 
These cars are seldom idle but are kept constantly going by the Friends Mission in I 'iemui 

carrying food and clothing 

If You Believe in Conserving Health and Spreading Good-Will 



IN AUSTRIA— by 

feeding SO, 000 children under 
school age 

subsidizing hospitals 

righting tuberculosis 

selling clothing below cost to stu- 
dents 

increasing the supply of fresh milk 

IN POLAND— by 

fighting typhus fever 

helping refugees 

distribution of food and supplies 

to hospitals 
loaning and selling horses and 

tools for agricultural work 



IN GERMANY— by 

feeding 500,000 children under Is 
supplying new and used clothing 

for children and adults 
subsidizing student feeding centers 

IN SERBIA— by 

helping orphanages and hospitals 
reconstructing houses and subsi- 
dizing farmers 

IN RUSSIA— by 

sending medical supplies and chil- 
dren's clothing to Soviet Russia. 

THEN REMEMBER 



Tear off the coupon and send us a check 
A more detailed account of our work will be sent on request 

$12.00 will feed 1 child till July 1, 1921 
$150.00 will feed 100 children for 1 month 



American Friends Service Committee 
20 S. 12th Street 
Phila., Pa. 

I enclose dollars In he used in the relief work of the American ■ Friends Service 

Committee. 

Name 

Street 

City 






AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION'S PROGRAM 

UNDER the chairmanship of Herbert Hoover, this organization is engaged 
in two co-ordinated efforts in Central Europe — the feeding and clothing 
of undernourished children, and the relief of general hunger by sale of " Food 
Drafts " at American banks on warehouses in Central and Eastern Europe. 



rHE European Children's Fund has been op- 
erating in rcntral Europe since the Spring 
of iyi'j. and has undertaken to continue the 
work of supplying one nourishing meal a clay 
to 3.000,000 children to about Jan. isfr, >vhen their 
fund will be exhausted. The American Friends 
Service Committee, which acts in co-operation 
with the American Relief Administration, will 
find itself in about the same financial situation. 

Besides supplying these daily meals, the Euro- 
pean Children's Fund will furnish clothing to the 
most destitute children in order that they may 
continue coming to the central kitchens during the 
severe Winter months. 
There will be distributed: 

( 200,000 outfits, consisting of 
\ shoes, stockings and warm 
undergarments ; 
500,000 yards of flannel and 
flannelette for undergar- 
ments. 

100,000 pairs of shoes ; 
50,000 pairs of stockings ; 
• • • \ 610,000 yards of flannel and 
flannelette for undergar- 
ments. 



In Poland. 



1 



As supplied in great numbers and through cen- 
tral feeding stations, the meals for European 
children — of an average value of 600 calories — 
cost approximately 5 cents each. Bought in hun- 
dred thousand lots, clothing outfits cost about 
$5.00 each. 

Thorough medical surveys determine the selec- 
tion of the children to be fed at the European 
Children's Fund kitchens, as - available funds can 
care for only the worst cases among the under- 
nourished. This financial situation makes it nec- 
essary to withdraw the food card from each child 
as soon as its weight approaches normal. 

Further expansion of the European Children's 
Fund program must depend upon additional con- 
tributions. 



AMERICA}* RELIEE ADM IS 1ST RA- 
Vl TION WAREHOUSES are established in 
Warsaw, Poland, with branches at Cracow, Lodz, 
Lemberg, Sosnowice, * Brest-Litovsk, * Bialy- 
stok, * Wilna. * Minsk, * Kovel, and the free city 
of Danzig; 
Prague, Ccecho-Slovakia, with branches at Brim, 

Opava, Bratislava and Kosica ; 
I'ienua, Austria; 
Budapest, Hungary; 
Hamburg, Germany, with branch at Frankfort. 

To Sept. 1st, " Food Drafts " (orders on these 
warehouses) of a total value of $4,622,556 had 
been sold by the 4,000 and more member banks 
of the American Bankers' Association which are 
co-operating with the American Relief Adminis- 
tration. Approximately half have been forwarded 
to hungry Austria ; a million dollars' worth have 
gone to Germany ; and the rest, in varying num- 
bers, to Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, and Hungary. 
" Food Drafts " are sold in two denominations 
— $10.00 and $50.00. They call for delivery b\ 
the warehouses in Europe of packages of staple 
foodstuffs as follows : 

$10 l" Kosher " 1 
2s'/> Lbs. Flour 
10 Lbs. Beans or Rice 
7 Lbs-. Cottonseed Oil 
\2 Cans Milk 



$50 (" Kosher " ) 
Flour 



$10 (ordinary) 
24%> Lbs. Flour 
10 Lbs. Beans or Rice 

8 Lbs. Bacon 

8 Cans Milk 

$50 (ordinary) 
140 Lbs. Flour 

50 Lbs. Beans or Ricej jjj S 

16 Lbs. Bacon T . " T 

15 Lbs. Lard 5<> Lbs. Beans or Rice 

12 Lbs. Corned Beef 45 Lbs. Cottonseed Oil 

48 Cans Milk 48 Cans Milk 

The price of these packages, delivered in Eu- 
rope, is as low as it is possible to make it and 
maintain a necessary margin of safety of opera- 
tion. All profits are regularly turned over to 
children's relief work, in proportion to the sales. 
in each country. 

" Food Drafts " calling for delivery from 
American Relief Administration Warehouses in 
Europe offer the surest, most economical form 
of general relief yet worked ouf. The plan ac- 
tually increases the supply of food in countries 
where food is scarce and expensive and where 
the purchasing power of money is terribly re- 
duced. 

( • Temporarily closed on account of Bolshevist advance.) 



AMERICAN RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 

HERBERT HOOVER, Chairman 

42 Broadway, New York City 








SOKOW 










fs. 



OCT! 2 I 







OCTOBER 9, 1920 



Paragraphs of the Common Welfare 
A Common Platform . 
The White Terror 
Labor and Cooperation 
"For Their Principles" 



Paul L. Benjamin 

. B. L. 

William L. Chenery 

Norman Thomas 



INDUSTRY 

The Railroads and the Unions — Eight- and Ten- Hour Work Day — Minimum 
Wage in Washington — Minimum Wage in Massachusetts — Uncle Sam's 
Stepchild — Safety in the Ford Factory — Women's Wages in Louisiana. 



51 

55 
56 
57 
59 

61 



CHILD WELFARE 



65 



An Epoch in Child Welfare — The County Home Wrecker — Reaching the 
Negro — A Resume in Children's Work — Child Care in Worcester. 



SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 



68 



The Experimental Spirit — Breakdown in the Schools — The New School 
Teachers' Salaries — Platoon Schools in Detroit — International Mindedness 
— An Experiment in New York — Educational Pioneers — From West Virginia 
—The Right to "Live"— A Holiday School. 



CONFERENCES 



BOOKS 



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$5.00 a Year 



50 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9j 1920 



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,Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 9, 1920 



No. 2 



« York 



otkGtf 



TiBW survey 
PAUL U. KELLOGG. Editob 
Associate Editobs 
EDWARD T. DEVINE BRUNO LASKER 

WILLIAM L. CHENERY PAUL L. BENJAMIN 

JOSEPH K. HART MICHAEL M. DAVIS, JR. 

S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 

Published weekly and Copyright 1920 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
ust 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deforest, president; Arthur f. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Price: this issue, 15 cents a copy; $,", a year; foreign postage. $1.25; 
Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon 
request. 

Entered as second-class matter, March, 25, 3909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March S, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at 
o special rate of postage provided for in Section 110S, Act of October i, 
IStt, authorized on June 26, 1918. 



BREAD— AND HYACINTHS 

WHEN Canon and Mrs. Barnett took up their residence 
in the Whitechapel district, one of their early settle- 
ment activities was to bring art into the lives of the 
(people. One of their early visitors was an East End woman 
with a pindling, drooling baby which was hugged close to her 
spare form. Mrs. Barnett found the tired mother before a 
copy of the Sistine Madonna. The woman gazed intently. 
" Aye," she cried, " but it would be easy to mother a babe 
like that." 



HEARINGS ON IRELAND 

THE commission to be designated by the Committee of 
One Hundred on Ireland to hold hearings on the 
charges of atrocities in Ireland plans to begin sessions in 
Washington early this month. The committee is acting in 
response to an invitation from the New York Nation, whose 
editors have suggested that the British Government, Sinn Fein 
and others be asked to present testimony of violence and 
wrong-doing charged against each other, and that a thorough 
and impartial report be prepared " in the interest of peace and 
tcrnational friendship." 
or, the telegram of invitation says, the " increasing use of 
ed force by both parties is widely reported to be accom- 
ied by atrocities planned by the British Government and 
answered in kind by Irish people. One grave result is rapid 
growth of anti-British feeling which seriously threatens un- 
speakable calamity of war between United States and Great 
Britain." 

A partial list of the committee follows: Senators Ashurst 
f Arizona, Spencer of Missouri, Walsh of Massachusetts; 
Governor Fra'zier of North Dakota, ex-Governor Folk of 
Missouri; Mayors Gillen of Newark, Hague of Jersey City, 
Hayes of Vicksburg, Hoan of Milwaukee, Marshall of St. 
Joseph, Quinn of Cambridge, Schrieber of Toledo, Smith of 




Omaha; United States District Judge Amidon of Fargo, N. 
D. ; William Allen White, William R. Hearst, Jane Addams, 
Harriet Stanton Blatch, Rose Schneidermann, William A. 
Neilson, Irving Fisher, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Robert M. 
Lovett, William H. Black, Maurice E. Egan, Martin Con- 
boy, John L. Elliott and Owen R. Lovejoy. 

MR. KINGSLEY REMAINS 

CLEVELAND will continue to have the services of Sher- 
man C. Kingsley, director of the Welfare Federation 
since its re-organization in 19 17. In response to a pro- 
test from the social agencies and the business men of the com- 
munity Fund Council, Mr. Kingsley has reconsidered his 
decision to go to Chicago to head the Council of Social 
Agencies, as announced in these columns several weeks ago 
[see the Survey for June 15, page 348] and has withdrawn 
his resignation. The arguments successfully presented by the 
Cleveland people point out that Cleveland under Mr. Kings- 
ley's leadership has gone farther in the great experiment of 
organization of private social agencies and their support than 
any other city in the country; that it now has a clear picture 
of its needs, an educated public opinion and a trusted leader ; 
without the man the next step might fail and the country as 
a whole, with cities like Chicago ready to undertake similar 
social experiments, would be the losers. 

NEW YORK'S FIGHT ON GAMBLING 

ONCE more the strenuous efforts of the government of 
the state of New York to suppress gambling in the 
health resort of Saratoga Springs [see the Survey for 
June 5] have apparently failed to eradicate the evil. In 
spite of an indictment by the Extraordinary Grand Jury 
convoked at the request of Governor Smith to investigate 
charges against district attorney Charles B. Andrus which 
found him guilty of neglect of duty (in the prosecution of 
gamblers) in 1919 and of larceny of $400 worth of liquor 
obtained in a prohibition raid, the people of Saratoga Springs 
have reelected this district attorney to office. The issue was 
clearly between those who desired the continuance of the 
town's attraction for gamblers and those who wished to make 
it morally clean and, with the help of the state, develop it 
into a great health center. In the voting, party lines were 
blotted out. The voters who returned the district attorney, 
the New York Times points out in an editorial, are blind not 
only to moral obligations but to their own financial interest: 

A properly conducted resort would fill the town with guests 
in spring and autumn, possibly also in the brisk, clear winter 
that comes down from the Adirondacks. Instead of a few brief 
days each year (the racing season), the village would enjoy 
steady prosperity. Nothing of the kind is possible, however, so 
long as the present regime endures. The local tone will be 

51 



52 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER o, 1920 












established by race-track folk and gamblers and the motley train 
they bring with them. The fundamental requisites of cures such 
as have made the fortune of many communities in Europe are 
sobriety, order and rational enjoyment. 

More successful have been the attacks of the state on 
gambling in roadhouses and private residences on Long Island. 
Justice Scudder in the Supreme Court, the other day, in re- 
fusing clemency to two aged men who pleaded guilty to 
charges of keeping a gaming house, placed his verdict on 
grounds both lofty and full of common sense. He said : 

The court is mindful of the respect which age should receive ; 
but age owes a duty to youth and to the commonwealth, and 
failure to discharge that duty invites forfeiture of the considera- 
tion which all right-thinking persons gladly accord to age. . . 

The defendants have always understood what they were doing 
was against the law. For years in this county, unmolested, they 
have run a costly gambling den. Not only have they violated 
the law, but by the immunity they knew how to secure, they have 
tempted others to engage in the same character-destroying trade; 
and these have corrupted many boys, youths and young men of 
the country because that clientele was easy to reach. From craps 
to cards, from cards to betting, to roulette, then on the down- 
ward path to any and every evil — many came back, others never 
did. This is what we are seeking to stop and intend to stop. 

The gambling house of these people in Nassau county was 
one of several closed by the vigilance of the state in recent 
months. The judge is convinced that they were under the 
protection of officers of the state; and it was unwillingness of 
the defendants in this particular case to give information on 
their relation to these office holders which determined the 
court to inflict upon them the whole penalty of the law. 

In late September the inquiry was again renewed under 
Justice Scudder. 

LABOR AND THE LEAGUE 

APART of the official report of the Seamen's Conference 
held at Genoa during June last under the auspices of 
the League of Nations has reached this country. The 
Genoa conference was called to take up the maritime labor 
problems which had not been dealt with in the First Inter- 
national Labor Conference held at Washington. The Wash- 
ington conference limited itself to chief considerations, and it 
-did not plan for the needs of particular industries. 

At Genoa three draft conventions were adopted. The first 
of these fixed the minimum age for the admission of children 
to employment at sea. The commission recommended that 
" children under fourteen years of age shall not be employed 
or work in vessels of any kind whether publicly or privately 
owned other than vessels upon which only members of the 
same family are employed." It was also recommended that 
no seaman under eighteen years of age be employed as a 
primer or stoker, and that no person less than seventeen years 
of age be employed on the night watches between 8 P. M. 
and 6 a. M. The second convention adopted at Genoa looked 
to the establishment of facilities for finding employment for 
seamen. This followed the general lines of the draft conven- 
tion adopted by the International Labor Conference at Wash- 
ington. Free public employment agencies with the abolition 
of "crimp" and other such private agencies are the basis of the 
plan. The employment offices to be established would be open 
to seamen from all nations subscribing to the League Covenant. 
The general convention also adopted a resolution dealing with 
unemployment insurance. The draft convention provides that 
in case of loss or foundering of a vessel, seamen shall have the 
right to an indemnity against unemployment resulting from 
such a mishap. This indemnity or benefit shall be equal to 
the rate of wages at which the seaman was engaged. The 
conference recommended that each country establish an ade- 
quate system of public insurance against unemployment 
amongst seamen. The conference also requested the Inter- 
national Labor Office at Geneva to undertake the formula- 
tion of an international code of seamen's law. The question of 
limiting the hours of work in the fishing industry was dealt 
with by a recommendation to the nations that legislation be 
enacted individually after consultation with organizations of 
employers and workers concerned. 



Forty-eight governments were represented at the Genoa 
conference. Each state was bound within a year to submit 
the draft conventions voted by the conference to the consider- 
ation of their legislative bodies. Governments which refused 
to submit the conventions to their parliaments and congresses 
would undergo the risk of having applied against them the 
economic penalties set up in the League of Nations Covenant. 
These include the refusal of passports, the stoppage of goods, 
and the economic blockade. 

The American delegates to the maritime conference felt 
very badly about the refusal of the delegates from other coun- 
tries to join them in recommending conventions based on the 
American Seaman's act. This provides a greater measure of 
freedom than the seamen of most countries enjoy. The ef- 
forts of the American delegates were, of course, somewhat 
handicapped by the fact that the United States is not a mem- 
ber of the League of Nations. This country was, in fact, 
the only great power not officially represented at Genoa. 

SETTLEMENTS OVERSEAS 

THE Hawaiian Islands, writes Robert A. Woods, of 
South End House, Boston, present the only instance 
in which during his recent trip around the world he 
found a people satisfied and even pleased to be absorbed into 
an alien governmental system. This, he says, affords a specia 
opportunity to the settlement as a human overture which is 
being effectively improved in Honolulu by Mr. and Mrs 
Rath and their associates. Other instances, showing the 
spread of the American settlement spirit in different parts oi 
the world and indicating both the need and the desire foi 
an international linking together of settlement houses, are con- 
tained in a letter addressed by Mr. Woods to the conference 
of the National Federation of Settlements which an unfor 
tunate mischance about sailing accommodations prevented hin 
from attending in person. 

In Manila he found the attitude of the people toward the 
United States government entirely different. The settlemen' 
approach — involving nothing of effort toward political au 
thority — may well represent a most vital way in which Amer 
ica, whatever the changes in government, can continue te 
make her contribution to the advancement of the Filipinos 
A small beginning of settlement work here has been madi 
under the auspices of the Charity Organization Society. Ii 
Japan, Mr. Woods found general susceptibility at least ti 
the more obvious meanings of the settlement. Several settle 
ments, including the House of the Friendly Neighbor ii 
Tokio and one in Kobe — " amid the worst slum I have eve 
seen " — are already in existence. In several beginnings, : 
new form of relationship has been established between mis 
sionaries and progressive Japanese leaders. But many mor 
Americans are needed who can give informed and skilled per 
sonal service, apart from sectarianism, toward meeting th 
social situation. Of opportunities in China, Mr. Wood 
writes : 

The broad opportunity for what the settlement represents, with 
its disinterested readiness to confront the hardest conditions and 
not expecting returns, becomes almost unlimited. The profound 
discouragement in the minds of good citizens, with regard to the 
national government, makes them all the more prepared and 
eager for what may be done to meet local needs and problems. 
I met in many cases on the part of business and professional men 
an almost pathetic readiness to accept American leadership in 
such matters and to provide substantial support and cooperation. 

The patriotic movement of students, in China, may be r<| 
lied upon for intelligent and timely service. Peking an J 
Shanghai were found on the eve of a systematic developmerl 
of neighborhood centers, effectively federated, representathj 
of all points of view and acting on the basis of careful su [ 
veys. In India, Mr. Woods found settlements at Bomb 
and Calcutta and, arising from the recognition of the inevij 
able oncoming of democracy within a few decades, a demarj 
by thoughtful persons for influences to prepare the depressej 
classes for the role which they are certain ere long to fill. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



53 




..'it 

ifi, In 
least tc 

al settle- 

;!| ill 

,;;,;, ,er 

norf 



r, Woodi- 



It 

;,. * 

SHI 

mba 
the inevit 

a deman 
depresse 






In the Near East, Mr. Woods found a great need for the 
kind of contributions settlements can make, but as yet little 
realization of this in the present bewilderment of that part 
of the world. Mr. Woods suggests that, unable to accept a 
political mandate, America has nevertheless a moral mandate 
to help in the education of the Near East which it cannot 
shake off. Mention of the existing settlements in Paris and 
England concludes his account. No mention is made of the 
excellent settlements in Vienna, Berlin and Hamburg and 
perhaps other cities of the former enemy countries, or of the 
settlement in Amsterdam. Mr. Woods sums up his findings 
thus: 

I would suggest that it be made a definite branch of the work 
of the National Federation of Settlements to keep in touch with 
the situation in Asia as it relates itself to possibilities of assist- 
ance and cooperation on our part, to be in correspondence with 
persons of like interests to our own, and to plan ways in which 
resources of information and possibly of leadership may be made 
available for promoting the spirit of the settlement throughout 
the East. I am confident that such a step would meet with in- 
stant appreciation from a large proportion of the missionary 
forces who are essentially like-minded with us. ... 

Such a section of the national federation could also keep us 
in mutually helpful relations with the English settlements which 
have recently expressed themselves as earnestly desiring such 
cooperation, and with the two settlements in Paris. 

SOUTHERN WOMEN UNIONISTS 

A SIGNIFICANT labor conference of representatives of 
southern working women has been called by the Na- 
tional Women's Trade Union League to be held the 
week of November 15 at Washington. State, city and 
central labor organizations in Maryland, Virginia, West 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky, have been invited to send representative women. 
This is to be the first interstate conference of southern 
working women and it is particularly interesting in view 
of the political enfranchisement brought about by the 
ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. The purposes of 
the conference as stated in the preliminary announcements 
are: to. stimulate the organization of wage-earning wom- 
en into trade unions; to enable working women, through 
organization and collective bargaining, and through leg- 
islation, to secure better wages, shorter hours, and better 
conditions of all kinds for themselves and other wage-earners; 
to secure recognition of women's right to equal terms and 
equal opportunity with men in industry, industrial training, 
and citizenship in general; and to promote understanding 
among working women of the industrial problems. 

A POOL OF COMMUNITY TALENT 

A COMMUNITY survey for talent is a novel undertak- 
ing reported from Des Moines, Iowa, though on a larger 
scale something of the kind had already during the war 
been attempted by the Women's Committee of the Illinois 
State Council of Defence, and perhaps by other similar bodies. 
The Drake Community Service Department, of Des Moines, 
in organizing a neighborhood band, had stumbled upon expert 
musicians with experience as soloists under some of the 
country's leading bandmasters. Five of the first thirty appli- 
cants for membership in the band proved to be men who had 
previously served as bandmasters. This unexpected revelation 
of talent in the neighborhood led to the proposal of a " talent 
survey " by which it is expected that many persons will be 
found who have both skill and experience in entertaining and 
instructing the public. 

More than a dozen agencies interested in planning leisure 
time activities for different neighborhoods and groups of 
the population, on July 21, held a conference under the auspices 
of the Public Welfare Bureau of the Chamber of Commerce 
and formed a Recreational Council. It was found that the 
experience of one organization often answered the questions of 
another, and that there were many opportunities for team 
work in the promotion of wholesome, healthful recreation for 



GIOLITTI'S SOLUTION 

i i J THINK the historic moments through which 
*■ we are passing can be interpreted in one way 
only, and that is that a radical revision of the rela- 
tions hitherto existing between capital and labor is in- 
evitable. It is no longer possible to uphold the cri- 
terion that in a great industry there must be only one 
head in command, while thousands of dependents 
must obey without possessing the guarantee of control 
over the activities of the head himself. 

" I am convinced it is necessary to make it possible 
for the workers to contribute toward the functioning 
of a firm to the extent of giving them a true sense of 
co-responsibility. Once this idea is actuated by rais- 
ing the function of the workmen they will be placed 
in conditions which will enable them to learn and to 
advance and to better their conditions." 

THIS extraordinarily interesting statement, coming 
as it does from the prime minister of one of the 
great powers, was made by Premier Giolitti at the in- 
dustrial conference held at Milan on September 18. 
Then it was that the representatives of the workers 
and of Italian employers accepted the government's 
suggestion that a mixed technical commission with 
equal representation of all parties interested be ap- 
pointed to consider the present impasse. The prin- 
ciple of agreement seems to have provided for the 
joint control of the metallurgical factories. The dele- 
gates of the employers informed the premier that they 
were unable to accept his formula for reaching a set- 
tlement, but that they would submit to it. Giolitti 
replied, according to dispatches, that he would take 
full responsibility for imposing his plan. 



all the city. The next session of the council is to be devoted 
to the consideration of a definite proposal to establish a down- 
town community center, and of the best services such a center 
might render. The Public Welfare Bureau acts both as a 
financial federation and as a coordinator of welfare agencies. 
The fifteen members of its board consist of five members elected 
by the contributors, five members elected by the constituent 
organizations and five by the Chamber of Commerce. 

STANDARDS OF CHILD WELFARE 

THE minimum standards for the protection of children 
which were formulated as a result of the Child Welfare 
Conference held by the Children's Bureau during May, 
1919, are being revised. Committees appointed at the time 
the original conferences were held have been at work and 
other authorities have been consulted. At the present time 
the minimum medical standards for working children have 
been freshly considered and tentative statements have been 
prepared. 

From the point of view of medicine, sixteen years is as 
previously prescribed as the minimum age for the entrance 
of children into industry. No child under the age of eighteen, 
however, it is stated, should be permitted to go to work unless 
health and development are normal. In order to determine 
this thorough physical examinations conducted by public 
medical officers should be made of the children before permits 
to work are issued. When the child changes occupation 
another examination should be given and all working children 
up to the age of eighteen should have at least annual physical 
examinations, according to the report. 

In making its suggestions, the medical committee again 
calls for research and scientific study of the effects of different 
kinds of work upon the physique of the adolescent child. In 
general the standards proposed by the Children's Bureau are 
those which have been tested out. 



54 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 




MOVING DAY 

BLOODSHED had been prophesied. "Men will go 
hungry through the streets looking for work and see 
their families suffer, pathetically incapable and unde- 
sirous of attracting attention to themselves. But an eviction in 
the chilly wind of October, the furniture standing on the side- 
walk and no place to move it to, that is different. Many such 
evictions, and there will be riot." Luckily, the energy of the 
governor and the common sense of the legislature saved New 
York from such dire happening and falsified the prediction. 
The special session of the legislature gave very little time to 
weed the grain from the chaff among the many bills and sug- 
gestions sent in for consideration. Instead, it concentrated 
upon the emergency created by the service of no less than 
100,000 dispossess notices in New York city. 

As to the severity of the present housing shortage in the 
metropolis, estimates differ considerably; but a study of figures 
given out by the Tenement House Department would give the 
impression that, quality of accommodation apart, it is the 
absence of a serviceable margin of empty dwellings rather than 
an actual shortage that has rendered the situation acute. As 
one well-known housing reformer said, "It is rather like a fam- 
ily of children in one bed ; they are all right as long as they keep 
quiet, but if one begins to move, they all do, and those at the 
ends fall out." Quality, of course, does matter; and there is 
every evidence that room overcrowding has increased and 
that thousands of houses are occupied and yield comparatively 
high rentals which, but for the shortage, would long ago have 
been closed and demolished. 

The Republican majority in the legislature rejected several 
of the major proposals made by the State Reconstruction Com- 
mission and by its own legislative committee; but true to his 
announced intention, Governor Smith signed all the emergency 
measures submitted to him, whatever their source. The most 
important of the bills passed affect the relation of landlord 
and tenant and represent the most radical revision of that 
relation ever attempted in this country. An act "to amend the 
code of civil procedure in relation to summary proceedings to 
recover the possession of real property in cities of the first 
class and in cities in a county adjoining a city of the first class 
for default in the payment of rent" makes it .impossible for 
a landlord to evict a tenant for non-payment of rent if that 
rent exceeds the amount which the tenant was liable to pay 
in the month preceding the default for which the proceeding 
is brought ; the tenant being entitled to show cause why the 
rise demanded is unreasonable. Another act rescinds a pro- 
vision in the rent law which establishes a 25 per cent increase 
during the twelve months preceding the action as presumably 
fair and instead lays the onus upon the landlord of proving by 
means of documentary evidence that the rise demanded corre- 
sponds to additional expenditure. A third act holds agents as 
liable as the landlords themselves for the giving of such services 
as are stipulated in the rent contract. This measure has for 
its principal aim the protection of tenants against failure of 
landlords to provide heating when this is part of the service 
undertaken. All summary proceedings against . tenants are 
stopped by a fourth act which, by reason of "a public em- 
ergency existing," makes it unlawful to recover the possession 
of dwellings unless the landlord can satisfy the court that the 
tenant is objectionable; or where the owner, being a natural 
person and not a corporation, seeks to recover the property for 
occupation as a dwelling by himself and his family; or for 
demolition for the purpose of constructing a new building, 
plans for which must have been filed and approved ; and for 
other equally exceptional purposes. A fifth act applies similar 
provisions to applications for evictment proceedings in the 
Supreme Court. 

Whether laws as drastic as these, admittedly passed to 
meet an emergency, can remain permanently on the statute 
book unamended, is doubted by some of those who have given 
a wider consideration to its probable effects. They believe 
that such drastic provisions, practically eliminating the prospect 
of more than a moderate return upon capital invested in house 



property, while contributing nothing to make such investment 
more secure, will act against other efforts of the state govern- 
ment to get more houses built. 

To aid that larger solution of the housing problem, the 
legislature enacted only a single measure, but that one so 
radical as to surprise the advocates of others by the relative 
modesty of their own proposals. Instead of merely exempting 
mortgages from the state income tax, which only a week earlier 
was defended at public meetings as an unprecedented act, made 
necessary by force of circumstances, the legislature passed a 
bill empowering city authorities to exempt all buildings here- 
after constructed for dwelling purposes from local taxation for 
a period of ten years. While this act is not mandatory, little 
doubt exists that New York city will avail itself of the permis- 
sion it gives. The exemption of mortgages from income tax 
had been opposed at various hearings by economists and realty 
experts who demonstrated that it would bring very little relief, 
if any. [See the Survey for September 15, p. 699.] The 
measure passed is welcomed, particularly by those who strenu- 
ously opposed the extension of power to the city government 
of using the city's sinking funds to finance housing enterprise 
and take the stand that the widest possible concessions to the , 
commercial suppliers of homes are preferable to any participa- 
tion of the city in remunerative undertakings. 

In this connection, mention must be made of the one con- 
spicuous absence from the discussion, in the legislative cham- 
bers and in the lobbies — which as usually at Albany were 
thronged with representatives of every conceivable interest 
involved, — the absence of an organization which more than any 
other has for generations battled for the right of- municipalities 
to supply homes for citizens when private enterprise fails to do 
so — the Socialist Party. In every modern country other than 
the United States, Socialists have successfully sought this 
practical application of their theory, and either the public 
provision of houses or that of capital for the building of homes 
from public funds in each has become a commonplace. In New 
York state, where the action of the assembly deprived three of 
the five Socialist members of their seats, though they were 
reelected with increased majorities — the other two subse- 
quently withdrew in protest — the individualist economic prin- 
ciples usually associated with the cause of the single tax have 
for the time prevailed over the principle of extended public 
enterprise which in this connection was sponsored not only by 
the Socialists but by Mayor Hylan and a large section of the 
informed public. Advocates of the single tax point out that 
in the exemption of new homes from local taxation for ten 
years, the state of New York has taken the largest advance 
step in the direction of untaxing improvements that has been 
made in the United States for many years. But not only 
theorists welcome this enactment. Practical real estate men 
and others believe that this lifting of the tax burden will prove 
a very potent stimulus to building in the near future, other 
discouraging features of the present situation notwithstanding. 

Some of these other hindrances to home building, the special 
session of the legislature tried to break by way of resolution. 
One of these requests the housing committee of the legislature 
to investigate the building materials industries to discover 
whether there is or has been illigal profiteering; another asks 
the Federal Trade Commission to make an inquiry into the 
same subject, and a third calls upon Congress, after such 
investigations, to provide legislative relief in this matter, while 
a fourth resolution definitely asks for priority in transportation 
for building materials, next after that of foodstuffs and coal. 

One aspect of the permissive tax exemption law which has 
as yet received little discussion is the new power which it gives 
to the city authority to improve housing standards by making 
such exemption conditional upon compliance with a new set 
of regulations drawn up to meet all legitimate sanitary and 
safety requirements. While the tenement house law has led 
to a marked improvement in the type of apartment house 
built during the last two decades, the city has hitherto enjoyed 
much more limited powers in regard to other types of dwelling 
houses. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



5b 



A Common Platform 

WHAT may prove to be one of the epoch-making 
gatherings of social workers was the conference 
of some two hundred officers, executives, and sup- 
porters of civic and charitable agencies called 
jointly by the Committee on Coordination of the National 
Conference of Social Work and the National Information 
Bureau in Washington last week to discuss the coordination 
of national social work. 

The conference was a departure from many of the usual 
gatherings of social workers, particularly those at which co- 
operation and coordination have been the reefs around which 
discussion has swirled. It was marked by a certain freshness 
of approach, an amazing clarity and vigor of presentation, a 
sparkling discussion from the floor shot through with sallies 
of drollery, and a remarkable unanimity of opinion. With the 
exception of some difference as to method, there was such gen- 
eral agreement that there was an absolute, insistent demand 
or coordination that the conference largely resolved itself into 
ithering of the experience of those present and in setting 
up machinery for future procedure. It is significant that there 
pas no attempt to throttle discussion or draw forth from 
le magician's box a complex, preconceived, involved plan. 
Into such a setting the speeches of Newton D. Baker, secre- 
of war, and president of the National Consumers' League, 
id of Dr. George E. Vincent, president of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, the principal speakers at the afternoon session, 
itted with an almost uncanny directness. 
The speech of Secretary Baker, who discussed Coordination 
-Its Need as Related to the Service of National Agencies, 
/as a masterpiece of pure, limpid English that progressed to 
climax with penetrating logic. He drew a picture of the 
levoted service of social agencies during the war and of the 
sperience of the War Department in dealing with such 
jencies. It was vital for the Department to take a direct 
interest in these agencies since the country was profoundly 
disturbed socially and at the root of much of the efficient 
prosecution of the war lay community and social sanitation. 
He pointed out that in dealing with these agencies the War 
Department found an enormous duplication. Many social and 
civic groups under the laudable impulse of service developed 
functions that in many instances they were unwilling to give 
up with the cessation of hostilities. Thus every field of 
social endeavor had been over-divided. With an unusual in- 
sight into the very essence of social pioneering Secretary Baker 
made a vigorous plea that the man who first catches the vision 
should have his hands free, first the dream and the dreamer, 
and then the realization of the dream. The duty of the social 
organization, he said, is to exhibit implications of new move- 
ments pressing them forward until they are adopted as a 
function of government. 

America demands ultimately efficiency in everything to which 
it gives its faith and its money [he said]. As those interested 
in social agencies we are going to be obliged to show that we are 
well-intentioned, but taking us in the aggregate we do relieve 
efficiently. . . . 

The theory of limited objectives is a fundamental and vital 
principle in efficient action. We must do away with waste mo- 
tion, and as social problems cease to be local and become national 
we must provide such agencies as will prevent inefficiency. I 
trust this conference will realize the importance of creating an 
agency which will survey the field of activity of the various 
agencies which assert a claim to national recognition so that they 
may divide their functions and unite, and thus get the strength 
which comes from aggregate and union. 

Dr. Vincent developed the topic: Coordination — Its need 

viewed by the public, which makes the work of national 

encies possible. The public, he said, had stood admirably 

le flood of appeals, drives and tag-days until the Armistice, 

/hen they expected it to stop. Now that drives had become 

practically continuous, however, it had become the fashion 

undersubscribe instead of oversubscribing them. He illus- 

rated this with the story of the Jewish woman in the Bronx 



who refused to pay the war tax at the " movie " because she 
thought the war was over. He said that he looked forward to 
the time when the health agencies of the country would be 
coordinated, to the time when they would make an annual 
appeal to the American public for a common program. 

In his role as representing the public Dr. Vincent stated 
further that the public has ultimate control of the situation, 
that the problem from its standpoint is a serious one, and that 
it is not too early for the social agencies of the United States 
to consider with great care the best way in which to retain 
and increase the confidence of the public and the public sup- 
port. He predicted that the public would not fail to heed the 
appeals of those social agencies that were under wise control 
and that were organized for a cause. 

There was a time not long since when this idea of the co- 
ordination of social agencies would have brought an instan- 
taneous clash of opinion, with charges that an autocratic super- 
organization was being foisted upon the agencies of the 
country. There was here, to be sure, a distinction drawn be- 
tween the coordination of agencies in a financial federation and 
in a council. Mary E. Richmond stressed this distinction, as 
did Julia C. Lathrop, stating that the drive is doomed in this 
country, but that coordination is not, unless it is tied up with 
financial federation, and that when all the financial eggs are 
placed in one basket an autocracy results. 

Delegates were called upon to outline experiments at co- 
operation with which they were familiar. Fred C. Croxton, 
director of the Ohio Institute of Public Efficiency, outlined 
the plan which had been effective in bringing the social or- 
ganizations of Ohio together. Dr. Richard Bolt explained 
the recent coordination in the field of child health, resulting 
in the bringing together of five agencies into a council to be 
called the American Council for Coordinating Child Health 
Activities, and the hiring of a director for the joint organi- 
zation. 

After a vigorous debate, the report of the committee on reso- 
lutions presented by Dr. Samuel McCune Lindsay, the chair- 
man, was adopted. This report called for the establishment 
of continuing conferences between national social agencies to 
report and study their activities and services with a view to 
cooperation. The Executive Committee of the National Infor- 
mation Bureau was instructed to prepare a plan for such con- 
sultation and to submit it to the agencies within four months. 
National social organizations were also urged to keep the bu- 
reau informed of all the places in which they work, and to 
report in some detail their activity in places where they main- 
tain offices. 

Preceding the conference the annual meeting of the Na- 
tional Information Bureau was held, at which delegates repre- 
senting some fifty national social, civic and philanthropic agen- 
cies which has been endorsed by the bureau were present. 
Barry C. Smith, director of the bureau, outlined its growth 
over a period of two years from a contributor's agency " for 
the purpose of securing complete and accurate information con- 
cerning war relief organizations " to meeting the " demand 
for a center of accurate information concerning the hundreds 
of national or interstate, i. e., non-local solicitations for civic 
and charitable purposes . . ." and to afford a means 
"whereby executives and other workers could get together 
for comparison of their respective programs, the adoption of 
common administrative standards, the promotion of coordina- 
tion." Mr. Smith stated that the bureau had investigated 
1,243 money-raising organizations and had issued 2,580 re- 
ports about them to individuals, corporations, chambers of 
commerce, community chests and other inquirers. 

Lawson Purdy, tax expert and director of the Charity Or- 
ganization Society of New York, spoke on the need and value 
of the budget system for national social agencies. He plead 
for an interpretation of such budgets in units of accomplish- 
ment rather than in an unmeaning record of income and dis- 
bursements. He gave an amusing account of the expert so 
engrossed with details that he fails to visualize for the public 



56 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



the essential facts of the work, that he fails to show how the 
particular organization is endeavoring to meet a human need, 
that he fails to make the budget tell the truth in graphic terms 
of human achievement. Expenditures, he said, must be ex- 
plained in simple terms and in the ordinary vernacular so that 
the public — the man in the street — can translate those expendi- 
tures into pictures of human life. Paul L. Benjamin. 

The White Terror 

KAROLY HUSZAR, late premier of Hungary, whose 
version of the events which incurred the above by-name 
was given in an interview with the writer [see the 
Survey for August 2], has since left this country. Many 
of his arguments in defence of the actions of his own and of 
the present government have been challenged as unsound by 
those in this country who have sources of first hand in- 
formation, and several of his statements of fact have been 
disproved by reference to official records. It may be true, say 
his accusers, that he has gone to Kecskemet with the alleged 
purpose of quelling anti-Jewish riots and he may have pre- 
tended to take other steps to stem the tide of mob violence, 
but he stands self-condemned by his failure to answer to the 
question why he did not resign from a government that failed 
to punish the crimes committed by its own officers even to the 
extent of dismissing the guilty from army service. A con- 
fessed pacifist now, they say, he was one of the first in the 
fateful days of the summer of 1914, to applaud the declaration 
of war on Serbia; while speaking sympathetically now of the 
suffering of Jews in his country, he was a leader of anti- 
semitism years before the war, in fact, long before that cause 
was a popular one and while Jews yet enjoyed a considerable 
political power. He was a member of the Friedrich cabinet 
whach came into power by arming hooligans to bait Jews. 
After the murder of Somogyi, Mr. Huszar declared that he 
would resign if the perpetrators were not apprehended and 
punished; but in spite of a strong report of his own Depart- 
ment of Justice (reprinted in the Black Book published by 
the organ of bourgeois refugees in Vienna) nothing further 
happened, and he did not resign until he was forced to do so 
by exigencies of party politics. The ostensive principal pur- 
pose of Mr. Huszar's visit to America, it will be recalled, 
was that of enlisting financial aid to repatriate some 150,000 
Hungarian prisoners of war awaiting transportation in 
Siberia. The probable number of such prisoners, quoted by 
Eugene S. Bagger, a well known student of Hungarian 
affairs, several of whose statements in the Nation Mr. Huszar 
has branded as untrue, was 5,000; and while no one in this 
country seems to be in a position to give an exact figure at 
the present time, the opinion prevails that Mr. Huszar's 
estimate is greatly exaggerated. Moreover the argument is 
advanced that the Hungarian government is spending un- 
counted millions on military preparations; and that funds 
raised in this country for repatriation would, even if properly 
applied, release further sums for the purposes of Hungarian 
militarism. 

Other statements made by Mr. Huszar in the interview 
given are contradicted by a mass of newspaper reports and 
correspondence received from Hungary in the last few 
months. He said the anti-semitic movement had been 
strengthened " when Rumanian military leaders, anxious to 
make a case before the Supreme Council of the Allies for 
continued occupation of Budapest, deliberately fomented dis- 
order." Hungarian Jews looked upon the Rumanian army 
of occupation rather as protectors. One incident is related in 
particular, which would seem to give color to that statement. 
Nearly three hundred persons were killed in a progrom at 
Mako, a few days after the Rumanian forces had been with- 
drawn. The Rumanians came back to pum'sh the Hun- 
garian perpetrators of the crime; and Hungarian Jews sent 
a memorial to the Supreme Council asking for a return of the 
Rumanian army of occupation to defend their lives and pro- 
perty. 

Of the present assembly, Mr. Huszar said that it was 



" genuinely representative " and " in general complexion demo- 
cratic and progressive." According to Mr. Bagger there are 
now only three or four Jewish delegates in the Hungarian 
lower house where before the war there used to be scores. 
The " progressive " character of the present legislature, he 
says, may be illustrated by the restoration of flogging as a 
form of punishment and by a resolution adopted a few weeks 
ago with an overwhelming majority, embodying proposals for 
the most extreme anti-Jewish measures ever submitted since 
the expulsion of Jews from Spain; cancelling the recognition 
of the Jewish religion on the same basis of political right as 
that of other religions, disenfranchizing all Jews, expelling 
from the country all Jewish citizens immigrated since 1914, 
excluding all Jews or baptized Jews from commissions in the 
army and from public offices, as well as academic and editorial 
positions and theatrical managerships, reducing to a fixed per- 
centage the admission of Jews to colleges and high schools, 
licensing Jews for trade (also with the aim of reducing their 
number). Among those who voted against this bill were one 
or two Jewish delegates, two or three agrarian members, 
Counts Andrassy and Apponyi, and one Catholic prelate, 
Father Giesswein (an old-time pacifist) ; on the other hand, 
the resolution was strongly commended by members of the 
cabinet. 

Mr. Bagger also takes exception to the late premier's asser- 
tion that " 95 per cent of the Social Democrats, while they 
adhere in principle to republicanism, have publicly declared 
that they will not seek to overthrow by force a royal govern- 
ment should the people by a referendum decide upon it." 
This statement, he says, would be misleading even if it were 
true, because it neglects to point out that the numbers of social 
democrats and of other groups of radicals have been decimated 
by the ruthlessness of the counter-revolution ; and that there 
is no effective republican vote today because republicans are 
either murdered or in exile in Vienna; a few are bribed by 
public offices and other emoluments, or (the largest number) 
cowed by the flogging and jailing of candidates and by other 
forms of persecution to such a degree that they abstained from 
voting for the national assembly. Nor is it true, he says, that 
anti-semitic as well as socialist or liberal articles are censored 
in the press of Hungary. Reference to the papers which reach 
this country show that the censorship in practice is entirely 
onesided ; even moderate conservative opinion cannot freely 
be expressed. 

Two rumors are current concerning Mr. Huszar's prema- 
ture departure from the United States which are not con- 
tradictory; one to the effect that the State Department hinted 
to him that his presence was not desired, the other that Mr. 
Huszar completely failed in securing the ear, much less the 
sympathy for the present regime, of large numbers of Ameri- 
cans of Hungarian descent. It is significant that not a single 
resolution welcoming the ex-premier to this country was 
passed by any body of Hungarian workers, while, on the other 
hand, numerous resolutions were passed by such bodies asking 
for his expulsion. 

Unable, at the time, to produce firsthand evidence con- 
cerning the situation in Hungary from sources in which readers 
of the Survey would have confidence, the views and state- 
ments of the ex-premier were given in the original article for 
what they were worth. A few days ago, Prof. Herbert 
Adolphus Miller, of Oberlin, just returned from a visit to 
Budapest, brought news of the reality of the White Terror. 
It is not in evidence to the casual visitor, he says, but a little 
inquiry shows it to be a fact. His talks with many people 
who cannot by any means be called radicals indicate that the 
kind of evidence in favor of the present regime which, in the 
previous article was called " neutral " was not such but must 
have sprung from interested motives. Conditions which Mr. 
Huszar tried to explain by the acuteness and complexity of 
group feeling brought about by war and revolution — especially 
the alleged spontaneous outburst of mob antagonism to Jews — 
are actually fostered by officers of the army and by the land- 
owning " gentry " to whose political power any democratized 
government would spell destruction. B. L. 

j 



^1 



Labor and Cooperation 

By JVilliam L. Chenery 









COOPERATION is the livest ghost in America. 
It has been buried many times. Its funeral sermon 
has been preached and more than once its estate has 
been probated. Just now, however, it is going 
through a renaissance. Trade unionists and farmers are 
starting cooperative ventures with glad and valiant enthu- 
siasm. They seem not to know that the economic history of 
this land is strewn with the wrecks of past hopes. Or perhaps 
on the other hand they do remember the aspirations and the 
brave struggles and the tragic losses which gave character to 
the labor movement of other generations. It may be because 
they know so well the disappointments of the eighteen forties, 
of the sixties, the seventies and the eighties that something 
more enduring is being built now. However that may be, 
certain is it that the rebirth of cooperation during the last 
few years and most of all during the last few months is one 
of the most interesting manifestations in American history. 

There are said to be between 3,000 and 4,000 cooperative 
consumers' stores in the United States at the present time. 
They are almost exclusively owned by trade unionists and by 
farmers. Consumers' cooperation has probably never reached 
so high a level at any previous time in this country. Co- 
operative banking has advanced by bounds. Large numbers 
of small credit unions seem to be firmly entrenched while ambi- 
tious plans for state and national banks have been carefully 
laid. 

Producers' cooperation has been advanced. Among trade 
unionists a number of interesting experiments are being made, 
while among farmers large and wealthy associations seem to 
be thoroughly established. In numbers of organizations, in 
volume of business and most of all in centralized and critically 
self-conscious effort cooperation is on a higher plane than it 
has ever before reached in the United States. The successful 
stores are moreover chiefly those which are the property of 
trade unionists. Dr. J. P. Warbasse, president of the Coop- 
erative League of America, states that a recent examination 
of most of the consumers' undertakings listed by the league 
showed them to be overwhelmingly laborite in their member- 
ship. 

Members of the American Federation of Labor are back- 
ing the present revival of cooperation. One of the dominant 
A. F. of L. unions, the United Mine Workers of America, 
is responsible for some of the largest groups of stores in the 
United States. Outside organizations such as the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers of America and the railroad broth- 
erhoods have shown as much zeal as the mine workers. Rad- 
ical and conservative alike are giving impetus to the develop- 
ment. Cooperation furthermore has for the first time brought 
organized labor and associated farmers together in an under- 
taking which rests on something more solid than emotion or 
opinion. Often enough in this country farmers and artisans 
have deemed their interests to be clashing and have acted in 
that belief. Now both groups have discovered a practical 
interest which may bind them as firmly as the desire for pro- 
tection bound the manufacturers of the first half of the Nine- 
teenth Century. That, too, distinguishes the present move- 
ment. 

Nothing less than the national machinery of a federal cen- 
sus would suffice to enumerate all the cooperative organiza- 
tions which are now operating. It is not even safe to list all 
the national trade unions whose memberships have plunged 



into the movement. It is sufficient, however, to indicate the 
broad lines along which activity is proceeding. These serve 
to put the present situation in perspective. Cooperation, it is 
fair to say, is, now as ever, both an economic creed and a 
general reaction to high prices. The enormous growth of the 
movement during the recent past is in a way the response of 
long suffering consumers to the high cost of living. Coopera- 
tion seems to offer an immediate way out. Consequently ten3 
of thousands of people adopt it. Some of these are merely 
bargain hunters. Strict cooperators look with disdain upon 
such grovelers. They, however, also have their place. Pri- 
vate commercial ventures as sound financially as some famous 
mail-order houses got their real start in catering to the uni- 
versal desire for bargains. Cooperation may do as well. 

The mark which differentiates the present cooperative de- 
velopment from earlier movements is to be found in national 
organization and in the federation of groups of societies into 
wholesale organizations. Some of these listed by the Monthly 
Labor Review are: Cooperative Wholesale Company, 236 
Commercial street, San Francisco; Cooperative Central Ex- 
change, Superior, Wisconsin; Central States Cooperative So- 
ciety, 203 Converse avenue, East St. Louis, Illinois; New 
England Cooperative Wholesale Association, 86 Leverett 
street, Boston. 

The Pacific Cooperative League, which acts through the 
Cooperative Wholesale Company of San Francisco, was 
organized in 1913. It, however, took over the work of a 
previous association which had had eighteen years' experience. 
Many of the Pacific Coast stores are members of the district 
wholesale company. Most of its affiliated stores were organ- 
ized as branches. The Cooperative Central Exchange of 
Superior, Wis., is a Finnish organization. Forty-nine 
societies in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan, with a com- 
bined membership of about 5,000, own the Superior Whole- 
sale. Eighty additional organizations purchase through it. 

The Central States Wholesale Cooperative Society has 
sixty stores in Illinois. This wholesale is the result of the 
cooperative movement among the Illinois miners, although 
its present membership is by no means limited to that group 
of workers. For a number of years, in fact, the Illinois State 
Federation of Labor has been energetically preaching cooper- 
ation. 

Besides these wholesales there are groups of societies in 
nearly every state. In eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia 
and western Pennsylvania is a strong expression of the coop- 
erative movement among the locals of the United Mine 
Workers of America. Scattered societies are found in every 
state. Pennsylvania has two hundred societies, Wisconsin 
and Minnesota each have two hundred societies, while Kansa- 
has five hundred. 

In places, individual cooperative stores are discriminated 
against by manufacturers and jobbers. Some authorities re- 
gard this discrimination as an asset rather than a liability, 
since it stimulates interest in the store. However, it is cer- 
tainly true that few retail cooperatives experience difficulty 
in obtaining their stocks. Boards of trade and independent 
retailers attempt to persuade private wholesale concerns to 
discriminate against consumers' cooperative stores; but thus 
far the stores continue to get goods. 

While the most common expression of distributive coopera- 
tion in the United States is the store selling groceries, still 

57 



58 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 






cc 



there are hundreds of dry goods, shoe, hardware, clothing and 
drug stores. There are also many cooperative bakeries, laun- 
dries, restaurants, boarding houses, coal yards, printing plants, 
and recreational centers. Cooperative house building associa- 
tions have been particularly successful. 

The most serious cause of failures among cooperative ven- 
tures has been attributed to the use of methods which under 
any s)stem would result in bankruptcy. Poor bookkeeping 
and a worse application of cooperative principles, according 
to the Cooperative League of America, have explained numer- 
ous failures. The league and the wholesale societies have 
educational and organization departments. Some of the 
wholesales install systems of bookkeeping, audit the books of 
their members, and some insist on a strict enforcement of 
Rochdale principles, essential to cooperative success. Because 
of this national organization, with education and with inspec- 
tion, the present move appears to be on a sounder basis than 
its predecessors. Previously cooperative undertakings have 
often been started without any reference to the experience of 
other groups. Failures have in consequence been numerous. 
Successes have been attained chiefly when some one of the 
members had knowledge of the methods of well managed 
cooperative stores. Thus in times past an English or a Scotch 
immigrant who was familiar with cooperation in Britain 
would be the nucleus around which a sound organization was 
reared. But there were not enough such immigrants to guide 
the isolated experiments. The Cooperative League happily 
now renders this service. 

Cooperative stores, although furthered by various trade 
unions, do not follow strictly labor lines. Still some of the 
unions have gone further. The United Mine Workers of 
America have in certain districts been pioneers. Their stores 
have been the centers around which the movement grew. 
The most conspicuous of the present developments are, how- 
ever, those of the railroad unions. Among the railroad work- 
ers the activity of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 
is outstanding. In 191 5 the engineers began to consider 
cooperation. At the present time they are engaged in organ- 
izing a cooperative national bank in Cleveland. A building 
has been bought and a charter obtained. The capital of the 
bank is fixed at $1,000,000, with an additional $100,000 paid 
in as surplus. This bank will maintain commercial, savings 
and trust departments. The ownership of the bank stock 
will be limited to members of the brotherhood, but, like other 
cooperative undertakings, it will also open its facilities to the 
public. The dividends paid to stockholders will accordingly 
be limited and the earnings in excess of these limited divi- 
dends will be distributed along cooperative lines. This bank 
is more a trade union enterprise than a cooperative institution. 

In addition to the national bank the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers is attempting to organize credit unions. 
These are analogous to local cooperative consumers' stores. 
Members buy shares, usually $10 par value, and deposit their 
savings with the society. Loans are made to members on 
personal credit and dividends are paid upon deposits. In 
1910, it is stated, approximately 65,000 of these credit unions 
had been organized in Europe. Their annual turnover was 
said to be seven billion dollars. 

In 1909 Massachusetts enacted a statute making possible 
the establishment of these " people's banks." Subsequently 
Texas, North Carolina, New York and Rhode Island have 
passed such laws. The development of these banks in Boston 
was contemporaneous with a marked decline \r the loan shark 
business, according to W. F. McCaleb, of the National Com- 
mittee on People's Banks. This shows how real a service 
they may render. 






The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, like the Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers, are supporting the develop- 
ment of credit unions as well as other forms of cooperation. 
The clothing makers also have plans for a large central bank, 
for stores, and already have quietly established a cooperative 
clothing factory in New York. This is now limited to a 
" made-to-measure " trade. The clothing makers, the rail- 
road unions, the mine workers and other trade unionists 
joined with certain farmers' societies last February in hold- 
ing the Ail-American Farmer-Labor Cooperative Congress 
at Chicago. [See the Survey, February 21, 1920.] Out of 
this meeting grew the Committee on Banking and Credit, of 
which Frederic C. Howe is executive secretary. 

Mr. Howe has been especially engaged since the holding 
of the congress in developing the national bank of the Broth- 
erhood of Locomotive Engineers. 

The important result of the farmer-labor meeting is, how- 
ever, to be seen in the focussing of the energies of these two 
great groups. Farmers have in many parts of the country 
established powerful cooperative societies. Mr. Howe says:. 

The farmers of Wisconsin own and operate 2,000 cooperative 
producers' societies. They own 718 cheese factories, 380 cream- 
eries, 437 telephone companies, 214 insurance societies, ISO live 
stock shipping societies, 4 packing plants, 2 laundries and 7 fruit 
exchanges. The farmers of Minnesota own and operate 2,950 
cooperative societies including 643 creameries, 360 elevators, 400 
live stock shipping societies, 52 cheese factories, 102 stores, 950 
telephone companies, 59 fire insurance and 290 other societies. 
They did a business in 1917 of $118,710,000. The farmers of 
North Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, California, Washington and 
other states have organized thousands of other cooperative so- 
cieties and do a business running into the hundreds of millions 
annually. 

Like the labor cooperative consumers' societies, these forces 
are now being unified. At the present time, taking the coun- 
try as a whole, they carry on only a small fraction of the 
total volume of business. Yet they mark a growth which may 
in time have tremendous significance in the economic charac- 
ter of this country. They are assuredly among the most 
potent of the democratic influences at work in our industrial 
and agricultural development. What they will ultimately 
signify it is not possible to say. A hundred years ago coopera- 
tion of a sort was an important feature in the manufacturing 
industry of the country. At various times since then coopera- 
tion, on the Rochdale plan and on other lines, has seemed to 
obtain a powerful footing. Once the dominant labor federa- 
tion of the country definitely gave up trade union methods in 
favor of cooperation. But the season was not ripe. One by 
one the plans lost importance. But never before has the 
interest in cooperation been so widespread nor the develop- 
ment apparently so sound. 

Nevertheless, Dr. Warbasse is of the opinion that some of 
the present ventures are built on sand. Some, he states, call 
themselves cooperative when actually they are merely old- 
line private business or individual philanthropy. Success, in 
his reckoning, is possible only when the strict methods tested 
by cooperators in many countries are efficiently put into prac- 
tice. Moreover, he urges that a mere desire to effect an 
immediate and a large reduction in the cost of living is not a 
sufficient basis for successful cooperation. A consumers' store 
alone can save only the small retailer's profits, and these are 
not always large. A wholesale society can effect further sav- 
ings, it is true, and cooperative manufacturing can do more, 
but the road to such economies is toilsome. Often it is not 
traversed unless there is present a democratic interest in 
building a human society whose motive is service and not 
profit-taking. Among some of the trade unions that generous 
motive is at work. It is the most important safeguard for 
the future. 






"For Their Principles" 

The Present Status of the Conscientious Objectors 

By Norman Thomas 



cc 



H 



OF ALL the nations involved in the Great War 
America suffered the least. Of all the peoples who 
entered the Great War, Americans were most in- 
clined to boast about freedom of conscience. Yet our 
nation is the only one which still holds in prison men whose 
sole offense was their refusal on conscientious ground to take 
active part in the Great War. Men to whom I refer are 
often called " slackers " but they are not to be numbered with 
the 171,000 draft evaders whom the War Department is still 
trying to " round up." Rather they are men who stood for 
their principles with the same quiet courage which the finest 
of their brothers showed on the battlefields of France. They 
did not run away, but they steadfastly refused to render to 
Caesar what they felt did not belong 
to him and they have paid the price. 
On August 27, as I write, nearly two 
years after the signing of the armistice, 
there are in all 36 such men, 32 at the 
internment camp, Fort Douglas, Utah, 
and one each in Fort Leavenworth 
Penitentiary, the Fort Leavenworth 
Disciplinary Barracks (military 
prison), and the Disciplinary Barracks 
at Alcatraz Island. The remaining ob- 
jector, Benjamin Salmon, is in St. 
Elizabeth Hospital, Washington, D. 
C, where he is held for examination 
as to his sanity. . Mr. Salmon, who 
was confined at Fort Douglas, began a 
hunger strike on July 13, and was 
finally transferred to the Washington 
institution. He himself is a Roman 
Catholic religious objector. He is con- 
fined with the criminal insane, and is 
mechanically fed to keep him alive. He 
does not resist the feeding because such resistance would be 
contrary to his philosophy. He believes, however, that the 
indefinite continuance of mechanical feeding means death. 

Except, perhaps, in Mr. Salmon's case, there is nothing par- 
ticularly dramatic to be said about the conditions under which 
the objectors are imprisoned. Conditions are bad for the ob- 
jectors as they are for all prisoners in the particular institu- 
tions in which these men are confined. The military bar- 
racks at Fort Leavenworth are again under the rule 
of " iron discipline." Such concessions as had been made 
after the famous strike (recorded by Winthrop D. Lane 
iri the Survey for February 15, 1919), have long since dis- 
appeared. The Federal penitentiary is as bad, or worse, than 
the military prison. Fort Alcatraz is better run, on the whole, 
than Fort Leavenworth — this, in spite of the fact that it was 
the scene of the torture of the Hofer brothers and the place 
where men were at one time confined in cages. At Fort Doug- 
las conditions are as good as circumstances permit and the of- 
ficers in charge have done as well as possible. The men are 
confined within a barbed wire stockade. They do their own 
work under their own cooperative organization. And they are 
allowed considerable liberty in the matter of games, amateur 
theatricals and the like. Nevertheless, the long and irksome 
confinement is telling upon the men. The executive officer, 



ARDBOILED" 
{Frank H.) Smith, 
convicted of extreme 
cruelty to military prisoners and 
to accused soldiers in his custody 
while an army lieutenant in 
France, has been released, ac- 
cording to a Washington dis- 
patch to the New York Evening 
Post. 

Smith had been sentenced to 
eighteen months. After serving 
less than ten months in the fed- 
eral prison and four additional 
months on parole, he received his 
formal discharge from the War 
Department on July 28. 



Captain Walters, a man of unusual quality, has recently sent 
the men on a hike to improve their physical condition. 

These thirty-six are all that are left out of 500 objectors 
originally imprisoned. If the War Department were asked 
to explain why these particular men should be in jail when 
others are free, it would be hard to get a clear answer. We 
have sometimes been told by officials that these men now con- 
fined are political objectors, and hence not truly conscientious. 
It is a fact that most of the men still in jail are objectors to 
this war rather than to all war. They are Socialists, I. W. 
W.'s or other radicals. There are, however, men like Howard 
Moore, who on religious or humanitarian grounds, are objec- 
tors to all wars. From any logical standpoint, however, the 
discrimination in favor of objectors to 
all war is unjustifiable. The only 
ground on which any objectors ought 
to be free is either ( 1 ) that it is 
sheer stupidity for the government to 
keep men who might be useful, or at 
least self-supporting, in society, in 
prison after a war is over, or (2) the 
more thorough going conviction that 
the state does society and the individual 
an ill service when it seeks to coerce 
any man into doing that of which he 
conscientiously disapproves. The so- 
cialist's disapproval of a given war is 
fully as real as a Quaker's disapproval 
of all wars, and coercion of his con- 
science is as morally indefensible. 

The War Department's real justifi- 
cation of its present policy is that these 
men still confined at Fort Douglas will 
not work and that they are to be kept 
until they do work or until their term 
expires. (This, however, does not explain the continued im- 
prisonment of the men at the Alcatraz and Leavenworth 
prisons who are working.) When the department says that 
the men will not work it means that they will not work under 
military orders. What the Government is engaged in 
trying to do is to save its own face and secure a nom- 
inal submission from these heretics. Instead of making 
their beds, washing their dishes and cleaning their camp as 
part of a cooperative group the prisoners must do it under mili- 
tary orders. And it was the War Department, not the ob- 
jectors, who drew the line as to what prison work was o*~ 
was not " military." The objectors on their part say that the 
whole point of their objection is their willingness to be sub- 
ject to military orders. It is within the power of the Gov- 
ernment to kill them ; it is not within the power of the 
Government to force them to render obedience to a system 
which they believe detrimental to social well being and opposed 
to the highest dictates of their conscience. Is this position un- 
reasonable? Perhaps, but in all generations men have some 
act symbolical of their whole philosophy of life. The early 
Christians could have escaped martyrdom by offering a pinch 
of incense to Caesar, the early Quakers could have escaped 
many a prison sentence if they would but have doffed their 
hats in the presence of lords temporal and spiritual. Polish 

59 



<Ak. 






60 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



patriots might at one time have escaped prison terms in 
Siberia if they had agreed to shave their mustaches. These 
men, whom the world numbers among its heroes, refused, not 
because the act in itself was important, but because the sig- 
nificance of the act was all important. This is the position of 
the conscientious objector and there are few social phenomena 
more distressing than the desperate effort of a great govern- 
ment to force submission. There is a difference in degree of 
cruelty, but not in spirit, between the War Department's stand 
and that of the Spanish Inquisition. Both seek to break the 
will of the heretic. In one respect the advantage was on the 
side of Torquemada, because at least he sought to save men's 
immortal souls. 

What makes the War Department's policy still more inde- 
fensible is its rank discrimination. There are today plenty 
of conscientious objectors, who are now free men, whose stand 
was just as absolute as that of their brethren who are still 
in prison. The simple truth is that the War Depart- 
ment's whole policy in dealing with conscientious object- 
ors, at least since the problem of the absolutist (that is 
the man who refused even alternative service) emerged, has 
been lacking in courage, consistency, generosity or justice. 
When a popular outcry arose at the unjust sentences imposed 
by court martials, reviewing boards reduced those sentences, 
but in the case of the conscientious objectors, and I am in- 
clined to think of all military prisoners, the reductions were 
haphazard, hit or miss, and might have been effected by draw- 
ing lots out of a hat. It is for instance absurd that Howard 
Moore should still be imprisoned with one and a half year to 
serve. Moore, it will be remembered, is the winner of a Car- 
negie hero medal, who did valiant work as a volunteer during 
the influenza epidemic at Fort Riley. On this account and 
because of his high character the court-martial gave him a 
five-year sentence at a time it scarcely thought in terms of less 
than twenty years. Many officers have recommended him for 
leniency, but he is still confined because, as the War Depart- 
ment explained to an inquirer, his work has been voluntary 
and not under military orders. They did not explain that the 
same thing was true of other men who now are free. Some 
of those now free did not even serve out their reduced sen- 
tences. The War Department has from time to time found 
a special excuse for letting this objector or that go free. In 
short, in consequence of its refusal to face the issue by a gen- 
eral amnesty, it has not only outraged American traditions of 
freedom of consicence in its tyranny, but it has acted with the 
capriciousness of an Oriental despot. 

The conscientious objectors themselves are concerned with 
the assertion of a principle, not with complaints about brutali- 
ties. Yet it must not be forgotten that many of them have 
spent weeks in solitary confinement and that before they 
reached prison, while they were still in camps and guard 
houses, many of them suffered the severest kind of abuse from 
over zealous officers and guards. At the beginning of the war, 
. ecretary Baker gave his word to certain visitors that the 
American policy of dealing with conscientious objectors would 
be stained by no such brutalities as marked the English record. 



On the contrary, the American record, all things considered, 
has been worse. For that fact Mr. Baker himself cannot es- 
cape responsibility. Yet it would be futile to make Mr. Baker 
the scapegoat for the country's sins. It is America as a whole 
which is guilty of cruelty and injustice to political prisoners, 
including conscientious objectors. It is our churchmen, our 
so-called liberals, our leaders of opinion, who, in their attitude 
toward social heretics, either through indifference to the 
things which are happening, or through war hysteria, have be- 
come more Prussian than the Prussians. It was not the 
superiority of the British or Canadian or New Zealand gov- 
ernments which long ago led to the release of the conscientious 
objectors in those countries; it was emphatically the demand 
of labor, of leading citizens, of high functionaries in church 
and state. If the same sort of citizens had spoken clearly in 
America the prison doors would months ago have swung open 
for all political prisoners. There are some encouraging signs. 
A committee of the American Federation of Labor is working 
for amnesty of political prisoners, including conscientious ob- 
jectors. Some religious leaders, especially in the Protestant 
Episcopal church, have petitioned the War Department for 
their release. But speaking generally the public is apathetic. 
It is hard to get any attention for the sufferings of the little 
group of objectors in these perplexing and clamorous times, 
when out of agony and travail a new social order is coming 
to birth. Nevertheless, the treatment given to the objectors 
measures the sincerity of the church's loyalty to conscience 
and of the state's understanding of freedom. It is all very 
well for clergymen and reviewers to welcome Philip Gibbs' 
story of the war, but books like his will have been written in 
vain if we cannot emancipate ourselves from the tyrannical 
spirit which insists upon punishing men whose only crime was 
that they felt about war in general, or the World War in par- 
ticular, in 191 8, as very many thoughtful men are coming to 
feel about it in 1920. The time has passed when one whi 
knows the facts about conscientious objectors can speak in 
what is commonly called judicial language. Rather it is nece: 
sary that some prophet should arise to burn upon the con 
sciences of the American people the injustice and hypocrisy of 
our present attitude. 

Readers of the Survey, it may be assumed, whatever their 
attitude toward Russia and Bolshevism, are somewhat anxio 
lest in its devotion to a great theory of social welfare the 
Russian revolution will lose sight of the value of individual 
freedom. Yet the plain truth is that in Russia, beset by al 
her foes, there is a more generous arrangement for exemptio; 
of conscientious objectors than ever existed in the United 
States. At the head of the exemption board is the head of 
the Tolstoian Society. It is inconceivable that two years after 
Russia is at peace any man will be in her prisons for the simple 
crime of refusing to fight. It is, therefore, sheer hypocrisy 
for our newspapers and preachers to talk about the dangers 
to liberty of the Bolshevik experiment so long as they them- 
selves have been so unwilling to support or to defend the lib- 
erty " to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to 
conscience," which is the highest liberty of the soul. 



■mm* 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



61 



INDUSTRY 



Conducted by 
WILLIAM L. CHENERY 



The Railroads and Unions 



THE present situation in the transportation industry af- 
fords a curious and significant contrast to the conditions 
which obtained six months ago. When the railroad adminis- 
tration relinquished control of the railroad properties under 
the terms of the Esch-Cummins bill, the labor leaders felt 
that they had suffered a serious defeat. The heart of some 
of them, at any rate, was set on the Plumb plan which re- 
ceived scant consideration at the hands of Congress. When 
the Plumb plan was lost, the attention of labor was concen- 
trated on a fight to prevent the enactment of a law providing 
for compulsory arbitration. Nominally that fight was won. 
The Transportation act of 1920 did not contain any features 
obviously compulsory. 

On the whole, as compared with the system which obtained 
prior to the war, railroad labor seemed to fare very well under 
the new law. Trade unionism by its terms seemed to be 
recognized beyond a peradventure while up to 1916 only the 
largest and most powerful unions had been able to deal effec- 
tively with the railroads. In effect the Esch-Cummins act 
perpetuated the form of the larbor machinery which had been 
created by the railroad administration even though the spirit 
were lost. Two important provisions were made in the act. 
The first of these called for the creation of the United States 
Railway Labor Board. This board, it will be recalled, was 
appointed and is now actively engaged at Chicago. Its duties 
consist chiefly in arbitrating disputes which arise between 
the railroads and their employes. Its two large decisions have 
grown out of the railroad strike and out of the demands of 
the express companies' employes for increased wages. Besides 
providing for the Railway Labor Board, which consists of 
nine members, three representing the railroads, three the em- 
ployes and three the public, the Transportation act also called 
for the recognition of the principle of collective bargaining, 
and in part urged the creation of adjustment commissions 
through which the railroads and their employes might directly 
settle their difficulties. 

Adjustment commissions had been established by the rail- 
road administration during the war, and they had rendered 
very valuable service. No one can read the reports of Walker 
D. Hines without realizing how much was contributed to 
the country by this voluntary organization. Congress ex- 
pected that similar bodies would be perpetuated under the 
new system of railway control. Apparently, however, that 
is not now to happen. The unions seem to be in favor of 
the adjustment boards, but the railroads and important ship- 
pers are definitely opposed. When the suggestion was made 
that boards of adjustment be formed, the Association of Rail- 
road Executives opposed the undertaking and at the present 
time the Merchants Association of New York seems to be 
leading a fight against the fulfillment of these voluntary sec- 
tions of the Transportation act. A typical telegram has been 
sent from the Builders Association Exchange of Buffalo to 
the United States Railway Board. This is as follows: 

This Exchange is formally opposed to centralized control of 
railway labor and believes the best interests of the whole country 
demand that the control of labor matters as well as all matters 
pertaining to the management of the railroads be put back in 
the hands of the railroad executives. We believe that efficient 
service can be given the public in no other way. 
In other words, an effort is being made to nullify the impor- 
tant labor sections of the Transportation act, and to wipe 
out the progress which has been made during and since the war. 
This is an extremely serious situation. In effect it means 
that no policy other than that based on force is to be applied 
in the transportation field if these commercial organizations 
have their way. As long as labor was scarce it was all right 



to consult the unions. Now that the market has changed and 
the law of supply and demand is operating against the work- 
ers, the principles of voluntary adjustment so admirable a 
few months ago are no longer highly prized. . This is a sad 
and menacing manifestation. If in this country we are not 
able to build industrial policies on a basis of intelligence and 
fairness and democracy, we cannot hope to escape the troubles 
which other countries are now passing through. 

Eight and Ten-Hour Work Day 

THE United States Public Health Service published last 
February a comparison of an eight-hour plant and a 
ten-hour plant. It was one of a series of studies in industrial 
physiology. The report was written by Josephine Goldmark 
and Mary D. Hopkins. The investigation was directed by 
Philip Sargent Florence of the Public Health Service under 
the general direction of Dr. Frederic S. Lee. The personnel 
involved obviously includes leaders in this field of inquiry. 
There is no higher authority in this country in the study of 
fatigue than Miss Goldmark. The principals in the inquiry 
and report are students of national and international reputa- 
tion. 

It is needful to call attention to this fact because of a 
sharp attack on the findings of this Public Health Bulletin by 
the National Industrial Conference Board. The bulletin of 
the Public Health Service Board summarized a number of 
conclusions. These tended generally to indicate that the 
eight-hour day was more desirable than the ten-hour day. 
Evidence of various kinds was offered to sustain the conclu- 
sions arrived at. Certain parts of the evidence offered 
showed the steady maintenance of output under the eight- 
hour system, the reduction of lost time and restricted out- 
put, and the decrease of industrial accidents. These sum- 
mary conclusions have attracted wide attention. 

The National Industrial Conference Board, the nucleus of 
whose membership consists of twenty-five industrial associa- 
tions of country-wide scope, has, during the last few years, 
made inquiries of its own. More and more it has entered 
the field previously occupied only by governmental inquiries 
and to a lesser extent by the research of universities. The 
Conference Board has laid very great stress on the scientific 
and impartial quality of its industrial investigations although 
it wals created to provide a clearing house of information and 
cooperative action on matters that vitally affected its mem- 
bers. The board has asserted forcefully its determination to 
use detached and unprejudiced methods in the prosecution 
of its studies. 

It has now issued a small pamphlet entitled Unwarranted 
Conclusions Regarding the Eight-Hour and Ten-Hour Work 
da} r . This is a critical review of the Public Health Servic 
Bulletin which made a comparison of an eight-hour and a 
ten-hour plant. The National Industrial Conference Board 
says that its criticism " is published for the purpose of point- 
ing out the faulty conclusions of a public document on a 
subject which has not been thoroughly investigated. Mislead- 
ing, unwarranted, and unscientific conclusions are always to be 
deplored, but when such conclusions carrying the weight of 
governmental sanction and bearing upon a highly contro- 
versial subject are stated dogmatically and without qualifica- 
tion, they are dangerous. It is with a desire to point out this 
danger and in behalf of careful, comprehensive and impartial 
investigation before results are published that this report is 
issued." It is, therefore, in accordance with its own state- 



62 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



merit, because of its fealty to pure science and not because 
of its advocacy of a longer in preference to a shorter working 
day that the Conference Board has been moved to protest 
against the conclusions arrived at by these federal investiga- 
tors. It is important to keep this statement in mind in ap- 
praising the value of the criticism offered. 

The Conference Board concludes that the findings of the 
Public Health Service were " essentially unscientific and not 
justified by the data offered " because 

1. The two plants from which the data were obtained were 
not fairly comparable; 

2. The basis of experience is too small to justify conclusions 
applicable to industry in general. 

Consider the first criticism. The Public Health Service 
investigators admit frankly, so frankly that the students who 
prepared the report for the Industrial Conference Board 
were compelled to take notice of the fact in the body of their 
statement, that the plants compared were in many respects 
different. For that reason the factories were not directly 
compared with each other. What the Public Health experts 
did was to compare the efficiency of the different succeeding 
hours in the eight-hour and the ten-hour plants with the 
best period in each plant. In other words, the most produc- 
tive hour in each plant was taken as its " bogey," and the find- 
ings were made on the basis of that kind of comparison. 
Only after the studies of the two individual institutions had 
been completed and only after, through accepted and familiar 
statistical methods, elements of dissimilarity had been elimin- 
ated, was the comparison between the two plants attempted. 
So far as the value of the Public Health Service report is 
concerned, individual and separate reports might have been 
made on the eight-hour and the ten-hour establishment. 
The National Industrial Conference Board critics seem in 
fact in the full text of their attack to be so thoroughly aware 
that the Public Health Service did make the necessary quali- 
fications in reporting its results that one wonders by what 
logic their own conclusion was attained. 

As to the second general conclusion of the Conference 
Board, that the data of the Public Health Service were too 
slight to indicate a general conclusion, that may frankly be 
admitted. The Public Health Service people themselves 
seem to be under no illusion as to the universality of their 
discoveries. What they did do was to ascertain the facts in 
two apparently important and representative industrial plants. 
Other such studies are obviously desirable and a large body 
of facts must be assembled before the subject is removed from 
the field of scientific controversy. No one questions that. 

But the National Industrial Conference Board should look 
to its own reputation for scientific fairness. When the 
British Government in the midst of the war published several 
studies on the hours of labor in the munitions industry, the 
Conference Board at once viewed the findings with hostility. 
In Bulletin No. 2, dated November, 191 7, the data of the 
British reports, the offense of which seems to lie in the fact 
that they, too, stressed the desirability of a shorter working 
day, were captiously considered. 

The National Industrial Conference Board was at pains 
to say on page 2 of that report: 

Because of the abnormal circumstances under which the studies 

c '' were made and an absence of full information as to collateral 

P conditions, the findings cannot be accepted as conclusive even 

when related to actual hours. 

Many of the members of the National Industrial Board 
have individually appeared to act on the belief that long hours 
of work served their industrial interest, and with striking im- 
mediacy, the scientific section of the Conference Board thus 
essays to support the opinions which the members of the 
organization have historically entertained. As an example 
of loyalty, this is good enough; but as science, it is sorry. 

The Public Health Service study is not injured by an 
attack of this kind; but the public attitude toward the dis- 
interestedness of the Conference Board's own studies is put 
in jeopardy. 






Minimum Wage in Washington 

THE recent action of the Industrial Welfare Commission 
of the State of Washington and the opposition to wage 
rates set, add an interesting chapter to the history of the state 
wage regulation. The present wage of $13.20 per week, set 
by the War Emergency Conference, became effective Novem- 
ber 10, 1918. In this one case the order covered the wage 
of adult women workers in any occupation, trade, or indus- 
try during the period of the war. A minimum set by the 
commission cannot be changed for a year but holds until su- 
perseded by new enactment. The emergency order, however, 
will end with the peace treaty unless it has been supplanted 
before the war ends officially. 

In response to a petition letter the commission began inves- 
tigation of hotels and restaurants in November, 1919, pre- 
paratory to a conference of the public housekeeping industry. 
This industry was chosen for first consideration because of 
the seven-day week made possible by court action. The com- 
mission had interpreted the recommendation of the Emergency 
Conference as meaning an eight-hour day and a six-day week 
or twenty-seven and one-half cents an hour. A justice court 
decision sustained the twenty-seven and one-half cent rate for 
the seventh day's work but on appeal in the Superior Court 
the decision was reversed. Although the wage remained valid 
some girls had to work seven days for the $13.20 wage while 
others in other occupations received the same for six days 
work. 

The conference for the public housekeeping industry in 
March of this year resulted in unanimous resolutions. Three 
public hearings for protests followed. On April 3, the com- 
mission adopted the resolutions and issued the order which 
became effective June 2. The resolutions provided for regu- 
lation of conditions and an $18 a week or $3 a day or 37^ 
cents an hour minimum wage. 

On May 13, a group of hotel employers through their at- 
torney, filed a petition for an injunction preventing the en- 
forcement of the commission's order. At the hearing the peti- 
tion was withdrawn and a writ of review requested. The 
writ was not granted. The order became effective June 2. 
On June 10, another request for an injunction was .filed to- 
gether with an attack upon the constitutionality of the Mini- 
mum Wage act. The petition challenged the constitution- 
ality of the act ; contended that if constitutional it was handled 
in an unconstitutional manner; and further complained that 
various provisions exceeded the authority of the commission. 
The complaints were heard on July 26; and on August 7 the 
opinion was handed down sustaining the commission on every 
point. 

The manufacturing industry was taken under consideration 
next because the main complaint was that the short week of 
forty-four hours was providing only $12.10. The conference 
met for public hearing April 28 and the two following days 
lor consideration of recommendations to the commission. In- 
stead of the usual frank discussion between the employers and 
the employes, the manufacturers were represented by their 
attorneys and employed public accountants. Except in a few 
instances they refused to discuss any question presented to 
the conference. At the end of their two days' executive ses- 
sion the conferees adjourned with no wage recommendation, — 
the first time in the six years of the commission's existence. 
The resolutions covering the conditions of labor were made 
null and void by the last resolution which provided for the 
suspension or alteration in particular conditions when neces- 
sary to the promotion of the industries of the state. The 
resolutions were rejected by the commission and a second con- 
ference was called. 

This second conference was one of the hardest fought of 
the commission. Again the employers filled the Senate cham- 
ber in silence. When one employer did break silence, his com- 
panions voiced disapproval among themselves. Near the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



63 



close of the day allowed for presentation of evidence, the em- 
ployed spokesman of the employers read off the list of evi- 
dence which would be turned over to the conferees for con- 
sideration in executive session. After two days' deliberation 
the conference recommended $18 a week, or $3 a day, or 
37/4 cents an hour as minimum for adult women workers 
in the manufacturing industry. The vote stood five to four 
with one employer later signing the resolution. The recom- 
mendations on the conditions of labor were carried by an 
unanimous vote. On June 15 the commission cast a tie vote 
on the recommendations. During the interim between the 
calling of this conference and the end of the protest hearings 
the personnel of the Industrial Welfare Commission had 
undergone considerable change. One member resigned. A 
second was superseded by a new member despite the fact that 
women of the state had petitioned the governor to reappoint 
her. The vote found the labor commissioner, the one sal- 
aried member, and the newly appointed member voting 
against and the other two voting for the recommendations of 
the conference, with the fifth member not appointed. The 
additional member is not to be appointed ; so the girls find the 
consideration of their well-being laid aside until after fall 
elections. Gladys Taylor. 

Seattle. 



Minimum Wage in Massachusetts 

THE Massachusetts Minimum Wage Commission has 
worked out a budget and established a minimum wage 
for women employed in the clothing industry. For expe- 
rienced workers the minimum wage is fixed at $15.25 a 
week. For learners and apprentices who have reached the age 
of eighteen years it is not less than $12 a week. For all others 
it is not less than $10 a week. An employe is deemed expe- 
ienced who is eighteen years old and who has been working 
the women's clothing industry at least a year and a half. 
In computing the wage finally fixed, the board worked out 
the following budget: 

Favored by Favored 

employe by all other 

members members 

1. Board and lodging $9.50 $9.50 

2. Clothing 3.25 3.25 

3. Laundry .45 .45 

4. Doctor and Dentist .45 .40 

5. Church 20 .10 

6. Vacation 45 .40 

7. Recreation 45 .37 

8. Education 18 .18 

9. Savings 50 .30 

10. Carfare 20 .20 

11. Incidentals 10 .10 

Total $15.73 $15.25 

It is interesting to compare trie wage fixed by the Massa- 
chusetts commission with the cost of living study made by 
le National Industrial Conference Board for the region north 
»f Hudson county, N. J., in which many women are employed 
n the silk mills. The Conference Board computed the cost 
living of a single woman who resided with her family. 
This was estimated to be $12.39 a week. No allowance was 
ide for savings other than a fifteen cent weekly investment 
insurance. The budget thus arrived at calculated the home 
expenses to be $7.10 weekly. It was, however, frankly stated 
that a girl could not board outside of her own home at any 
such rate. Using the assumption that $12 a week would 
be charged for a room and board, the Conference Board esti- 
mated that the total cost of living for a single woman, near 
Hoboken, would be considerably more than $900 a year. 
That is to say considerably more than $17 a week. In Bos- 
ton the Minimum Wage Board reckons that board and lodg- 
ing can be obtained for $9.50. 




THE NEW BUSINESS SYMBOL 



An exarnple of the modern trademark which, as pointed out by 
Advertising and Selling, glorifies the industry or tells the actual 
story of service performed. Draivn in pen and ink 

Uncle Sam's Stepchild 

TNDUSTRIAL Porto Rico seems at times to have been 
■■-the forgotten stepchild of the United States. The present 
annual report of Carmelo Honore, chief of the island bureau 
of labor, is furthermore interesting — aside from the tragedy 
there exemplified — by reason of the fact that the conditions 
of production in Porto Rico so strongly suggest the situation 
which obtained in this country at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. Wages, hours of work, and industrial rela- 
tions recall the eighteenth century United States. 

As in this country 125 years ago, the industrial problem of 
Porto Rico is largely agricultural. Coffee, sugar, fruit and 
tobacco are the basic industries. In this country social re- 
formers are often appalled at the power of industrial mag- 
nates who stand in the way of social betterment. Manufac- 
turers, however, at their most potent moments cannot com- 
pare with farmers, and for that reason it is true that even in 
this country the child labor problem in the agricultural re- 
gions is practically untouched. The state here has been strong 
enough to save children from industry, but not from agricul- 
ture. » 

Porto Rico shows a kindred situation vividly in the coffee 
district. For example, the normal wages according to this 
latest report of the insular government, are fifty cents a day 
for ten or twelve hours' work. This means during the eight 
months of the dead season a weekly wage of $1.50 to $2.50. 
Fathers and sons are generally barefooted, mothers and daugh- 
ters in at last half of the cases observed by the bureau had 
only the poorest kind of footwear which was used on Sun- 
days and holidays to attend church. These people have no 
recreation whatsoever, according to the bureau report. 
" They only work hard, eat badly and sleep worse on hard 



64 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



beds under the most confusing and unsanitary crowding, and 
so they grow to premature old age and death." Fifty per 
cent of the agricultural population live under these conditions. 
In the sugar district the circumstances of life seem to be dis- 
tinctly better. Wages are two or three times as large as those 
paid laborers of the same kind in the coffee districts. Sugar, 
of course, is a more prosperous industry than coffee and ac- 
cordingly the economic foundation is more promising. The 
laborers in the sugar industry appear to have been especially 
responsive to the efforts of trade union organizers. Mr. 
Honore's remarks at this juncture are entertaining. In part 
he says: 

They attend to all the meetings to which they are invited to 
discuss the strike question with meritorious exactness ; resist 
with marked serenity the sufferings of misery during the days ' 
of strike and register their names, paying admission and monthly 
fees to the trade unions to which they belong. But as soon as 
the industrial conflict is settled, the wave of enthusiasm which 
once reached them and which made them increase the ranks of 
organized labor immediately dies away and the unions to which 
they belong are reduced to a ten per cent of the number, thus 
weakening the energy of their drives for the obtainance of im- 
provements in their economic life. They also demonstrate great 
interest in the political propaganda that with special preference 
is carried on by the same labor leaders, and hence their want 
of realization of greater improvements for their home life in 
spite of their constant yearly strikes in order to obtain increases 
in wages and other social benefits. 

The bureau chief reports, however, another amazing condi- 
tion. Nearly 5 per cent of the sugar workers seem now to own 
small farms. The rest, including 15 per cent "of ex-owners 
of the same land on which they are at present working, do 
not possess even a small lot on which to build their homes 
without fearing the provisions of the present law on eject- 
ment." Apparently, instead of stimulating land and home 
ownership, the American rule in Porto Rico has reduced this 
important group of workers to dependence. In the fruit dis- 
trict conditions seem also to be degraded. The daily average 
wage for a man is $1, for women fifty cents, for children 
thirty cents. In the tobacco districts approximately the same 
conditions obtain with the exception that women and chil- 
dren are slightly better remunerated. Skilled laborers work 
at a scale which is suggestive of the wages paid in this coun- 
try at the time of the American Revolution. Machinists, 
for example, together with blacksmiths and smelters, work 
for $12 a week. In the sugar mills and in electric plants 
moreover, they have the twelve-hour day. 

Naturally conditions such as these are productive of unrest 
and of turmoil. A long list of strikes is enumerated in the 
report. The demands cited seem very modest to American 
eyes. These were generally a minimum wage of $2.50 for eight 
hours' work, equal wages for women, compliance with labor 
legislation, and the discontinuance of piece work. In three- 
fourths of the municipalities recent strikes are said to have 
been successful except that equal pay was not granted women. 
Porto Rico seems to present a strange intermixture of the 
medieval Spanish type of agricultural system and American 
industrial organization. As is usual when two civilizations 
meet, the evils of both seem to flourish. But perhaps the 
American declaration of independence was only an Anglo- 
Saxon document. Perhaps we of this era do not believe that 
c men born south of such and such a parallel are really free 
v human beings entitled to equality in the game of life. If 
we do, however, protest that the constitution follows the flag, 
and that with the constitution goes that great body of tra- 
dition which is the spirit of America, then it is true that by 
every social test we have failed to deal justly with the people 
of Porto Rico. Data enough to convince the most doubting 
is contained in this last report of the Bureau of Labor. 

Safety in the Ford Factory 

ONE of the most vivid chapters in the history of the mod- 
ern safety movement describes the transformation of the 
Ford motor factory. In spite of the fact that the motor com- 
pany is compelled to use machinery which ordinarily takes a 



heavy toll, engineering adjustments have almost eliminated 
fatal accidents in the Ford organization. According to the 
account given by Louis Resnick, editor of the National Safety 
News: 

About six years ago the manager of the compensation depart- 
ment of the Ford Motor Company came to Henry Ford with a 
request for authorization to build a larger industrial hospital. 
No verbatim report of the conference was made, but I am told 
the conversation ran something like this: 

Manager of Compensation Department: "We need a big hos- 
pital to care for our injured employes. We owe it to the men 
to take good care of them when they are hurt, and besides it 
will be a good investment because proper hospital attention will 
enable injured men to get back to work quicker than they do 
under present conditions." 

Mr- Ford: "No, sir, we will not go into the hospital business. 
We will eliminate accidents instead. If we owe it to our men 
to care for them when they are hurt, we certainly owe it to them 
to do everything in our power to keep them from getting hurt; 
and if it would be a good investment for us to build a larger 
industrial hospital, it certainly will be a better investment for 
us to get rid of accidents. That's your job from now on. 
PREVENT ACCIDENTS, even if you have to redesign our 
machines or methods to do so." 

There you have the beginning of one of the most effective 
pieces of safety work that America has seen. Machines — hun- 
dreds of them — were redesigned; equipment was thrown out; 
buildings were remodeled; processes were changed; workmen 
were trained; and millions of dollars were spent by the Ford 
Motor Company during the intervening years — all to safeguard 
the lives and health of the workmen. With what results? Here 
is one. During the fiscal year of 1918-1919, in the Highland 
Park plant (the parent of the company) — where 50,000 men and 
women were at work throughout the year, with 3,000 punch 
presses, 20,000 other machines and 70 elevators, with miles of 
loading docks where 60 giant cranes move at once, with 350 
acres of foundries, heat treating works, drop forge departments, 
machine shops, chemical laboratories and railroad yards — in this 
plant during that entire year only one man was killed by accident. 
You will appreciate just what this means when I tell you that 
if this percentage of accidental fatalities were maintained by the 
industries of the country generally, the accidentally killed in 
these industries each year would be 760 men and women instead 
of 22,000, as is now the case. 

The significant thing about the Ford company's record lies 
in the fact that safety was obtained by engineering reconstruc- 
tion rather than by giving advice to the members — not that 
the latter was overlooked. The policy of the safety depart- 
ment of the Ford company seems to have been embodied in 
the following paragraph : 

Work on your equipment first; guard every dangerous machine 
and every unsafe spot in the plant. Then gradually work in 
your educational campaign. You cannot expect the cooperation 
of your men until you have shown them that you really mean 
to do your share in making the plant safe. 

One of the most interesting details concerns the safeguard- 
ing of the dangerous punch presses. Ninety per cent, approxi- 
mately, of the three thousand presses at the Highland Park 
plant have now been so designed that it is necessary for an 
operator to press two buttons about a foot apart in order to 
set the machine in motion. In this way it is not possible for 
him to get his hands entangled in the machinery. According 
to Robert A. Shaw, director of the department, this device has 
not only wiped out punch press accidents, but it has increased 
production on an average of ten per cent. It has resulted in 
this enlarged production chiefly by eliminating fatigue which 
resulted from the operation of punch presses by a pedal. 

Women's Wages in Louisiana 

IN advocating the creation of a minimum wage commission, 
the Louisiana Commissioner of Labor states in his annual 
report that $9.10 a week is a liberal estimate for present aver- 
age wages of women in the state. In an industrial survey of 
Louisiana made in 1919 by the National and State Councils 
of Defense, which covered 10,877 women workers in stores, 
factories, hotels and restaurants, it was found that two-thirds 
of these workers were receiving less than $6.95 a week. Only 
637 of them received more than $17 a week; 2,930 received 
from $7.50 to $17 ; 4,469 received from $6.50 to $6.95 ; 2,841 
received less than $6.50. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



65 



CHILD WELFARE 



PAUL L. 



Conducted by 
BENJAMIN 



1 



An Epoch In Child Welfare 



ONE of the most significant developments in the child 
welfare field in recent years is a grant from the Com- 
monwealth Fund to the Bureau for Exchange of In- 
formation among Child Helping Organizations to cover a 
period of at least four years. This will make possible the 
organization of a field service which should make available 
to child welfare organizations the type of service that the Asso- 
ciation for Organizing Family Social Work has rendered in 
the family welfare field. C. C. Carstens of Boston, who has 
been appointed director of the bureau, brings with him the 
wealth of experience that he acquired during his fourteen 
years as secretary of the Massachusetts Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Children and also recognition as one 
of the national leaders in this field. 

This bureau originated at an informal conference of repre- 
sentatives of child helping societies held in connection with 
the National Conference of Charities and Correction in Bal- 
timore, in 191 5. It was organized for the interchange of 
general information, publicity and methods of appeal and for 
intersociety service. The present membership includes sixty- 
five child caring agencies in the United States and Canada, 
representing private child placing and child caring societies, 
children's protective agencies, and public departments for 
child care. A number of public departments of child welfare 
are included in the membership of the bureau. Thus its con- 
stituency is representative of child caring interests through- 
out the country so that it is in a position to influence appre- 
ciably the entire child welfare field. 

The development of the bureau contemplated with the com- 
ing of Mr. Carstens is especially significant because of the 
fact that child caring activities vary so greatly in problems 
and methods, emphasizing the necessity for some standardiz- 
ing influence. In the main, the various agencies have grown 
in response to local needs during a period when principles 
and methods of child care have been, to a large extent, in 
the making, and so each has developed its own standards. 
The result has been that the greatest divergence in method 
exists, even among agencies doing similar work ; little attempt 
has been made to test or to compare methods or results. 

The constituent agencies of the bureau have been conscious 
of their deficiencies and have desired help in studying and 
analyzing their work with a view to improving it. Many 
agencies have also felt that while their field work might be 
fairly satisfactory, yet because of faulty methods of record 
keeping among themselves it has been impossible to measure 
progress or for different organizations to learn from the suc- 
cesses or failures of each other. The societies have hoped 
eventually to bring about comparable methods of recording 
essential information in order that the experience of the var- 
ious agencies might be made available to all others. They 
desire to encourage higher standards among themselves, more 
thorough case work, uniform terminology and methods, and 
eventually to develop a recognized child caring technique. 

A wide divergence of terminology is everywhere apparent. 
In New York " child placing " means the placing of children 
in free foster homes, while in Massachusetts that term applies 
not only to such free placements but to placing children in 
boarding homes as well. The use of the term " child wel- 
fare " is at present confusing. Child welfare clinics' are being 
developed which limit their services to medical care of babies 
or young children. 

There is wide divergence of method among similar organi- 
zations, some humane societies limiting their field of endeavor 
mainly to prosecution, while others do a large preventive 
work, endeavoring to do constructive work within the home 



— to eliminate the underlying causes of family difficulty, thus 
removing the unsatisfactory conditions rather than removing 
the children. There is a great difference in preliminary in- 
vestigations before children are permanently removed from 
their own homes, as well as in the method employed in the 
investigation of free and boarding homes, in the standard of 
board and care provided, and in the supervision of children 
under care. In the placing out of children there is every con- 
ceivable procedure, from investigation of foster homes by 
correspondence only, to a personal visit by society agents to 
the family itself as well as to friends or neighbors who may 
give needed information about the family. Some societies 
accept children for placement upon the recommendation of 
public officials or cooperating societies, while others insist 
an investigation by their own agents before accepting the child 
for placement. 

All of these divergent methods and standards need to be 
studied in order to determine exactly what is required for 
the welfare of the children coming to the care of the con- 
stituent societies. The director and his staff will endeavor 
to assist the societies in making such a study. This will in- 
volve, first, a survey of the field of work being done, a study 
of the methods being used, and an effort on the part of each 
society to improve the daily handling of its work. 

Since its organization the bureau has required certain quali- 
fications before admitting an organization to membership. 
These are indicated by the following questions which each 
organization has been required to answer: 

1. If it is a private organization, is it managed by a respon- 
sible board of directors meeting at least quarterly? 

2. If it does case work, does it maintain individual case 
records ? 

3. Does it do work whose value is commensurate with the 
amount of money expended? 

4. Does it agree to cooperate heartily with the other members 
of the bureau under the terms of the Articles of Agreement for 
Inter-Society Service; to send to the bureau copies of all liter- 
ature published, and upon request to furnish sufficient additional 
copies for distribution to the members of the bureau ; to furnish 
such other information regarding its work as the bureau may 
request from time to time. 

5. Is the organization engaged in some form of social work 
for children? 

6. If it is a private organization, is it incorporated? 

7. Does it publish reasonably often a report of its work? 

8. Are its finances audited by competent accountants? 

9. Has it a paid, trained executive on full time? 

10. Is it established in such a manner as to give assurance of 
permanency in its organization and financial support? 

11. Does it raise money through entertainments conducted by 
professional performers? 

12. If it uses collectors, does it pay them an excessive per- 
centage? 

Although the selection of a more suitable name than the pres- 
ent one has not yet been decided upon, The Child Welfare 
League of America is being favorably considered. It has not 
been determined whether the headquarters will be in Wash- 
ington, Chicago or New York. Mr. Carstens expects to 
take up his full duties January 1, 1 921, and preliminary plans, 
including the appointment of an assistant, will be pressed for- 
ward immediately. 

The present officers and board of directors of the bureau 
are, H. Ida Curry, chairman; Georgia G. Ralph, secretary; 
Dr. Frederic H. Knight, treasurer. The executive commit- 
tee consists of H. Ida Curry, New York; Marcus C. Fagg, 
Jacksonville; Dr. Hastings H. Hart, New York; Dr. Fred- 
eric H. Knight, Boston; Wilfred S. Reynolds, Chicago; the 
Rev. A. H. Stoneman, St. Joseph; Henry W. Thurston, New 
York. 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



The "County Home Wrecker" 

O HENRY might have found a rich field for another one 
• of his incomparable stories if he could have trudged 
through a day with that individual known as the county agent 
for dependent children, part of whose job is to fit "the homeless 
child into the childless home " with all that that connotes, 
whether the child be the flaxen-haired, blue-eyed baby girl or 
the uncouth urchin with a wistful loneliness in his eyes. The 
spiritual interpretation of the work of the county agent em- 
bodied in a sparkling article by Mabel Easton just published 
in rhe Mount Holyoke Alumni Quarterly and later repub- 
lished by the Committee on County Agencies of the State 
Charities Aid Association of New York is worth noting for 
the inspiring message which it gives: 

The county agent faces certain grave dangers. Much of her 
work is with life, very sordid; manhood marred and misshapen, 
womanhood besmirched and soiled, childhood cursed into being, 
stunted and dwarfed. What wonder then that unless she is very 
careful, her sense of values suffers, the whole world seems gone 
astray, society crumbling and degenerate. More than all others, 
the county agent must devote her leisure to pursuits most whole- 
some, good friends, good music, good books, good fun. And if 
she is to keep her balance and continue effective she must be bul- 
warked by the strength of a deep, sure and unshakable spiritual 
background. She cannot spend of herself, day after day, unless 
as constantly renewed by the great " Giver of Gifts." 

They call her the " county home wrecker." They call her the 
" county stork." They look at her curiously as she travels hither 
and yon, with now an unwieldy, nondescript infant sagging pain- 
fully from her arm and now a family of five trudging stolidly in 
her wake, and they wonder what it is all about. And some time 
she herself may wonder. But through the " shouting and tumult " 
she has glimpsed a vision. She is working for an ideal embodied 
in the old, old question, "Am I my brother's keeper?" Daily 
she must answer that question by her work. But she must do 
more. She must make it a challenge to her community, an in- 
sistent and unescapable challenge, until one day the answer will 
come back incorporated in a program of broad constructive public 
welfare. And the answer will be this: "Yes, I am my brother's 
keeper if he needs me, and I ivM be my brother's keeper today 
that I may conserve my brother's child for the morrow." When 
that day comes, whether in her time or another's, the work of the 
county agent will not have been in vain. 

Reaching the Negro 

(<TN order that the Negro child may receive a concept of 

A his real self instead of the concept of a white child," the 
National Child Welfare Association is planning a special line 
of child conservation posters for use among Negro children. 
These posters will visualize the essential facts of child conserva- 
tion in terms of Negro life and experience. 

Lantern slides illustrating Negro life and needs will be 
prepared. Series of lectures will also be provided for colored 
communities with or without the panels or lantern slides, and 
institutes will be arranged for colored social workers, physi- 
cians and nurses, as well as for white workers who are inter- 
ested in the Negro. 

The association has noted the fact that nearly all the educa- 
tional material used among Negroes speaks in terms of white 
people. In the text books Negro children use there is prac- 
tically no reference to any race but the Caucasian: The 
histories are of white peoples. Pfactically all the pictures 
Vegro children see are white. The literature they read is by 
Jvhite authors and deals with characters that are white. If 
they go to the theatre or motion picture show, the same is true. 
Where a Negro appears occasionally in story or drama he is 
likely to be a caricature. 

It hardly seems fair to the Negro child that all his idealism, 
all his sense of the good, the great, the heroic, and the beautiful 
should be definitely associated with white people only. He is 
in danger of getting the notion, unconsciously, that the white 
child only has a chance to be good or heroic or beautiful. 

Twice as many Negro children die before birth and twice 
as many within one year after birth as among white children. 
The general tuberculosis death rate among Negroes is more 
than two and one half times as high as among whites and in 



some communities it is from four to five times as high. The 
morbidity among Negroes from all causes is very high. This 
high death and morbidity rate lays on the race an economic 
burden that is holding it back in all lines of development. By 
attacking the Negro child problem, helping to conserve the 
health, and cultivating the higher psychological traits of the 
Negro child, The National Child Welfare Association is 
offering assistance at the most strategic point. 

Leet B. Myers. 

Norwegian Children's Laws 

' I A HE laws adopted in Norway in April, 191 5 and popularly 
-*• termed the children's laws are the result of a movement 
which has of late gained great force in all civilized countries 
and which has, as its aim, the protection of children, especially 
during the first years of life. 

Society has more and more been forced to intervene in order 
to protect those children who do not receive the necessary 
attention and nursing from their parents. This applies also 
to children born outside of marriage. 

Since the eighties of last century many bills have been in- 
troduced with the purpose in view of improving the lot of 
such children, but the movement did not result In changes in 
existing laws until 1892, when the economic responsibility 
of the father was accentuated and the right ol the child to 
inheritance from the mother Was established. A proposal put 
forth at the same time regarding inheritance from the father 
was not then taken under consideration. 

In 1896 Norway established by law a council for the 
welfare of children, which aims at helping all neglected 
and mistreated children, those who are born outside of as 
well as those born in marriage. In 1905 the law was made 
more severe. 

All the laws mentioned above undoubtedly resulted in the 
better protection of childhood, but the further step of legally 
establishing closer ties between father and child was not ac- 
complished until the enactment of the so-called children's 
laws — laws concerning children whose parents have not 
married. It was reserved for the then head of the Ministry 
of Social Affairs, Minister Johan Castberg, to propose those 
laws which went into effect January 1, 1916 and, as regards 
certain paragraphs, January 1, 19 17. According to these laws 
illegitimate children now have right of inheritance from the 
father; right of name as regards the family name of mother 
or father; right to better arranged economic support; and the 
mother is assured economic support and satisfactory attention 
both before and after childbirth. There is a very satisfactory 
mothers' insurance for women in industries. 

It was only natural that the new children's laws should 
awaken a storm of protest as regards the right of name and 
of inheritance. Meetings of protest, discussion in the press 
and otherwise and lists containing thousands of signatures 
both for and against the laws were produced. The laws were 
publicly discussed for a long time. The future was pictured 
darkly, such a prediction being usual as that unmarried 
mothers with one or more children would suddenly appear 
in peaceful homes to demand inheritance, name and a home 
for their children. Now that the law has been in force for 
almost three years there has been very little rumor of these 
dire consequences. The public officials who administer the 
law generally state that the whole matter proceeds surprising- 
ly smoothly and satisfactorily. The fathers have willingly 
paid their contributions — at least the number of the unwilling 
is no larger now than before the law came into force. Ex- 
pectant mothers do not object to being placed in childbirth in- 
stitutions or to corresponding arrangements. 

According to everything so far experienced, with regard 
to this law, society may feel that under such laws illegitimate 
children are safeguarded as well perhaps as possible under 
present conditions. Perhaps the not least important side of it 
is that — that we all, and especially all women, have reason to 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



67 






rards 
laws 
- the 
other 
d the 1 

'CM 
ICMIJ 



ti 

cturi 
larrii 

rth lu- 
re?' 
tifflU 

Midi 1 

leotii 



be grateful that injustice to innocent babies for which we have 
all been more or less responsible in the past is at an end. 

Betzy Kjelsberg. 

A Resume in Children's Work 

IN the special Children's Number of the S. C. A. A. News 
the State Charities Aid Association of New York defines 
the kind of work it provides for children as follows: 

Placing children in free family homes, assisting public officials 
in providing for children who need public support or public 
protection, assisting mothers with babies by finding employment 
in suitable positions where they may keep their babies with them. 
One hundred and seventy-five children were placed in fam- 
ily homes during the past year by the child placing depart- 
ment of the association, totaling almost 3,200 children thus 
placed during the twenty-two years this work has been de- 
veloped. An interesting tabulation is given of the one hun- 
dred and seventy-five children placed, showing the occupation 
of the heads of families to which children have gone. Of 
these, thirty were professional men, eighty-four business men, 
thirty-seven skilled workmen, twenty farmers, and four re- 
tired or without occupation. 

The Department of County Agencies for Child Care of 
the association whose " function is to assist public officials 
in providing for children who need public support or public 
protection " has been instrumental in organizing children's 
agencies in twenty-two counties and in the city and town of 
Newburgh. " Of these, there were, in 19 19, twenty agencies 
at work under the department's supervision or cooperating 
with it, sixteen of them under the joint direction of State 
Charities Aid Association county committees and public of- 
ficials." Some of the specific duties of the children's agent in 
charge of these agencies are : 

Investigate the circumstances of children about to become 
public charges, in order, if possible, to find homes for them with 
relatives or other suitable guardians, as an alternative to plac- 
ing them in institutions or boarding homes at public expense; 
Study the cases of children already in institutions, and wher- 
ever possible to return them to relatives, or to find free foster 
homes for them ; 

See to it that feebleminded and epileptic children receive the 
necessary care in state institutions, together with such training as 
they are capable of undergoing with profit; 

Investigate complaints against children charged with delin- 
quency, and to make sure that no child is sentenced to a re- 
formatory when it is not the child but his home that is at fault; 
Assist needy widows with children to find employment and to 
use the family income wisely; in the case of unmarried mothers' 
to provide proper maternity care and subsequent supervision; 
Try to reconstruct so-called "bad" homes; to prevent the 
breaking up of families, with consequent disadvantage to the 
children ; 

Cooperate with officials in the prosecution of immoral, neglect- 
ful and abusive parents; to compel deserting fathers of families, 
and other responsible relatives, to contribute to the support of 
dependent children; 

Secure adequate medical treatment for children suffering from 
physical defects. 

The department accomplished all this, " not at the cost of 
a money outlay, but with the accompaniment of a financial 
saving; this saving is effected largely through the activities 
of the children's agent in reducing the number of children 
supported by public money, in shortening the time each child 
remains a public charge, and in persuading or forcing the par- 
ents or other relatives of dependents to contribute to their 
support." 

Child Care in Worcester 

r'HE Worcester Children's Friend Society tersely defines 
*■ its work as " attempting to make American citizens as it 
is possible to make them." For the Golden Rule Fund cam- 
paign recently conducted in that city it illustrates that defini- 
tion with the following instances: 

A girl interrupted in her high school course because of illness 

has been in a hospital for over a year unable to sit up. In 

spite of this she is anxious to continue her studies, and we are 

very grateful to the two teachers who go each week to teach her. 

One girl who could hardly speak a word of English when she 



came into our care a year ago not only attends our public 
schools, but is earning wages. She came to this country under 
a cloud but is becoming an intelligent American citizen. 

The Harvard Infantile Paralysis Commission asked us to be- 
come interested in a little boy six years old whose arm had to 
be kept out in a brace at right angles to his shoulder. There 
was quite a large family of children and the mother worked in 
a mill, so that this little boy was growing worse instead of better 
from lack of care. We placed him in the home of a trained 
nurse who massaged his arm daily and within a year he was 
able to return to his own home, far on the road to recovery. 

A physician asked us to take a little girl eleven years of age. 
Through the carelessness of her parents she had been allowed 
to wear shoes with nails in them which had caused blood poison- 
ing, so that amputation was necessary. At first we boarded her 
in the country and have since bought two artificial limbs, as she 
outgrew the first one. For the past year and a half she has 
been obliged to remain in the hospital, but in spite of this, she 
has completed her third year in high school, through the kind- 
ness of her teachers who have gone to the hospital. 

David is one of a large family of children. He is a cripple 
and wears a brace and gets around with difficulty. lie was 
allowed to stay out nights, slept much of the time in school, was 
scantily clothed and the sole of his shoe flapped as he walked. 
This boy the Worcester Children's Friend Society placed in the 
School for Crippled Children at Canton. He looked very slick 
in his new clothes as he started for the school. 

Children's Court Age Limit 

IN regard to the passage of legislation increasing the age 
limit of the jurisdiction of the Children's Court, Robert J. 
Wilkin, justice of the New York Children's Court, in an ar- 
ticle in the New York Tribune outlines as follows some of 
many things which should be considered: 

First — How will it affect the work of the children's courts? 
Will it be necessary only to change the age of jurisdiction from 
sixteen to eighteen or would it be better to give a joint jurisdic- 
tion to the magistrate's court, so that a case of a young person 
between sixteen and eighteen would in the first instance go to 
the magistrate's court or in the discretion of the magistrate to 
the Children's Court? If a measure of this sort were passed, 
would it deprive the youth of any right guaranteed by the Con- 
stitution? Would it be necessary to make arrangements in the 
courts for forcible detention places in the case of the larger 
boys? Would it be necessary to provide additional exclusive 
places of detention for the larger and more sophisticated girls? 
And many of the other questions that would refer purely to the 
custody of the children. 

Second — How would the procedure of the court have to be 
changed to meet the case? Would the newcomers be charged 
with felonies and misdemeanors or would an act by a boy or 
girl of seventeen years be only an act of juvenile delinquency? 
Do young people between the given ages appreciate the right and 
wrong of larceny, assault, burglary, robbery and the taking of 
other people's property, or even lives? Should they be placed 
in the minor preventive institutions or should they, when their 
responsibility is fixed, be treated with more advanced educa- 
tional or corrective measures? 

Third — Are the institutions now being so generally and so 
satisfactorily used, the proper places for the advanced youth, 
or should they be sent to the sheriff for temporary care and to 
jail, the reformatory or prison for disposition? Are the institu- 
tions such as the New York Catholic Protectory, New York 
Jewish Protectory, Aid Society and the Children's Village pre- 
pared to receive the older ones proposed? Do the charters of 
these institutions permit of their taking children over sixteen 
years of age? Should the charters be amended or should new 
institutions be organized? Will the managers and supporters 
of these and similar homes, now being so efficiently conducted, 
be willing to extend their work? If not, can the Children's 
Court handle the cases and the youths with better success than 
by the present method ? Will the legislature increase the age 
limit for the reception of girls at the State Training School for 
Girls and the various other institutions that now receive only 
those under sixteen years? 

Fourth — If the change is made, how many more cases will be 
held in the children's courts? Will it be necessary, in order to 
handle the cases, to slur over the work, or will it be necessary 
to increase the number of children's courts? Would it be better 
to establish a "youths' court" (as in Chicago) and there treat 
the cases of the more advanced, rather than crowd out the care 
of the little ones by herding them and their disabilities into one 
tribunal with their seniors? Is the problem of the child under 
sixteen often the same as the one over sixteen, or is it mostly a 
separate and new problem? And, finally, should not every in- 
terest, including that of an older growth, be consulted when we 
are considering the important proposed step? 



68 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 



Conducted by 
JOSEPH K. HART 



a 



AT a tin 



me when there is no adventure in education the years are indeed lean, for it is as 
essential to strife to open up new fields for educational activity as it is to seek undiscov- 
ered lands or to search out the secrets of ancient peoples. 

"... The names of the adventurers are numerous; from Tubal Cain to Plato they illumine 
the records of all times; all nations claim their own; every great period of a nation's life reveals 
their influence. . . . They must go out of the comfortable courts of the educational system 
of their time and regardless of the contemptuous smiles of their fellows, seek out, unaccompanied 
and alone, with no possibility of return, the method by which to serve, and the spirit with which 
to inspire, the new time. They cross their rubicon, their boats are burned, and there are no 
bridges to help them. 

" Of the many who have lost themselves in the lands or seas of their endeavor there are no 
records, but their adventures were the condition of their lives. Had they stayed, hesitating, 
ensconced behind the boundaries of their own knowledge, they would have died in life. 'And 
some there be which have no memorial. But these were merciful men.' In the affairs of life 
no man has really lived until he has for a reasonable purpose risked the loss of all that he 
desires," 

— from An Adventure in Working-class Education, By Albert Mansbridge. 

Breakdown in the Schools 



GENERALLY from over the country come evidences of 
the crisis in education. Reports are not yet available as 
to the shortage of teachers, but the lowered standards of qual- 
ifications for teachers testify to a real shortage, even though 
the schools are manned at full working force. The big cities 
seem to have plenty of teachers, but the smaller towns and 
rural regions are suffering. 

The explanations of this crisis are varied, but the main 
emphasis is upon " lack of funds." Indeed, in order to make 
this phase of the situation more emphatic some educators speak 
of the situation as one of complete bankruptcy. The financial 
situation is serious. It is computed that whereas we spent 
$763,000,000 for public education in 1918, we need $2,000,- 
000,000 per year for an adequate extension and organization 
of our school system. 

But granting all those facts, we shall do badly to consider 
the financial question as paramount. " We are a nation of 
sixth graders," says Prof. Frank E. Spaulding, recently super- 
intendent of schools in Cleveland. But more money will not 
necessarily make us a nation of seventh graders. The one 
thing that can accomplish that is the realization of a need in 
our national life for seventh grade intelligence, and the devel- 
opment of an educational morale that will include seventh 
grade interests and activities. 

This means, among many things, really wanting good intel- 
ligent teachers who know life and the world, who are inter- 
ested in the living world and the future and who can help 
young people achieve a real understanding. Teaching is a 
vital personal relationship. But teaching has become institu- 
tionalized until it represses the individuality of both pupil and 
teacher. Some teachers keep their humanity in spite of all 
obstacles and all demoralizing conditions. Others gradually 
lose their fine human vigor and sink to the level of school 
mechanicians. Still others decide to give up the work before 
it destnws them. Several members of the staff of a large 
California department store have been recruited from univer- 
h sity and high school teachers, who are finding in the business 
\, field opportunities for initiative denied them in the school 
A .u"oom. Isabel Rockwell, one of them, puts the matter very 
♦ vividly: 

Much has been said about the shortage of teachers and about 
adequate pay as the means of relief. I want to make clear to 
others as well as to myself, the real reasons for my change of 
vocation from school-teaching to selling in a department store. 
A higher salary was not the decisive factor. My salary as a 
school teacher would be more than the one I am receiving at 
present. There is a greater financial future for a woman in the 
department store field, but there is also keener competition. If 
I had followed my original plan of specialization in teaching 
I would have had possibilities ahead that were interesting to 
strive for and financially desirable. 

But teaching is not and never has been a profession which 
men and women entered for the financial reward alone. To be 
successful a teacher must have enthusiasm, and enthusiasm can 



be retained only where individuality of thought, method and in- 
struction is encouraged. In the vast majority of school systems 
this is totally ignored. 

During the years I taught I met with many individuals 
who were helpful and inspiring, but the school organization was 
deadening. Supervision is necessary, but it loses its greatest op- 
portunity when it aims only at conformity and fails to encourage 
constructive thought and criticism. Teachers as a rule have no 
voice in the selection of the board of education, and no opportun- 
ity to present either their problems or their solutions of problems 
to the men who shape the curriculum and the administrative 
policy of their school system. They cannot grow professionally 
without an opportunity to experiment, to judge, and to present 
their findings in such a way that others may give constructive 
criticism and share in the benefits of a more intelligent approach 
to the work to be done. This outlet is ordinarily denied the 
teacher. But she must have it if she is to be the inspiring in- 
dividual she is told she is when the teacher shortage is menacing 
and she is forsaking the ranks. 

There is a story we all hear about our noble work, our duty 
to our country, and, as an anticlimax, the pleasant social position 
of the teacher. But there is an old joke, too, about there being 
three kinds of people in this world, — men, women and school 
teachers! In spite of the beautiful phrases about the nobility of 
our profession, fathers, mothers and others still forget we are 
human beings. Until they make the distinction a compliment 
in their social attitude as well as in their words or better yet, 
make no distinction, teaching will continue to grow less and less 
attractive to the young woman who wants to do her share in the 
world's work. 

The human contact is the most important and the most inspir- 
ing element in the modern department store work. All stores do 
not recognize this, but in entering the field it is possible to select 
one with the type of management which encourages and inspires 
better individual development. My objective is merchandising, 
but I feel I can do more educationally and at the same time with 
greater opportunity for personal growth in the department store 
work than in a public school under the present system of school 
administration. 

The solution of " the teacher problem " is not merely more 
money. Salary increases are right and necessary, but inadequate 
as the sole solution of the question. Reform of the plan of or- 
ganization, with intelligent boards of education acting in collab- 
oration with teachers free to present their honest convictions and 
free to develop their own individuality, is essential. Recognition 
of the teacher as a human being will keep her human, and keep 
her from seeking other fields of employment for inspiration and 
a fuller life. 

The New School 

THE New School for Social Research begins its second 
year next week with an extended program of teaching 
and research. This school attempts to fill a distinct gap in 
our American adult education. The colleges and universities, 
on the one hand, tend to emphasize the social sciences as 
materials already existent to which students should be " in- 
troduced," and with which they should then secure a more or 
less intimate acquaintance. The schools of social work, on 
the other hand, emphasize the vocational aspects of the social 
fields, atid use the materials of the social sciences to help in 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



69 



the preparation of the workers. The New School assumes 
that the field of the social sciences is not yet adequately 
surveyed and that therefore there is much room for adven- 
ture, for experiment, for broad research along every line of 
social interest. Because of this unfinished character of the 
work of the social sciences, the problem of method is very 
important. The learning that the colleges stand for is neces- 
sary, if it does not destroy all taste for learning. The voca- 
tional preparation that the schools of social work stand for 
is necessary, if it does not produce a mere social mechanic. 
Between and beyond these two outcomes appears the third pos- 
sibility — the development of a research attitude toward all the 
problems in the field of social living. The mission of the 
New School is not one of revolt or of propaganda. It stands 
for the fulfillment of the scientific method in the direction 
of the social problems of our times and the development in 
some few people, at least, of an experimental attitude toward 
life. In the midst of endless dogmatisms and practicalities, 
the appreciation of the future as still incomplete— a region for 
the play of trained social inventiveness — comes with refresh- 
ment of the spirit. Democratic education must foster and 
conserve the spirit of this school. 

Teachers' Salaries 

WHILE the population of the United States has doubled 
in the fifty years from 1870 to .1920, the number of 
children in school has trebled in the same period and the 
amount of money spent for education has increased eleven 
times. The cost of education is increasing at a constantly 
accelerating rate; each succeeding year shows a greater in- 
crease in the rate of expenditure. These are some important 
phases of the report of an inquiry into The Trend of School 
Costs, written by W. Randolph Burgess and just published by 
the Russell Sage Foundation. 

This report deals with the problems of teachers' salaries, 
the relation of salaries to the cost of living, the comparison 
between the salaries of teachers and other workers, the trend 
of building costs, the probable levels of wages and costs in the 
stable period that seems to be approaching, and the possible 
source of income for these increased costs. 

The cost of living has risen 100 per cent in the past five 
years; teachers' salaries have risen 45 per cent, with the larger 
part of that gain to the city teachers. As the result of recent 
price increases the purchasing power of teachers' salaries is 
less than at any time since the Civil War period. Since 19 15 
the pay of artisans and laborers has increased twice as much 
as that of teachers. It will be necessary to pay teachers twice 
as much in 1920 as in 191 5 to secure the same grade of 
ability. All other forms of educational service will cost in 
proportion. 

These additional costs cannot be met by adjustments in city 
budgets. City school budgets have tripled in size in forty 
years, while assessed values have nearly doubled. The report 
suggests that educational costs for the future must rest on a 
" tax on real estate," whatever that means. " The real estate 
tax is a sound method of taxation," says the author. The 
reader is referred to pages 130 to 134 for his meaning. 

This study makes certain suggestions that throw light on 
the question as to whether teachers should join a federation 
that is affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. For 
example, on page 108 these statements are found: 

The wage of the common laborer is in the nature of a base 
pay upon which all other wages are built. ... In particular, 
teachers' salaries have followed closely the fluctuations of the 
wages of common labor and of artisans. 

That is to say, teachers have no independent status, no pro- 
fessional standing. They are workers, subject to the fluctua- 
tions of the " law of supply and demand." The community 
has had no more interest in safeguarding their interests than 
it has had in safeguarding the interests of other workers. 
How then can they hope to assure their economic future save 
by the same means that the workers use ? 



EESP0H3E3 PBCM TEA0HBR3 TO OTESnOHHAIRB 0O PLAT00S SCHOOLS 



I. D WHICH TVPE OP SOHOOL WOULD Y00 PREFER TO TZACH? 
Platoon Sohool HH^^^^B ^gg/gggl 



I 90.6 



Conventional Sohool I 1.6 

II. WHAT IS TOUH CPIHI03 0? THE PLAT00H SCHOOL? 



Patorable ■MBTflrWwMgnM^BBaBWWM— 91-3 

Dndeoided ■ *' 8 

Unfavorable I « 9 

III. EOS DO K2SDIT3 COMPARE WITH THOSE in C 0B7EB53 OHAL SCHOOL? 

lloro BDtlafcotory OdUMWUBHHIMBiHHBaMIMSHl 82.6 

About the same MHHB3 16.0 

Lobb satisfactory I 1-4 



rv. 



HOW DOES TEACHERS' WORK COMPARE WITH TEACHERS WORK IB 
OOBVEinonAL SCHOOL? 



Less burdensome 
About the same 

Moro burdensome 



62.6 



I 26.6 



I 10.9 



7. HOW DOES ADVUHI STRATI CM OP PLATOON SCHOOL COMPARE WITH 
THAT OP CONVEirnOHAL SCHOOL? 



leas dif fioult 
About the same 
More difficult 




44.5 



34.9 



VI. IS THE BDMEEH CT OOMPLAIHTS PROM PARE SIS LES3 OR MOHB IB 
THE PLATOOH SOHOOL THAH IH THE COHVEBHOHAL SCHOOL? 



Lose in nucbor 
About the same 
Move In number 



42.0 



6.6 



What Detroit teachers think of the "platoon school" is shown 
in this chart published in the Detroit Educational Bulletin 

Platoon Schools in Detroit 

DETROIT is also among the prophets. The " Gary 
plan ", modified into the " platoon or duplicate plan ", 
has been adopted as the official policy of the schools of that 
city. What this means is set forth officially in a recent 
bulletin on The Platoon School : 

The platoon school offers a type of organization and building 
in which a well-balanced, modern curriculum may be provided 
and effectively used. In this school each of the following aspects 
of the curriculum may be given due consideration: 

(1) The Academic, — instruction in the tool subjects; 

(2) The Cultural, — music, art and literature; 

(3). The Physical, — the clinic, lunch room, physical education 
and play in gymnasium and on playgrounds; 

(4) The Scientific, — geography, history and nature study; 

(5) The Social-Civic, — socializing and Americanizing activi- 
ties in the auditorium 

(6) The Vocational, — domestic and manual arts. 

This division of the various subjects of work may leave 
something to be desired, but it also fulfills some of the de- 
sires of the lovers of democracy in education. The basic rea- 
sons for this development are worthy of much study. They 
are set forth as follows : 

Progressive educational thinkers are becoming daily more cofl'd 
vinced that the big impelling motive in education is the soci v^. 
motive. All our schools, elementary, intermediate, secondary a dP if 
collegiate must in the future strive to realize more fully , *f 
seven great social aims of education. ty 

These aims are: (i) Health. (2) The fundamental tooi ty 
of learning. (3) Citizenship. (4) Worthy home member- 11 
ship. (5) Vocational interest and skill. (6) Worthy use 
of leisure. (7) Moral character. 

The full story of this development is far too long to be 
described here. But Detroit seems fully committed to the 
program. Fifteen of these " platoon schools " are now 
organized, and fifteen more are under organization. The 
school officials have determined upon a " gradual reorgan- 



70 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



ization of the elementary system on the platoon basis. . . . 
The Board of Education stands solidly behind this policy. 
. . . The realization of this undertaking will place within 
the reach of Detroit children elementary school facilities un- 
excelled by those of any other city in the United States." 

International Mindedness 

THE Institute of International Education has just issued 
its first annual report. The aim of this institute is the 
development of " international good-will by means of educa- 
tional agencies." This it attempts to achieve by acting as 
a clearing house of information and advice for Americans 
concerning things educational in foreign countries and for 
foreigners concerning things educational in the United States. 

The administrative board of the institute is made up of 
representatives of the men's and women's colleges and of 
international scholarship, law, finance, commerce, medicine 
and journalism. 

The institute is engaged in gathering information regarding 
international exchange of teachers and students; in helping 
European institutions through these lean years of reconstruc- 
tion ; in developing a regular system of exchange professor- 
ships; and in establishing student fellowships abroad and at 
home. It is also providing publicity for many educational 
commissions and delegations. 

One of the most important aspects of the work of the in- 
stitute is found in its efforts to develop international rela- 
tions clubs in the colleges. This is a new name for the 
former international polity clubs organized by the Associa- 
tion for International Conciliation. The object of these 
clubs is " the scientific study of current international prob- 
lems that confront mankind, in a thoroughly non-partisan 
spirit and devoid of any propagandist aim." This is to be 
accomplished in one of two ways: " For more advanced and 
mature students an intensive study throughout the year of a 
few problems following a carefully prepared syllabus and 
bibliography. For students who could not afford the time 
required for intensive study, a careful reading under guidance 
of the literature of both sides of the current problems as 
they arise." 

The address of the institute is 419 West 117 street, New 
York city. 

An Experiment in New York 

IMPERCEPTIBLY but steadily the pressure of social and 
economic uncertainty is making clear that the boy who has 
attained the mature age of sixteen or who has completed 
eighth grade requirements is not thereby automatically assured 
the wisdom, the vocational training or the industrial oppor- 
tunities which will enable him to steer an intelligent and suc- 
cessful course through his obligations as a citizen or his indi- 
vidual career. 

In requiring all boys between sixteen and eighteen to reg- 
ister on the twenty-third of September, the state of New 
' York started upon an interesting experiment in continuation 
^'.extension education. Three bureaus are in operation: the 
itary, the physical and the vocational, all under the gen- 



,1'Oc. 

vivid), 



1 direction of a commission consisting of " the major gen- 

M commanding the national guard ex-officio, who shall be 
a , eq ;man of the commission, a member to be appointed by 
vo e board of regents of the university of the state and a mem- 
Mr to be appointed by the governor. The appointed mem- 
bers shall hold office for terms of four years." 

The commission aims to reach particularly the boys who 
are not developing according to any vocational plan. It there- 
fore releases from drill both school boys employed outside of 
school hours, and working boys attending night schools, as 
well as boys of definite vocational training and experience. 

Every boy enrolled for drill is to report to an armory or 
designated ball once a week to take part in a program of 



drill, physical training and other activities, embodying the 
following : 

1. Military exercises and training, including the use of small 
arms. 

2. Personal hygiene and first aid. 

3. Physical exercises and training. 

4. Character building and disciplined habit. 

5. Vocational study and direction. 

6. Scouting, camping, nature study and talks on general subjects 
that may be applied to military and civil pursuits. 

Without prescribing a fixed time period for drills, it is 
directed that there shall be allotted not to exceed ten minutes 
for organizing and record work; thirty minutes for military 
instruction; thirty minutes in physical training; twenty 
minutes for talks and theoretical instruction in personal 
hygiene, sanitation and first aid, character and disciplined habit 
building, customs of the service and citizenship obligations. 
The state camp at Blauvelt, New York, is used for outdoor 
field work during the summer months. 

Whatever effective results can be accomplished by so large 
and possibly cumbersome a movement remains to be seen. It 
is likely also that the different elements in the program, the 
military, the educational, the vocational, may engage in a 
struggle for supremacy. Certainly the field of the experi- 
ment is a wide and fertile one. The question of military drill 
in democratic education will never be settled by debate. 
Nothing but an adequate experiment can test its desirability. 
Purely as an experiment this development should be welcomed 
by all and its merits should be decided by its actual results 
upon our democratic programs and ideals. 

"Educational Pioneers" 

UNDER the above title the September number of Co- 
operation prints an important resume of the work of the 
Co-operative Educational Institute, of Brownsville, New York 
city. This institute is the work of a group of students who 
revolted against the arbitrary tactics of the proprietor of a 
private preparatory school. They seceded, worked out the 
lines of their own educational desires, secured adequate ac- 
commodations and hired the necessary teachers to carry for- 
ward their work. 

Within one year this school has had over five hundred pupils. 
It has forced the private schools to reduce their fees and improve 
their service. It has collected a splendid staff of high school 
instructors. . . . During the past term, in addition to the 
regular preparatory courses for Regents' and college entrance ex- 
aminations the institute conducted courses in economics and sociol- 
ogy, and carried on social activities for students. Its courses in 
psychology and public speaking are marked with great success; 
and the numerous single lectures on philosophy, psychology, lit- 
erature, science and current events topics are received with great 
enthusiasm by the students and their friends. 

Recently the institute has become aware of the existence 
of the Co-operative League of America and has become 
a part of that league. 

The co-operative school movement has a higher aim than the 
college and Regents' examinations. It is to demonstrate the 
whole idea of co-operative education and to conduct courses along 
cultural lines for the benefit of the great mass of the people by 
the people themselves. The ultimate aim of the co-operative 
school movement should be the establishment by the students of 
their own Workers' University. 

"Co-operative education " ! The education of the people 
by the people ! David Ditchik and his Brownsville colleagues 
are showing us how to find the real foundation df democracy 
in education. May the idea spread far and wide. Even the 
dangers inherent in the plan make it attractive. 

From West Virginia 

A CORRESPONDENT from West Virginia writes usl 
of his experiences with the "democratic school system," j 
He says: 

At the first meeting of the faculty you are informed by the 
local superintendent that certain members of the senior class 
must graduate regardless of their work because they come from 
good families, though they have never been known to work and 












THE SURFEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



71 



have never been expected to. A little later you are informed that 
a prominent athlete desires to enter school in the afternoons so 
as to qualify for a team. The schedule must be revised to make 
this possible, although this greatly disturbs many other members 
of the school. You are expected to give full credit to this athlete 
without regard to the amount of time he attends classes. 

The churches of the community have little interest in the life 
of the young people. The community provides no entertainments 
and no place for the young people to meet. Athletic events are 
well attended, but they are so much emphasized that they assume 
an exaggerated importance and in the absence of other attrac- 
tions, the sense of honor dies out. A protest against the violation 
of the sense of honor is enough to cost one his position in the 
community. 

If a social gathering is scheduled in the school house, instead 
of being able to exert yourself to the utmost in making the even- 
ing enjoyable, you must act as policeman. You spend the evening 
admonishing "children" of nineteen or twenty to refrain from 
waltzing when the orchestra plays the Blue Danube. So these 
"children" are compelled to take refuge in the pastimes that 
satisfied them at the age of ten. Is it any wonder that " sex 
talk" forms the basis of many conversations? 

The correspondent goes on to point out the lack of public 
interest in the control of epidemic diseases, and other failures 
of public spirit in his community, which, he says, could be 
matched in "hundreds, perhaps thousands, of communities 
in the United States." He does not, however, despair of 
the small and remote community. 

After all, no community is entirely " dead." In fact, the most 
noticeable features in any community, no matter how small, are 
the latent possibilities awaiting an opportunity for self-expression. 



The Right to "Live" 

THE following discussion of certain angles of the problem 
of education in India will have a wide appeal. Dr. Ma- 
thilda Hunt, a native of India, who has had sixteen years' 
cperience in child welfare work in London, writes from the 
lenry Street Settlement, New York, where she is now living: 

During the war men developed the fatalism of the Roman 
gladiators, "Hail Caesar! those about to die salute thee!" was 
their greeting to an imminent world-power of evil. But now 
the arena is deserted. Everywhere men are demanding insist- 
ently the right to live. Most moving of all is the appeal of 
those who are silent, because they have looked on this side and 
on that, and have found no helper. Such is the condition of a 
large section of the Anglo-Indian or Eurasian community in 
India, — a community suffering from economic causes beyond its 
control and from considerable injustice. A public committee deal- 
ing with the question of education among the Anglo-Indians of 
Calcutta arrived at the following conclusions which are prob- 
ably true of all the large cities of India: 

a. Though no child is debarred from attending school, as a 
matter of fact the Anglo-Indian Educational Report of 1912 
stated that there were in India over 7,000 Anglo-Indian children 
who were not attending school. 

b. The education provided gives the children of the com- 
munity little chance. The evils of the situation are: first, the 
intense poverty which makes it impossible for parents to pay 
even low fees especially if there are several children to be 
educated ; and second, the poor system of education, which bur- 
dens the memory without developing the mind. 

The committee further added that greater facilities are re- 
quired for secondary and university education. To meet the 
needs of students, — men and women, — for higher education 
hostels are greatly wanted in the large cities. There is a warn- 
ing note uttered that these may become positively mischievous " 
unless exceptional character and personality can be obtained in 
the wardens. But still hostels may be a great help in enabling 
poor Anglo-Indians to obtain a training which will enable them 
to be a source of benefit to their community. The cost of sites, 
buildings, equipment and salaries' endowment for two hostels 
(one for men and one for women) is estimated at one hundred 
and twenty thousand pounds. 

The above represents the need of just one means for better- 
ment, and this may have a special appeal to some. The writer 
has felt for some time that this preparation of a certain number 
of picked young men and women for community service and in- 
dustrial development chiefly along lines of subserving food pro- 
duction, would result in the formation of a corps of social 
" leaveners." These young men and women would become cap- 
tains of industry on a small scale, employing others of the com- 
munity. They would also help every section by their organized 
social activities. Such men and women chosen with discrimina- 



tion would receive a full training locally and then be favored 
with a year's experience abroad for final industrial and social 
leadership to be obtained by actual functioning and not by 
academic research. The number of industries within which this 
sort of thing could be developed is large, and the subject full of 
interest. It cannot, however, be dealt with here. The whole 
thing resolves itself into the financing of a return passage, 
twelve to eighteen months living and training, and an initial 
small subsidy in putting up businesses like fruit preserving, jam 
making, sardine canning, etc. 

A Holiday School 

THE London Adult School Union is responsible for a 
striking experiment in the way of a " holiday school." 
Working men and women have been invited to bring their 
children, however young, to an old rectory in the country, 
and enroll there for a course of study which involves such 
topics as: 

Money — What's the good of it? 

Wages — Why they differ so. 

Interest — "To him that hath shall be given," — But is it right? 

After a happy communal breakfast with the children all 
assemble for a stiff lecture and discussion from 9.30 to 11, 
and this gives intellectual substance to the days which are 
otherwise filled in with boating, walking or driving afield. 
All the members come back tired in the evening to lectures 
on such subjects as How the Surrey Hills Were Made, or 
Books, or to some fancy dress ball, or to an evening of other 
amusements. 

The success of the school depends somewhat upon the fact 
that the children are cared for by " the kiddies' chum." The 
children are enthusiastic for the lectures, because they do 
not have to attend them. But the women are also enthu- 
siastic: they are economists of long standing practicality, and 
they are now learning something of the meaning of the forces 
with which they must continually contend in the market place. 
As the Daily News puts it: 

The fathers and mothers welcome the intellectual stimulus and 
the relief of having somebody to look after the children. The 
young men and women have had a jolly time. The children are 
all enthusiasts, and the "kiddies' chum" is one of the happiest 
people I have seen for some time. She ought to become a national 
holiday institution. 

The course of study had a morning and an evening session 
while the afternoons were given to outdoor recreation and 
walks in the Surrey Hills. Incidentally, we are told, one ef- 
fect of this family camping was that some of the young men 
of the party had their mind taken off economics and became 
much more interested in studying the children. The mothers, 
busily plying their needles, had the opportunity, keenly rel- 
ished, of getting a glimpse of the larger economic problems 
which enter the family budget. 

Money and wages are two subjects which keenly appeal to 
all. But with the extension of the experiment next year, 
such subjects as education, the mind of the child, and other 
problems of the home will be considered. It is sure that 
such subjects will prove even more interesting and stimu- 
lating. 

A Threatened School Strike 

"O UMORS of a threatened school boys' strike in Berlin id 
AV a protest against the election of a Socialist presidenr d - 
the Board of Education, point to a long and bitter strugj* 
between the adherents of the old educational system and tli 
Socialists. The latter, now in full control of the Berlin city 
government, have every intention of putting into practise a 
program that involves the complete elimination of all class 
barriers to higher education. Grammar schools and gym- 
nasiums, hitherto accessible only to members of the privileged 
classes, will be opened to the promising children of all classes. 
It is interesting to note that this democratization of edu- 
cation is opposed by even the more liberal of non-Socialist 
groups, although the changes denounced as " dangerously rad- 
ical " will merely put the Berlin school system on a par with 
the present American system. 



n 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Professional Preparation of Teachers 
for American Public Schools 
By William S. Learned, William C. Bag- 
ley, Charles A. McMurry, George D. 
Strayer, Walter F. Dearborn, Isaac L. 
Kandel and Homer W. Josselyn. Car- 
negie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching. 475 pp. Limited Free Circula- 
tion. 

This study is based on an exhaustive and 
detailed inquiry into teacher-training in the 
normal schools of Missouri; it will be fol- 
lowed by a second report dealing with the 
preparation of teachers in the colleges and 
universities of the whole of the States. 

The report comes at an opportune time. 
The world war has created a host of social 
problems, and one of the greatest of these 
is that of supplying properly trained staffs 
for the elementary schools. The tendency of 
salaries to lag behind wages and the rapid 
increase in the cost of living have caused 
thousands of teachers to leave the profes- 
sion. At the present time, about one-half 
the schools of the United States are either 
entirely without teachers or are so inade- 
quately staffed that the work done in them 
becomes a mere travesty of education. 

That teachers required specific training 
was a discovery of the nineteenth century. 
Lancaster and Bell in England, for example, 
needed help in their monitorial schools and 
began to train the older and brighter boys 
for the office of teacher. Such a scheme of 
training could only be inaugurated where a 
false idea of education prevailed. For edu- 
cation was regarded as the pouring in of 
information, and the containers from which 
it was poured needed to be but little larger 
than the vessels which received it. The ex- 
tension of the system into that of pupil- 
teachership where the principle of appren- 
ticeship to a master was added, simply wid- 
ened the sphere of influence of a vicious 
philosophy of education. 

The creation of normal schools — those 
cloistral institutions where teachers were 
trained apart from their fellows — still fur- 
ther divorced education from practical life. 
It was not until the idea was evolved of 
training elementary teachers in universities, 
along with other students preparing for such 
diverse professions as medicine, law and en- 
gineering, that any real progress was made. 
To England belongs the credit for the ini- 
tiation of this great advance. Since 1891 an 
increasing proportion of her elementary 
teachers have received their professional 
training in departments or faculties forming 
integral parts of universities. 

While the evolution of teacher-training in 

the United States did not parallel that of 

England, the underlying principles were the 

same. There was the same segregation in 

\ normal schools and the same over-emphasis 

\ of methods and tricks of the trade. And 

i'Ouie United States, if the Carnegie report is 

' vivifpd upon. W 'H follow England closely in 

ining teachers in university institutions. 

It is impossible in this brief review fo 
r over the ground of this really excellent re- 
port, but, to make a long story short, the 
proposal for the United States is one akin 
to that which has lately been so whole- 
heartedly adopted in England. The crux of 
the report is found in the following para- 
graph: 

"The time has come to clear up the exist- 
ing confusion. All institutional education 
for the teaching profession should be placed 
clearly upon a collegiate footing and organ- 
ized under a single competent direction as a 
part of the state university, where one ex- 



ists, parallel with medical, legal, engineer- 
ing, and other similar divisions of higher 
education. This signifies no 'concessions' 
either to the university or to the normal 
schools. 'Normal' schools should drop that 
name, and as professional colleges of edu- 
cation should become an acknowledged part 
of the greater university whole simply be- 
cause they are a part of the state's system 
of higher education, which is all the term 
university now implies. We would thus se- 
cure a unified and ■ centralized authority 
prepared to deal in a consistent and efficient 
manner with the state's largest problem in 
higher and professional education." 

Evidence running to over 400 pages — his- 
torical, comparative and experimental — gives 
overwhelming support to this main conclu- 
sion of the report. The bulletin should be 
read not only by teachers and administrators, 
but by laymen as well, for without the coop- 
eration of parents the scheme is foredoomed 
to failure. Peter Sandiford. 

University of Toronto. 

* *. * 
"That Damn Y" 

By Katherine Mayo. Houghton Mifflin 

Co. 432 pp. Price $3.50; by mail of the 

Survey $3.80. 

"'Where is that damn Y?' growled the 
disappointed doughboys, arriving in the 
comfortless waste. The simple truth is, they 
both wanted and expected to find the Y 
everywhere. The very phrase implied the 
fact — a disguised tribute." There is no dis- 
guise about the tribute Katherine Mayo pays 
to the overseas Y. M. C. A. in her breezy 
volume. She is at pains to make it clear 
that though her work was undertaken at 
the instance of the head of the overseas Y 
in Paris, she came to it with no prejudice in 
favor of the Y. M. C. A., and undertook 
the task only on her own terms: "My MS. 
should be handled by my own publishers 
only, and should not be submitted to any 
member of the Y. M. C. A. on either side of 
the ocean for criticism or approval." 

It was personal contact with the men and 
women who carried on the Y. M. C. A. 
work with the A. E. F. in France, with the 
dough boys who praised or blamed, with the 
army officers who were responsible for its 
encouragement and development, that dis- 
armed the critical spirit with which Miss 
Mayo evidently approached her task. And 
the highest tribute that could be paid to the 
Y is the way in which this personal contact 
and first-hand knowledge kindled the enthus- 
iasm and communicated its spirit to the 
author of "That Damn Y." 

The book is frankly personal, emphasizes 
personalities, and in its generous hero- and 
heroine-worship sometimes fails to do jus- 
tice to the less spectacular phases of the col- 
lective effort that made possible the achieve- 
ments recorded. Thus there is a uniform 
tone of disparagement of the " distant di- 
rectorate " — the Y. M. C. A. War- Work 
Council in New York — which makes it ap- 
pear that the overseas work was accom- 
plished in spite of, instead of with, the back- 
ing of the home authorities. At the very 
time the " distant directorate " is charged 
with apathy, the reviewer heard Dr. Mott 
eloquently appealing for the very things 
Miss Mayo intimates there was no realiza- 
tion of at home, and he remembers vividly 
how the various staffs of the army Y. M. C. 
A. in the home camps were depleted to meet 
the demands of the overseas recruiting cam- 
paign. Some of the criticisms of the 
personnel could undoubtedly have been 
avoided if the Y staffs attached to home 



camps had been transferred overseas with 
their organizations, but in the spring of 
1918 we were still looking forward toward 
a long war, and it was felt necessary to keep 
the staffs in the home camp ready for serv- 
ice with the incoming draft armies. Miss 
Mayo's story makes it clear that in the whole 
the best service was rendered by those Y 
workers who from the beginning were 
attached to definite military units and had 
the advantage of making the transition from 
civil to military life together with their 
men. 

She gives a vivid picture of the multi- 
farious activities of the Y in Paris, in the 
French training areas, at the front, in the 
leave areas, especially those of the Riviera, 
and after the armistice in the occupied terri- 
tory. Her account of the service rendered 
the released British prisoners is especially 
vivid and memorable, and her vindication of 
the Y work in the leave areas at Nice and 
elsewhere is adequate and final. 

In discussing the much mooted canteen 
issue Miss Mayo shows a more judicial temper 
than anywhere else in her book. When the 
Y authorities at the request of the com- 
mander-in-chief took over the canteen serv- 
ice, they did so on the definite understand- 
ing that sufficient tonnage allowance would 
be made by the army for canteen articles. 
Owing to the dearth of ships the tonnage 
required for the canteen service was cut 
down over 50 per cent, and in some areas the 
Q. M. continued to operate canteens in com- 
petition with the Y. Most of the criticism of 
the Y canteens is conclusively shown to be 
due to the army's inability to provide the 
tonnage required, necessitating either bid- 
ding in the open market for available space 
by the Y and thus increasing the cost of the 
service, or running short of supplies. This 
line of criticism could easily have been 
avoided had the Y refused to undertake the 
job, but, as Miss Mayo amply proves, the 
spirit of the Y was not to play safe but to 
render service even at the risk of criticism. 
To those still in the dark about the pros and 
cons of the Y's handling of the army can- 
teen, Miss Mayo's chapter on the Post-Ex- 
change is recommended together with the 
financial statements contained in appendices 
B and C. 

Another question that Miss Mayo's inves- 
tigation definitely settles is that of the use- 
fulness of women workers in the army Y, 
though the generalization that she deduces 
from the brilliant record of the women in the 
overseas Y shows perhaps better than any- 
thing else certain limitations of her outlook. 
" If ever we have another war, then multiply 
by a heavy figure the number of American 
women you send with the troops. And 
choose them from the cream of the nation's 
best and loveliest and truest and highest 
bred." 

In her discussion of the French foyer there 
is, however, a wider outlook and a recogni- 
tion of the importance of the development of 
community centers to help in the solution of 
knotty social problems of rural life after the 
war. 

Two impressions remain dominant after a 
careful survey of this record: 

1. No " waves of criticism " will ever 
sweep away the record of solid achievement 
made by the overseas Y. Double the criti- 
cism, and justify it all — and no impartial 
judge would think of doing that — and still 
the actual achievement is sufficient to justify 
the confidence and support the American 
people gave to the Y. M. C. A. war work. 

2. The overseas Y, together with the other 
welfare organizations, just because they 
were volunteer efforts released energies that 









THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 



73 



nothing else would have released. They 
gave scope to individual initiative and 
tapped reservoirs of practical idealism that 
even the most perfect military routine could 
never have reached. Efficiency was naturally 
and necessarily the watchword of the army. 
From the point of view of efficiency, military, 
industrial, governmental, the individual is 
but a means to an end. The strength of 
the welfare organizations lies in their 
emphasis on the individual as an end in him- 
self. To the army the happiness and con- 
tent of the individual is a part of morale, and 
morale is a means toward an end. No mere 
"morale officer" could ever have accom- 
plished what was accomplished by men and 
women who often had very vague notions as 
to what constituted morale, but who had 
very real human sympathies, very great 
practical ingenuity in giving expression to 
them and a very sound knowledge of the 
actual workings of human nature. 

Willingness to serve, without power to per- 
form is mere sentimentality; but the power 
to perform without willingness to serve is 
something much worse — it is of the essence 
of tyranny. How to combine the personal 
idealism and the " love of men " that was 
the inspiration of the Y service, with the 
development of group efficiency, power, order, 
discipline, which is the inspiration of the 
military mind, that is our problem in the 
years to come. And it involves the whole 
relation of volunteer collective social effort 
to individual competitive enterprise on the one 
hand, and to state action for the public wel- 
fare on the other. Idealism without efficiency 
is futile, but efficiency without idealism is 
fatal. J. Duncan Spaeth. 

Princeton University. 

* » * 
New Italy 

By Helen Zimmern and Antonio Agresti. 

Harcourt, Brace and Howe. 326 pp. Price 

$2.00; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 

Mrs. Browning's Confession, 

"Open my heart and you shall see 

Graven inside of it, Italy," 
might be made with equal truthfulness by 
the English authoress, Helen Zimmern. She 
has written numerous books on Italy, and 
she has written better ones, not a little 
better. I would not suggest that in writing 
New Italy she did " by that much too much," 
but no work on Italy published today can 
escape comparison with My Italian Year by 
Joseph Collins and The Italian Immigration 
of Our Times by Robert F. Foerster. 

However, the book is a partnership pro- 
duction, and it is, as they confess, " neither 
fish nor fowl nor good red herring." But 
I will not lay myself liable to the fallacy 
of "neither-nor" even if the book is neither 
the romance of the hurried imaginative 
traveler nor an exhaustive historical treat- 
ment. 

The subject matter is presented under three 
sections: politics, civil questions and the 
Great War. In the historical treatment the 
authors hold the philosophy of Michelet that 
history is " the progressive realization of 
the freedom of humanity." Part II reveals 
the internal problems of modern Italy. As 
one reads these pages he is led to think of 
the sentiment at the beginning of Rousseau's 
Confession, where he turns to God and asks 
Him to assemble 'round Him the whole of 
the human race, and to bid every one empty 
at His feet the sack full of his own misdeeds 
md his own merits. 

The authors write frankly of Italy's illit- 
eracy (38.5 per cent of the population), of 
the oppression of her agriculturists, of her 
taxation and poverty, with all the candor and 
sincerity of the confessional. 

It seems that no one can write of Europe 

today without clearly revealing the sway of 

the war. At this point the book gives us 

M, ttle that is new except the appraisal of 



Italy's war leaders. The world will not 
soon forget what these men have done. We 
thank the authors for making us better ac- 
quainted with them. Neither will the world 
soon forget what Italy did for civilization 
in entering the Great War. Probably these 
thoughts give us a relish for such a book as 
this. Frank Orman Beck. 

Chicago. 

» * » 

The Budget and Responsible Government 

By Frederick A. Cleveland and Arthur 
Eugene Buck. Macmillan Co. 406 pp. 
Price $3 ; by mail of the Survey $3.25. 

Charity organization societies and simi- 
lar civic agencies are "independent, unofficial 
and irresponsible Soviets" and, like the politi- 
cal "parties," exercise a controlling leadership 
in our governmental affairs. Their meth- 
ods are the same — but that is all. The mo- 
tive of the latter is to make "politics" a 
business, while the civic agencies seek to 
promote humanitarian projects and to im- 
prove the governmental services generally. 

How the sociologists and economists came 
to share with the "bosses" and "standing 
committees" in the guidance of the electorate 
is an interesting chapter in Dr. Cleveland's 
latest book, written in his logical and 
thought-impelling style. The author needs 
no introduction as an authority on the the- 
ory of government and the budget. 

Dr. Cleveland expounds the four Jeffer- 
sonian principles of a real democratic gov- 
ernment, namely: Popular elections; accept- 
ance of the principle of majority rule; hear- 
ing of the administration in the representa- 
tive forum ; the right of leaders to appeal 
to the electorate from the decision of the 
representative body. He points out that 
while the first two principles are fairly well 
developed in the United States, the latter 
two have not been worked out, resulting in 
our present irresponsible government. A 
sketch of our political history shows the 
cause of existing conditions, and indicates the 
remedy. 

To attain responsible leadership, Dr. 
Cleveland proposes that the floor of Con- 
gress be an open forum where the President 
and members of his Cabinet are permitted 
to come as leaders to explain and defend 
their proposals, and that the President be 
enabled to control the execution of the activi- 
ties of the government after appropriations 
are granted. Congress must Derform a de- 
liberative and critical function, in an open, 
news-making manner, so the electorate may 
act with intelligence. 

There are signs that the people are awak- 
ening to the necessity of reestablishing 
popular control of public institutions and 
services. Administrations are being reor- 
ganized around responsible executives, pub- 
lic offices are being filled with real leaders, 
and the principles of popular control are be- 
ing studied. As instances, we find many in- 
quiries into state administrative reorganiza- 
tion, while all but four states have estab- 
lished a budget procedure. Mr. Buck sets 
forth the salient features of these develop- 
ments in several states, as well as the bud- 
getary procedure in Illinois, Wisconsin, and 
New York as types of executive, commission, 
and legislative budgets. 

The pressure on Washington for respon- 
sible government Is evidenced in the sev- 
eral budget laws before Congress last ses- 
sion, and Dr. Cleveland discusses their rel- 
ative merits. But, he reiterates, the ques- 
tions of "executive" or "legislative" budget, 
organization, accounting and reporting, are 
mere details; the rules must be changed to 
provide responsibility and the open door 
policy on public affairs. 

The book is an eloquent plea for more 
effective democracy, a powerful argument 
against political bossism', and a valuable 



contribution to the cause of the "independent" 
voter. It should prove of informative value 
to women, with the approach of universal 
suffrage. Much valuable information rela- 
tive to the general principles of state and 
national budget reform is here assembled 
for the first time. Those using the book for 
reference will regret the absence of an index, 
notwithstanding the paragraphed table of 
contents. C. E. Rightor. 

Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research. 

* * * 
Labor's Challenge to the Social Order. 

By John Graham Brooks. Macmillan 

Co. 441 pp. Price $2.75; by mail of the 

Survey $2.90. 

Forty years of observation, keen eyed and 
sympathetic, have gone into the making of 
this book of John Graham Brooks. The 
whole world of industrial tumult and change 
is his theme and to its treatment he has 
brought the habit all too rare of the mind 
unclouded by prejudice. Mr. Brooks is not 
a young man now, but his capacity after 
long years of fine service to approach new 
proposals with open perceptions is a gift 
which youth may well envy him. His tol- 
erance and his desire to understand and to 
interpret the world of labor fairly and hu- 
manly give distinction to his work. 

The acquisition of power by workingmen 
is one of the most conspicuous facts of this 
generation. To its consideration this book 
is devoted. Many of the familiar movements 
and problems pass in review. His writing, 
based on the notes of a lifetime, is encyclo- 
pedic in scope. Government ownership, so- 
cialism, syndicalism, the guilds, industrial 
democracy, violence, espionage — his memo- 
randa range widely — are among the topics 
to which he has given wholesome thought. 
Naturally 441 pages do not suffice to exhaust 
any of these and yet to all he has brought 
an illuminating touch. More than anything 
else Mr. Brooks is an interpreter — not a 
compromiser. His innate necessity is to tell 
the truth as he sees it. He is the partizan 
of no school, unless a general and an abiding 
faith in man's endless struggle for social 
justice and dignity in the individual life be 
deemed partizan. For these reasons and for 
others he has written a book which is a 
pleasant companion to those willing to see 
beyond the barriers of class to the deeper 
human realities beyond. W. L. C. 



The Unfinished Programme of Democracy 
By Richard Roberts. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. 
326 pp. Price $2.00; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $2.20. 

The principles of liberty and equality aj 
the essence of the ideals of democracy. T)l 
universalization and realization of these 
ideals is the task of the modern state. Up 
to the present, the progress of " democracy 
has gone no further than the achievement 
of a form of government." This is only a 
beginning. The larger work is yet unfin- 
ished. There must be democracy in realit 
as well as in form, in industry as well ay 
in government. But while both of these ar^j 
essential, they are only means to the larg \ 
end of individual and social realization ' 
the fullness of life. It is this larger lifl 
that humanity today is groping after, al- 
though the goal is often obscured by the 
methods and immediate motives of commer- 
cial advantage and gain. 

It is a scholarly book by a man of vision 
with a timely warning to the present genera- 
tion against the danger of interpreting too 
literally the external features of the present 
turmoil to the exclusion of the deeper move- 
ment toward the completion of the unfinished 
work of democracy. Arnold J. Lien". 

Colorado University. 



At 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, 1920 




Roycroft, East Aurora, N. Y., the Craftsmen's Colony established by the late Elbert Hubbard, where the Settlements Conference 

was held 



GOOD NEIGHBORS 

FOR thirty years or slightly more, ,the social settlements of 
America have shared in the task of social betterment with no 
other aim than that of using their resources in such a way as to 
create fruitful contacts between individuals and groups, to enable 
their residents to be good neighbors, with all that implies in 
personal relationships and cares, to lend a hand in the solution 
of any social problem in which intimate knowledge of conditions 
and of people is an asset. To compare settlements with other 
social institutions in results accomplished is legitimate, but to 
apply any of the current standards of measurement leads to 
misunderstanding. For the wisest of settlement workers have 
deliberately avoided too definite a formulation of aims, too close 
an adherence to programs, too emphatic an insistence on demon- 
strable services rendered. You cannot weigh the relative social 
good of a dozen young men in a neighborhood inspired and 
trained to the highest positions of group leadership against that 
of workers placed by an employment bureau or of relief ad- 
ministered during a catastrophe— though these also may at one 
time or other be the activities of individual settlements. 

Thus, in reviewing their past and in attempting to visualize 
their task for the next half decade, the 162 delegates of Ameri- 
can settlements who met in annual conference at East Aurora, 
N. Y., found agreement in fundamental conceptions of primary 
responsibilities but considerable diversity of view on specific pro- 
cedures and methods, a diversity which naturally arises from 
the differences of the neighborhoods in which they work and of 
the other social activities of the respective communities. 

Jane Addams, in a brief summary of the history of settlements, 
distinguished three periods, roughly coinciding with the last three 
decades. In the first, the example of the English settlements 
gave direction both to the main trend of settlement programs and 
to the choice of specific activities. Adult educational movements, 
visiting nurse services, child labor committees were started, and 
social legislation of a varied nature promoted. In the second 
'decade, certain manufacturers began to organize in opposition 
1,0 sweatshop and other legislation that threatened immediate 
tia,"ofits, and the reactionary elements in the community generally 
inc;ian'to look upon settlements with suspicion. In the last de- 
teade, class differences have become more accentuated, and those 
tr?itent only to promote an understanding of social facts and con- 
structive social thinking, have found more misunderstanding of 
their aim on both sides. Self-educational movements have arisen 
among the workers, and those who used to look upon the settle- 
ments for help in their own advancement have become more 
noi dependent. On the other hand, the attitude of employers and 
S frganized labor, and of native born and aliens, to each other has 
i'OMecome sharper. Tribal and group consciousness has been 
vivieengthened by the war; and its after-effects — not unlike those 
i the French Revolution in England — have been so far prin- 
, /pally those of fear of every new idea, and restrictive legislation 
•which retards every movement for reform. In this conflict of 
. •'Ideas, Miss Addams thought, the settlements must more than 
ever be the bringers of light, the courageous champions of truth 
and fairness in political and economic relationships. If in that 
supreme task some support is lost and some activities must, 
perhaps, be curtailed, the new group activities and public agencies 
that have sprung up around the settlements must be entrusted 
with carrying on those that are essential to the welfare of the 
neighborhood. 

Graham Taylor emphasized the necessity of combining in 
settlements the intimate neighborhood connections which give 



sound foothold to all ideas, and the movements that emanate 
from them, and the vision of a wider horizon. In concrete 
terms, this means that, as always, so now the settlement has its 
field of usefulness for the specialized social worker and also 
for the public servant and student of society who has not much 
time to give to neighborhoood activities but needs that contact to 
strengthen his sense of realities. He urged that settlements lay 
not too much stress upon their experience in specific tasks of 
social betterment but gracefully step aside when, the need for 
some specific piece of work having been demonstrated, some 
other organization is ready to shoulder the responsibility. He 
deprecated the tendency of some settlements to become little 
localized groups without, in some of their residents at least, a 
wider range of information and interests. The education of 
the househould on public questions he considered one of the most 
important jobs for the headworker. 

Throughout the conference the question of recruiting residents 
was eagerly discussed. Mr. Taylor suggested, and many ex- 
pressed agreement with him, that definite schedules of work are 
too much relied upon, that young men's enthusiasm is discour- 
aged by too close an assignment of tasks and too little free 
play for personal initiative. Men of the neighborhood were not 
attracted in sufficient numbers, perhaps, because on the whole 
men residents were not such good mixers as women residents. 
Several speakers, notably Elizabeth Peabody White, Boston, felt 
that it was necessary for those dependent on outside support and 
voluntary help to express more frequently and more clearly 
what settlements stand for. There was a good deal of chaff 
about the relative merits of good executives and idealists in 
settlements, but the general sentiment seemed to be that both 
types of workers were indispensible and sometimes were com- 
bined. 

Harriet Vittum, Chicago, and others, considered the interpre- 
tive function of settlements that which was most needed today. 
While different organs of national, state and local government 
had used the settlements to the full during the war to interpret 
to foreign neighborhoods their aims and plans, not nearly enough 
had been cjone as yet by the settlements to interpret the views of 
the foreign-born and of returned soldiers to those in authority 
and to the public at large. She also dwelt on the special oppor- 
tunities given to settlement workers by the enfranchisement of 
women and their eagerness for civic and political education. All 
these problems which loom so large in a theoretical discussion, 
according to Mary McDowell, solve themselves when people of 
sympathy and intelligence live in industrial neighborhoods and 
grasp their immediate opportunities. But to do so, she said, 
requires courage and hospitality, for no settlement can be a 
vital influence that limits itself to popular causes. 

John L. Elliott, who presided over the conference, gave an ac- 
count of his visit to Europe, and later a donation of $100 was 
voted to the Vienna settlement which is doing such valiant work 
in the relief of hunger and distress. A letter was read from 
Robert Woods, who did not reach this country in time to par- 
ticipate in the conference, giving an account of the settlements he 
had recently visited. [See page 52.] Within the American 
national federation, one of the conspicuous developments during 
the last two years has been the organization of regional federa- 
tions which have contributed not a little to good fellowship and 
a common solution of their problems by settlement workers in 
each region. The national federation itself has 142 members, 
92 of which, ranging from Minneapolis to New York and from 
(Continued on fiage 77) 



"■"■ 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



75 



COMMUNICATIONS 



AMERICANS IN PARIS 
To the Editor: Has Paris changed? seems 
to be the first question propounded to the 
American woman returning to her native 
shores. Yes, in some respects it has changed, 
and Survey readers may be interested more 
especially in a new kind of American inva- 
sion — not only the species that raid the shops, 
overflow the boulevards, crowd the theatres 
and hotels, and visit the devastated regions 
but that which helps in the social rehabilita- 
tion of the city. 

They have already read of the American 
settlement in the Batignolles district where 
Frances Stern, of Boston, is in charge. Judg- 
ing from the success of this undertaking, oth- 
er settlement houses no doubt will spring up 
in other neighborhoods. The Y. W. C. A. 
has remained since the close of the war in its 
headquarters in Rue Daunou, and the young 
grisettes working in the neighborhood may be 
seen wending their way thitherward to pat- 
ronize the cafeteria or to attend some of the 
courses which appeal to them. The need, for 
cheap, nutritious food, served daintily, in the 
immediate vicinity of the work-shop, has 
caused another group of American women to 
undertake a venture which has also been 
successful. They have opened a restaurant 
for working girls in the Rue Surcouf, where 
luncheons and afternoon tea can be had in 
attractive rooms, at attractive prices. A pi- 
ano, a table with magazines and books, a 
desk with writing materials, and comfortable 
chairs provide a delightful, quiet place for a 
siesta during the luncheon hour. The at- 
mosphere of the place reminded me of our 
own Girls' Community Club House in East 
30th street, New York. In a neighborhood 
where there were only cheap cabarets, it was 
like a fragrant flower blooming in the midst 
of a field of coarse weeds. The tables and 
chairs were prettily painted, flowers were on 
each table, everything was simple but artis- 
tic. It was a species of club, only those who 
came properly introduced being admitted. 

Mrs. Henry Conkling, the guiding spirit of 
this restaurant and recreation house, is also 
the chairman of Le Petit Ouvroir du Gros 
Caillou, which is close by. The war took 
many of the French girls into munitions fac- 
tories and into work of the coarser trend, and 
it was feared that the fine needlework for 
which the French had been world famous 
for so many centuries would become a lost 
art. So a group of American women and 
men founded a workshop and needlework 
school and established it on the Rue de 
Grenelle, in an old house opening on an old- 
fashioned garden. In this delightful, quiet 
corner of old Paris, girls are taught all kinds 
of sewing and embroidery, and the show 
rooms of completed articles for sale testifies 
to their efficiency. In connection with the 
Ouvroir is a Vestiaire, where old clothing 
which has been donated is renovated and 
distributed to the very needy of the quarter, 
while employment is given in plain sewing 
and knitting. 

Still another result of the invasion of Paris 
by American women is Le Phare de France, 
located on the Rue Daru — a monument to the 
energy, foresight and executive ability of 
Winifred Holt, founder of the Lighthouse in 
New York. Soldiers blinded in battle find a 
home here and learn to pursue some vocation. 
The workshop for the printing of books for 
the blind has been extended until at present 
it is the largest and most complete imprimerie 
of its kind in France. 

The tragic change that strikes the for- 
eigner arriving in Paris after an absence of 
iix years is the large number of women 
dressed in deep mourning, the number of 
solemn faces, the absence of that ebullition 



Rag. Trade Mark 

LcCutcheorfs 

To Insure Christmas Delivery 

Monogrammed Handkerchiefs 
Should be ordered now 

HP HE variety of smart new sport styles 
A and our ever large assortment of 
hand-embroidered, lace-edged and hem- 
stitched handkerchiefs afford a wide selec- 
tion to the early shopper. 

But the ever welcome gift of handker- 
chiefs acquires a truly personal charm 
only when it bears a distinctive mono- 
gram. 

To insure delivery for the holidays, orders 
for monogramming should be placed not 
later than the first week of November. 

Orders by Correspondence 
given our special attention 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Sts., New York 



of light-heartedness and gayety which trans- 
cended boulevard life. 

There are very young men and old men to 
be seen on the streets, but, alas! one runs 
across many, many crippled men of middle 
age. What is to be done with these? Madame 
Eugene Simon, one of the best-known philan- 
thropists in Paris, has been attempting to 
solve the problem partially. She has bought 
some property near St. Cloud, and is build- 
ing small cottages where some of them can 
live with their families, and can end their 
days in peace and quiet. Each cottage will 
have a small garden, and Madame Simon 
hopes that sympathetic friends in France and 
the United States will provide the funds to 
permit her to build a club-house on the prop- 



erty where these maimed men may meet and 
have a little social life; where perhaps a 
cinema, bath rooms and a day nursery and 
school for their children may be installed. 

It would be a mistake, however, to give 
the impression that Paris is gloomy or solemn 
or morose. The French people have shown 
wonderful powers of recuperation. One can- 
not but admire their splendid spirit. No 
wonder that so many American women who 
have for years rejoiced in the blitheness, the 
joyousness, the gaiety of Paris now remain in 
that world capital to help sustain the citizens 
through the years of their great trial and 
suffering. 

Maud Nathan. 

New York 



.Alt 



76 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



IHE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Is 

a professional organization of four thousand 
members. Following Its war work It la enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known as the 
" Books for Everybody " movement for whlcb 
It Is making an appeal for a two million dollar 
fund. It Is rendering library service to the. 
Merchant Marine, Coast Guard and Lighthouses 
and plana to promote libraries for the sixty 
million people now wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; to help business concerns and 
factories to establish libraries In their plants; 
to promote the use of good books on American 
Ideals and traditions. 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF HOSPI- 
TAL SOCIAL WORKERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, 
pres. ; Social Service Department, Massachusetts 
General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss 
Ruth V. Emerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, 
American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. Organ- 
ization to promote development of social work 
In hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR COMMUNITY 
ORGANIZATION— Elwood Street, Secretary, 
1106 Starks Building, Louisville, Ky., furnishes 
Information and advises on establishment and 
development of community councils, councils of 
social agencies, and financial and social federa- 
tions. Exchanges material and Information 
among its members. Trains executives for 
community organization. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOB LABOR 
LEGISLATION — John B. Andrews, aec'y; 111 
B. 23rd St., New York. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men's compensation, health Insurance; one 
day's rest in seven; efficient law enforcement. 
AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION, 
formerly AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND 
PREVENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— 
Gertrude B. Knlpp, exec. Sec'y; 1211 Cathedral 
Bt., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; birth registration; maternal nurs- 
ing; lnfaut welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of ire-achool age and school age. 
AMERICAN CITY BUREAU — An Agency for 
organizing and strengthening Chambers of 
Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and 
commercial organizations; and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership. 
Address our nearest office- 
Tribune Building, New York. 
121 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION — Miss Lenna F. Cooper, Sec'y, Battle 
Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organ- 
ized for betterment of conditions in home, 
schools, institutions and community. Pub- 
lishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
Sec'y; 1417 Locust St., Phila. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles to Review and other publications), $1. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — 106 W. 40th St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Annual membership dues, $2.00. Mem- 
berships Include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Frank J. Osborne, exec, sec'y; 
It W. 46th St., New York. To disseminata 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free 
•n request. Annual membership dues, $6. 
CANADIAN CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC WEL- 
FARE — President J. Howard Falk ; General 
Secretary, F. N. Stapleford, 189 Church Street, 
Toronto. Next meeting, Montreal, September, 
1921. Annual fee $1.00. A yearly meeting to 
discuss the problems of public welfare. Com- 
mittees on Health, The Family, Immigration, 
Housing, Industrial Relations, Recreation. 
CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMER- 
ICA — 156 Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L. 
Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, 
Director. To arouse public Interest in the 
health of school children; to encourage the 
systematic teaching of health In the schools; 
to develop new methods of Interesting children 
In the forming of health habits; to publish and 
distribute pamphlets for teachers and public 
health workers and health literature for chil- 
dren; to advise in organization of local child 
health programme. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED) — 
1 Madison Ave., New York. Organized in Feb- 
ruary, 1919, to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of all 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
bast advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While Community Service (Incorporated) 
helps In organizing the work. In planning the 
program and raising the funds, and will, if de- 
sired, serve in an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, de- 
termines policies and assumes complete control 
•f the ljcal work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. S. 
Braucher, aec'y. 



EUGENICS REGISTRY — Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human 
Inheritances, hereditary Inventory md eugenic 
possibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA — Constituted by SI 
Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles S. 
Macfarland, gen'l sec'y; 106 E. 22nd St., New 
York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y; 
Miss Inez Cavert, ass't research sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and 

Goodwill; Rov. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund de S. Brunner, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. C. O. Gill, field sec'y. 
Commission on Relations with France and 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
glum. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, 
106 East 22nd Street. New York. 
HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal; G. P. Phenlx, vice-pres. ; F. H. Rogers, 
treas. ; W. H. Scovllle, sec'y; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free Illus- 
trated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters. 146 
Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn, 
cbm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, ad- 
vises, guides. International system of safe- 
guarding. Conducts National Americanization 
program. 

THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DIS- 
ABLED MEN — John Culbert Farles, dir., 101 
East 23rd St., New York. Maintains free indus- 
trial training classes and employment bureau; 
makes artificial limbs and. appliances; publishes 
literature on work for the handicapped; gives 
advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of 
disabled persons and cooperates with other 
social agencies in plans to put the disabled man 
" back on the payroll." 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laldler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object — to promote an intelli- 
gent Interest In Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership $3, $5, and 
$25; Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review." 
Special rates for students. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; James W. Johnson, acting 
sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to 
colored Americans the common rights of Ameri- 
can citizenship. Furnishes in formation regard- 
ing race problems, lynchlngs, etc. Membership 
90,000 with 314 branches. Membership, $1 up- 
ward. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TRAVELERS 
AID SOCIETIES — Gilbert Colgate, pres.; Rush 
Taggart, treas.; Virgil V. Johnson, sec'y.; 26 
West 43rd St., New York. Composed of social 
agencies working to guide and protect travelers, 
especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 
NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG 
WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual In- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and social edu- 
cation; camps; restrooms, room registries, 
boarding houses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 
seas work. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 106 East 22d St., New 
York, 36 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural Investigations; legislation; studies of 
administration; education; delinquency; health; 
recreation; children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, 
INC. — Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material whlcb visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups In community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 
paigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL 
HYGIENE — Dr. Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V. Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 
60 Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. "Mental Hygiene": quar. ; $2 a year. 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; George D. Eaton, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22nd 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities 
at cost. Includes New York State Committee. 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 

— Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action In city, state and 
nation, for meeting the fundamental problem* 
disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
— Allen T. Burns, pres., New York; W. H. 
Parker, gen. sec'y, 116 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago. General organization to discuss prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and Increase effi- 
ciency of agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
nual meetings. Monthly bufletln, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership $1. 48th 
annual meeting Milwaukee, June 22-29, 1921. 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 
Delinquents and Correction — Mrs. Martha V. 

Falconer, Philadelphia. 
Health — Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 
Public Agencies and Institutions — R. F. Beasley, 

Raleigh. 
The Family — Frances Taussig, New York. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions — Soph- 

onisba P. Breckinridge, Chicago. 
The Local Community— Howard S. Braucher, 

New york. 
Mental Hygiene— Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New 

York. 
Organization of Social Forces — Otto W. Davis. 

Minneapolis. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born In America 

— Grace Abbott, Chicago. 
NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 
— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y. Address ISO East 
69th St., New York. Girls' club; recreation ant 
educational work In non-sectarian self-govern- 
ing groups aiming toward complete self-support- 
Monthly publication, " The Club Worker." SI 
a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOB PUBLIC 
HEALTH— NURSING — Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N. exec, sec'y; 166 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of publlo 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription Included In membership. 
Dues, $2.00 and upward. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 
— Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22d St., 
New York. A cooperative guild of social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
structively through members for professional 
standards. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION 
— 381 Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Hatfield, 
M. D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing 
problems and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
" Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social ser- 
vice among Negroes, L. Holilngsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, sec'y.; 1S7 
East 23rd St., New York. Establishes cooper- 
ative committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE; — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 64 W. 
Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government in the v/ork shop through 
organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. Offi- 
cial organ. " Life and Labor." 
PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIA- 
TION OF AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 
Madison Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor- 
hood and community center activities and ad- 
ministration. Special attention given to munici- 
pal recreation problems. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— 
Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race Improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J. 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 
RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22d St., New York. Department*: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Educa- 
tion. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Li- 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pub- 
lications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public In practical and inexpensive form 
some of the most important results of Its work. 
Catalogue sent upon request." 
SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— WoodroW 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Chllds, sec'y; IS West 
9tb St.. New York. Clearing house for Informa- 
tion on short ballot, city manager plan, county 
gov't. Pamphlets free. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment la 
race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; 
furnishes Information on all phases of the rao* 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods-/ 
Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas.; 
A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 









THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9. 1920 



77 



SOCIAL STUDIES 




Conducted by 
JOSEPH K. HART 



1 



OLD AND NEW HOUSING PROBLEMS 

When did " housing " begin to be recognized as a dis- 
• tinct social problem ? 

a. In what cities did housing reform first develop? 

b! Of what nature was the problem? What were the 
early measures? 

c. In what ways were they successful? In what ways 
inadequate? 

2 What definite and distinctive effects did the war produce 
• in the housing situation in America and in Europe ? 

a. By the end of 1918 the shortage of houses in England 
due to the war amounted to some 350,000; there were 
70,000 buildings unfit for habitation and 300,000 seriously 
defective. What had been done during the war to cope with 
this situation? What are the peace time measures and 
possibilities? 

b. Greater New York is short 102,170 apartments or 
■ shelter for 400,000 persons, approximately. How was the 

war responsible for the present housing shortage in Amer- 
ica? By cutting off normal building activities? By raising 
costs? By abnormal concentration of population in indus- 
trial towns? 

c. Has the war tended to make housing a public utility? 
In what sense: as a health measure, as an industrial meas- 
ure, as a temporary remedy for the pressure for new accom- 
modations, as a social policy? 

3 Will this housing crisis ultimately tend to limit the size 
• or the density of cities? 

a". What headway has been made with decentralizing 
tendencies? With garden cities? Zoning? Better planning 
of transportation systems? 

4 Is there a rural housing problem in the United States? 
• What relation does it bear to the city housing problem? 

a. What is being done to stimulate rural building and to 
improve the type of construction and architecture? 

5 What classes did the " housing problem " of ten years 
• ago concern? 
a. What classes are concerned today? Why? 

6 How does this complicate the problem of adequate build- 
• ing codes? 
References : 

Housing and the Housing Problem. Aronovici. McClurg. 
63 pp. Seventy-five cents; by mail of the Survey, ninety cents. 

The Housing of the Unskilled Wage Earner. E. E. Wood. 
Macmillan Co. New York City. $2.24; mail of Survey $2.40. 

Model Housing Law, new revised 1920, Lawrence Veiller. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 430 pp. $4.00; by mail of the Survey, 
$4.25. 

Industrial Housing. Knowles. 408 pp. McGraw, Hill & Co. 
$5.00; by mail of the Survey, $5.25. 

Housing and the Public Health. Robertson. London, Castle. 
159 pp. By mail of the Survey, $1.65. 

The Housing Problem in War and in Peace. The Journal of 
the American Institute of Architects. The Octagon, Washington, 
D. C. $2.00; mail of the Survey, $2.25. 

The Housing Problem, Its History, Growth, Legislation and 
Procedure. J. J. Clarke. Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. London. 

Housing Betterment. Bulletin of The National Housing Asso- 
ciation, 105 East 22nd street, New York City. 

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science January to March, 1914. 

See Survey, Volume 44, pp. 26, 143, 147, 155, 254, 272, 278, 
411-12, 445, 509, 642, 687, 699-701, 712. 



GOOD NEIGHBORS 

{Continued from page 74) 
Winnipeg to New Orleans were represented at the conference. 

Another feature which would have impressed outsiders, had 
there been any at the conference, was the obvious youthfulness 
and freshness of mind of men and women who were r'oneers in 
their communities twenty-five and thirty years ago — Jane 
Addams, Mary McDowell, Graham Taylor in Chicago, Lillian 
D. Wald and John L. Elliott in New York, Cornelia Bradford 
in Jersey City, the Bradfords of the Lighthouse, Philadelphia, 
and perhaps others. Their openness to new ideas and keenness 
in discussion was the best answer to the suggestion, sometimes 
made, that settlements have outlived their usefulness. Nor was 
it a transference of glands or diet on any specific germ that gave 
our English visitor, Mrs. Barnett, her girlish enthusiasms and 
golden humor. Her presence at the conference was an inspira- 
tion and delight to all; and to mark its great esteem for her 
work and personality, the conference elected her honorary presi- 
dent. [An account of Mrs. Barnett's address was given in last 
week's issue of the Survey.] 

Of the sectional meetings, the one on liberties in the settlement, 
presided over by Lillian D. Wald, was most largely attended; but 
all of the others arranged, and several round tables brought 
together informally to discuss further specific topics, attracted 
large numbers. Limitations of space do not permit as full an 
account of these discussions as one would like to give; but many 
of these subjects will be discussed separately in these pages 
during the coming months. The conference, this year, has done 
more than merely to cement old friendships and to advance 
knowledge of technique in different fields of settlement activity. 
Before it broke up, a rounded program of fundamental tasks 
for the next five years had been adopted- So far as the federa- 
tion itself is concerned, its vigorous advance along the various 
lines of endeavor will be materially aided by a decision of the 
members to organize a permanent office with a paid wholetime 
secretary. B. L. 

CATHOLIC CHARITIES 

A LARGE part of the program of the recent National Con- 
ference of Catholic Charities at Washington was concerned 
with the organization and methods of Catholic agencies engaged 
in family and children's work, in recreational work, and in work 
with delinquents. Many of the discussions centered around the 
organization of a central Diocesan Bureau of Catholic Charities 
and the relation of the various social welfare activities of the 
dioceses to the central bureau. Twenty-six of these diocesan 
bureaus have been established in the United States in the past 
few years. 

It developed, during the discussion on health, that Catholic 
hospitals have made notable advances within the past two years 
in their methods of nurse training and in their medical social 
service. The delegates expressed the hope that in the near 
future, the hospitals would be more closely identified with 
Catholic relief and children's work. Papers dealing with chil- 
dren showed a keen appreciation of the modern developments in 
child care, necessity for mental examination of all children under 
Catholic care, and the advantages of classes for backward chil- 
dren. Representatives of Catholic women's organizations were 
eager to find ways and means of bettering the clubs and boarding 
homes for wage-earners in their own cities. 

The problems discussed under the section on juvenile de- 
linquency were: recent developments in the court, adjustment of 
family problems outside the court, functions of the volunteer 
in the court and the work of Catholic volunteers. The confer- 
ence appointed a committee to study juvenile deliquency in 
cooperation with a similar committee appointed by the national 
conference of social work. Labor's share in industrial manage- 
ment was discussed from the standpoint of the progressive em- 
ployer and from that of the trade unionist. All the discussions 
showed a strong belief in participation in industrial management. 
Considerable attention was also devoted to the work of Catholic 
agencies in civic education. 

One of the most interesting features in connection with the 
conference was the special meeting of the Catholic sisterhoods 
engaged in child care, day nursery and community work. One 
hundred and thirty-nine sisters representing twenty-three com- 
munities attended. The more important phases of child care, 
including the institutional care of children, day nurseries, the 
placement of children in homes, were discussed at this meeting. 
Catholic University, Washington. John O'Grady. 



1 



^ 



78 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 9, 1920 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

" Another impression: that people apparently refer to old Surveys, as 
inquiries continued to come in for weeks after the advertising." — Amer. Red 
Cross. 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 

Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on request. 
Periodicals, Current Pamphlets, see opposite page. 



Address Advertising 

Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19 Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

DIETITIANS: Matrons, Social Work- 
ers, Secretaries. Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5 East Side; Boston, 16 
Jackson Hall, Trinity Court, Fridays, 11 
to 1. 

SOCIAL WORKERS to be attached to 
venereal disease clinics and detention 
homes, salary $1200 to begin. Address Ten- 
nessee State Board of Health, Division of 
Venereal Disease Control, 321 Sixth Ave., 
No., Nashville, Tenn. 

MATRON in child-caring institution in 
New York City. Executive ability and 
tact essential. State experience fully in 
first letter. 3648 Survey. 

WANTED : A woman to take charge of 
some two hundred children. The require- 
ments are: a love of children; a love of 
the work; an administrative ability, the 
latter of high order; a nurse — preferably 
trained. Beginning salary $1,000 a year and 
maintenance. 3661 Survey. 

WANTED : Social worker, for hospital 
social service work, to entertain and assist 
patients. Cincinnati Anti - Tuberculosis 
League, 209 W. Twelfth St., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

SUPERINTENDENT of a Jewish Com- 
munity House in Brooklyn conducting re- 
ligious, educational and social activities is 
wanted. State experience and salary ex- 
pected. 3664 Survey. 

WANTED: Visitors for family rehab- 
ilitation work. College education and 
School of Civics training preferred. Good 
salary and excellent opportunity. Apply 
Jewish Aid Society, 1800 Selden Street, 
Chicago. 

WANTED: A case worker for West- 
chester County. Someone experienced in 
work with delinquent women preferred. 
Must be an Episcopalian. Salary $1300. 
Phone Gramercy 1510. 

WANTED; Educated young woman to 
call for two children at school at four 
o'clock in the afternoon and to spend the 
balance of the afternoon and evening with 
them as well as Saturday and Sunday. Po- 
sition may be arranged for part time as in- 
dicated or the balance of day may be de- 
voted to sewing or acting as mother's 
helper. Write, giving particulars and salary 
desired also whether applicant desires to 
live at house or not. W. L. Fleisher, 233 
West End Avenue, New York. 

COLLEGE MAN, under thirty : five, with 
pleasing personality, executive ability, orig- 
inality and initiative, wanted for important 
position in public health service. Must 
have knowledge of psychology, sociology 
and biology. 3668 Survey. 



DIRECTOR. 
The Educational Alliance requires a Di- 
rector for its Department of Concerts, 
Lectures, Entertainments, etc. The incum- 
bent will have complete supervision of a 
large auditorium and will be required to 
plan, organize, and supervise entertain- 
ments for children and adults. The appli- 
cant should be able to interest musicians, 
lecturers, public officials, etc., in the work, 
since no admission fee is charged to the 
majority of the events. Applicants should 
possess some knowledge of music and 
should be able to address an audience if 
required. Hours of duty from 4 to 6 and 
8 to 10 P. M. daily, except Fridays. Those 
hours may be varied by special arrange- 
ment from time to time. Please do not 
apply in person without an appointment 
which will be made upon receipt of written 
application to Dr. Henry Fleischman, 197 
East Broadway, giving full details as to 
age, education, experience, etc. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

YOUNG MAN, unmarried, desires posi- 
tion in an institution with boys. Experienced 
teacher both in grade and commercial sub- 
jects. Has had experience as assistant 
superintendent. Can furnish best of refer- 
ences. 3645 Survey. 

BROAD minded clergyman, age 39, col- 
lege and school of civics and philanthropy 
trained, scout master, running community 
picture entertainments in connection with 
work, familiar with non-theatrical moving 
picture field, exceptional publicity and ex- 
ecutive talents, seeks position as commu- 
nity or welfare worker. Present salary 
$2500 and house. 3662 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR of a social 
center has three afternoons and one even- 
ing free to devote to outside work ; club 
work preferred; other service considered 
(in New York city). Organization in need 
of efficient and conscientious service, com- 
municate with 3660 Survey. 

YOUNG WOMAN (M.A.) recently re- 
turned from abroad, desires position as pas- 
tor's assistant or educational work in Eng- 
lish, Biblical Literature, or Social Science. 
Four years' teaching experience, two as 
head of English Department in a Southern 
College. 3665 Survey. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS EDITOR. 
Young woman, now associated with one of 
the recently organized Employers' Associa- 
tions as assistant to manager and executive 
secretary and as associate editor of weekly 
news letter, wishes to make a change. Pro- 
duction and industrial engineering editorial 
experience with leading firm of production 
engineers prior to present position. Age 30. 
College equivalent education. Secretarial 
as well as literary ability. Practical office 
routine woman, had editorial, advertising 
and publicity experience. 3663 Survey. 



- 



TEACHERS WANTED 

TEACHERS WANTED for emergency 
vacancies — colleges, universities, public and 
private schools. Ernest Olp, Steger Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

ROOM WANTED 

BUSINESS WOMAN wishes a room in 
a small apartment with another woman or 
with a private family. Would like the use 
of a kitchenette or would consider board 
Appreciate prompt reply. 3659 Survey. 



WOMEN'S GOODS 



EXCLUSIVE designs in smocked and 
hand-embroidered blouses at reasonable 
prices. If your dealer cannot supply you 
with our blouses write for prices and 
sketches. William Moore Co., Retail Dept., I 
Davenport, Iowa. 



If in need of Workers 

The Survey 

Classified Advertising Service 

will supply your wants 

A recent advertiser writes: 

" Considering the shortage of 
teachers throughout the country, 
we received a very satisfactory 
number of replies and have been 
able to suitably fill most of the 
positions. We consider your classi- 
fied advertisements of great value 
in bringing institutions and insti- 
tution people seeking employment in 
touch with one another." 






A YOUNG MAN desires position to 
take charge of boys. Have both a prac- 
tical and technical knowledge of agricul- 
ture. Can furnish best of references as to 
character and ability. 3666 Survey. 

PHYSICAL TRAINING DIRECTOR 

and Social worker, college graduate, three 
years experience — playground, orphanage, 
and settlement work, ready for immediate 
work. 3667 Survey. 

PHYSICIAN of thirty years' standing is 
open for position with public or private 
child caring institution or agency in vicin- 
ity of New York City. Exceptionally suc- 
cessful with children. Reasonable salary 
and maintenance; highest credentials. 
Address Dr. J. L. Gaston, 1151 East 39th 
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



YOUNG LADY, expert stenographer 
secretary and office manager, two years' ex- 
perience relief work abroad, with thorough 
knowledge of French, German, Russian, and 
Yiddish, desires position in social work, 
leaving time for some university study. 
Box 3621 Survey. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER g, ig 20 



79 



,■ 



BOmA 

iplv n 



SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 

Educational Advantages of French Switzerland 

For information concerning boarding 
schools for boys and girls in vicinity of 
Lausanne, inquire of American-Anglo- 
Swiss Educational Agency. Best references 
and patronage. MAJEL K. BROOKS, 
1928 University Ave., New York City. 

PERIODICALS 



fifty centt a line per month, four weekly inter 
Mom; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Hospital Social Service Quarterly; $1.50 a 
year ; published by Hospital Social Service 
Association, 19 Bast 72d St., New York. 

Mental Uyyient, .,unii«i) , i'z a year, pub- 
lished by The National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene. SO Union Square. New York. 

Public Health Nurse, monthly; $2 a year; 
published by the National Organisation for 
Public Health Nursing. 166 Fifth Ave., New 
York 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP. MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIItCULATION, ETC., RE- 
QUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF 
AUGUST 24. l'J12. c.f the Suhoey, pub- 
lished weekly at New York. N. Y., for Octo- 
ber 1, 1920. 
State of New York, County of New York, 

96. 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the Business Manager of the Srit- 
. tey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of 
the ownership, management (and if a daily 
paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above 
caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
1!)12, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, printed on the reverse of this 
form, to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and busi- 
ness managers are : Publisher, Survey Asso- 
ciates, Inc.. 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City ; Editor, Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 

t, New York City ; Managing Editor, S. 
Adele Shaw, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City : Business Manager, Arthur P. Kellogg, 
112 East 19 Street, New York City. 

2. That the owners are : (Give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a cor- 
poration, give its name and the names and 
addresses of stockholders owning or holding 
1 per cent or more of the total amount of 

) Survey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 
Street, New York City, a non-commercial cor- 
poration under the laws of the State of New 
York with over 1,500 members. It has no 
Stocks or bonds. President, Robert W. de 
Forest, 30 Broad Street. New York City ; Vice- 
President. John M. Glenn. l: J .0 East 22 Street. 
New York City ; Secretary-Treasurer, Arthur 
P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are : (If there 
are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, 
giving the names of the owners, stockholders, 
and security holders, if any, contain not only 
the list of stockholders and security holder's 
as they appear upon the books of the company 
but also, in cases where the stockholder or 
security holder appears upon the books of the 
company as trustee or in any other fiduciary 
relation, the name of the person or corpora- 
tion for whom such trustee is acting, is given : 
also that the said two paragraphs contain 
statements embracing affiant's full knowledge 
ard belief as to the circumstances and con- 
ditions under which stockholders and security 
Bolders who do not appear upon the books of 
the company as trustees, hold stock and se- 
curities in a capacity other than that of a 
Bona tide owner : and this affiant has no rea- 
son to believe that any other person, associa- 
tion, or corporation has any interest direct 

r indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other 
securities than as so stated by him. 

[Signed] ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, 

Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22d 
day of September, 1920. 

[Seal] MARTHA HOHMANN, 
Commissioner of Deeds, Citv of New York, 
New York County Clerk's No. 144 ; New 
York County Register's No. 22056. 
Commission Expires April 27, 1922. 



A Special Non-Partisan Dinner Committee Invites You and Your Friends 
to a Dinner in Honor of 

Parley P. Christensen Dudley Field Malone 

Presidential Candidate Gubernatorial Candidate 

Rose Schneiderman 

Senatorial Candidate 

OF THE FAR ME R - LAB O R PARTY 

SPEAKERS 
PARLEY P. CHRISTENSEN WILLIAM HARD 

DUDLEY FIELD MALONE MRS. PETHICK-LAWRENCE 

ROSE SCHNEIDERMAN of Great Britain 

OWEN R. LOVEJOY, Presiding 

Hotel Commodore, Monday, October 11, 1920, 7:30 P. M. Tickets $3.00 

Send Reservations to Mrs. Alcan Hirsch, Treasurer 
50 East 41st Street Telephones Murray Hill 510 and 1875 



THE New Republic and 
The Survey are fright- 
fully fussy about their job 
printing. 

Which is one reason why 
it is so good. 

The best reason, though, 
is that most of it is done by 
lovers of type in "the house 
of reasonable charges": — 

KOENIG-MOAK 
PRINTING COMPANY 

100 West 21st Street New York City 

Telephone 8237 Chelsea 



LECTURES 



HOW WILL YOU VOTE? 

Will you let the old parties fool you again? 

There is a Third Party in the field. Wage- 
earners, farmers, Forty-Bighters and social 
workers combined to form it. 

Surely you will not cast your ballot before 
reading the Third Party platform. A free copy 
will be sent on application. 

Send a postal card today! 
FARMER-LABOR PARTY 

166 West Washington St., Chicago, IU. 



CO-OPERATIVE APARTMENTS 

CO-OPERATIVE Apartments, Colum- 
bia Heights, Brooklyn, plan endorsed by 
Co-operative League of America. Rent 
now 2-3 rooms, bath, kitchenette, $50, $75. 
Buy equity soon, reducing costs third. 
Harbor view, gardens. 3647 Survey. 



DR. EMANUEL STERNHEIM 

LECTURES 

Consultant Sociologist 

Dates, Terms, Etc. 

827 Fine Arts Building 

410 S. Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE: Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
105 East 226. Street, New York. Fall 
Schedule now in preparation. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Stillwater, The Queen op the St. Ceoix. 
A report of a Social Survey by Dr. Manuel 
C. Elmer. University of Minnesota. 

Chicago Standard Budget for Dependent 
Families, by Florence Nesbitt. Pp. 46. Re- 
vised September 1, 1920. Contains also mini- 
mum budget for the self-supportiug family. 
Published by Chicago Council of Social 
Agencies, 17 N. State St., Chicago, 111. 25 
cents. 

Credit Unions. Free on request to Mass. 
Credit Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 

Is Rhode Island a Thoughtful Father to 
Its Little Children ? By M. B. Still- 
well and Harold A. Andrews. From Divis- 
ion of Child Welfare, 307 State House, 
Providence, R. I. 

Immigration Literature sent on request by 
the National Liberal Immigration League, 
Box 116, Station F, New York City. 

An Americanization Program in Education 
and Recreation, by Philip L. Seman, care 
of Chicago Institute, 1258 Taylor St., Chi- 
cago. 54 pages, illustrated. 25 cents, in- 
cluding postage. 

Child Welfare Handbook. Contains informa- 
tion of value to health officers, superintend- 
ents of schools, teachers, librarians, visiting 
nurses and social workers, illustrates all 
the educational panels published by the Na- 
tional Child Welfare Association, Inc., 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. 36 pages 9x12, 50 
cents, postpaid. 



READ the SURVEY 



If you want to keep abreast of social and industrial progress. 
If you want accurate news an. 4 first-hand information on social and industrial 
movements. 

If you are interested in any of the subjects discussed in this issue — for the 
Survey " follows up." 

The Survbt, 112 East 19th Street, New York. 

I enclose $5 for a year's subscription. S-10-9-20 

Will send $5 on (date) 

Name 

Address 






OREGON WANTS FREEDOM 



In Oregon there is a group of rare, common people who are a hundred per 
cent human. They are not seeking to remodel the world, but they are trying to 
do the thing at hand; they are struggling against great odds to free the idle land 
of Oregon held out of use by landlords. They have succeeded in placing an 
amendment on the ballot so that the voters can vote this fall as to whether or not 
the unused land shall be taxed the same as the used land. If this amendment 
carries, holding land out of use will become unprofitable and will kill landlord- 
ism. Single Taxers maintain that if human beings are made in the image of 
God, then they should have the same privilege as the birds of the air and be able 
to build their nests or homes any place not in use. 

Henry George's Single Tax idea is the most radical, yet the most constructive 
and practical reform before the world today. He realized that when some people 
get something they do not earn, there must be others who earn something they do 
not get, and yet he fully realized that the rich are no worse or better than the 
poor; changing them about would not remedy conditions. Single Tax would sim- 
ply change the system, giving the souls of men a chance to grow. Single Tax is a 
" made in America " one hundred per cent human reform, and can be brought 
about by a battle of ballots. Remember! There is nothing that so frightens the 
dignified Shylocks as intelligence displayed at the ballot box. Single Tax may not 
be a cure for all of our economic ills, but it is a big step in the right direction. 
It simply means to take the shackles off of struggling humanity. The drones may 
then have to cut their own toenails, but we would have fewer insane asylums, 
prisons, poorhouses and potter's fields. 

When the dignified Shylocks want to control a political convention so as to 
guide the ship of state down the golden stream of profit, they do not make any noise 
about it but just reach for their check book. Single Taxers, too, would guide the 
6hip of state, not through a selfish golden stream, but towards the century's golden 
dream of freedom. 

Remember! It is easy for special privilege to raise a million or more in order 
to retain their position. Do you hear the cries and feel the heart throbs of awak- 
ening humanity? They are the ones who have been disinherited by the greed of 
man. They are just commencing to realize that free access to the unused land 
means equal opportunity. How many friends have you who would give a dollar 
or more in order to make this golden dream a reality? If you want to help in this 
great earthly movement without expecting any personal reward, get your friends to 
send their contributions, together with your own, to J. R. Hermann, 316 Stock 
Exchange Building, Portland, Oregon, and do it Now! Now! Now! 

In order to free the land in Oregon we must hold our remedy high up be- 
fore the people, and you know publicity costs money. Turn all your good inten- 
tions into cash. This is not a whine for charity, but a demand for justice. It is the 
real Goddess of Liberty knocking at your door. 

Yours for a better world, 

GERRIT J. JOHNSON. 



i i li nn — mi 




S OKC/W 








OCTOBER 16, 1920 



PARAGRAPHS OF THE COMMON WELFARE 
Street Accident Compensation 
National Control of Employment 
"Europe is Dying" 
School Military Training 
The Y. M. C. A. in China 

The Attack on the California Housing Commission 
Economic Views and Public Office 
Alcoholism and Parenthood 



The I. W. W. Judgment 
Growing Race Cooperation 
Health and Insurance 



Victor S. Yarros 

W. D. Weatherford 

Harold Alexander Ley 



CIVICS 

The Need for Permanent Housing Boards . . John Alan Hamilton 
Afforestation by a Small Town — Two Community Surveys — Books and 
Beds — Town Planning in Norway — Line Fourteen Club — Municipal 
Landing Fields. 

FAMILY WELFARE 

Block Organization on the East Side . . Ida Oppenheimer 

A Texas State Council — Suppose Nobody Cared — Training Volunteers 



PUBLIC HEALTH 

Health Work for Girls 



Kristine Mann, M.D. 



83 



87 
88 
90 

92 



% 



99 



Negro Health Week in Texas — A Tooth-Growing Diet. 
CONFERENCES BOOKS COMMUNICATIONS 



15 Cents a Copy 



% r 



$5.00 a Year 

9/o 



82 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 





BOOKS 
RECEIVED 





Principles op Labor Legislation. By John 
R. Commons and John B. Andrews. (Fourth 
edition completely revised.) Harper & 
Brothers. 559 pp. Price, $2.75 net; by 
mail of the Survey, $3.00. 

The Merrymakers in Chicago. By Herschel 
Williams. The Page Company. 321 pp. 
Price, Si. 65 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.90. 

Modern Spiritism. By A. T. Schofield, M. D. 
P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 260 pp. Price, 
$1.50 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.65. 

The Rural Community, Ancient and Modern. 
Edited by Newell Leroy Sims. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 916 pp. Price, $4.50 ; by mail 
of the Survey, $4.75. 

The Wasted Island. By Eimar O'Duffy. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 531 pp. Price, $2.25 ; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.50. 

The Complex Vision. By John Cowper 
Powys. Dodd, Mead & Co. 370 pp. Price, 
$3.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $3.25. 

Little Journeys Into the Heart of True 
Things. By Marie A. Greene, M.D. Burton 
Publishing Co. 286 pp. Price, $1.50 ; by 
mail of the Survey, $1.70. 

The Woman of the Streets. By Lee Alexan- 
der Stone, M.D. Burton Publishing Co. 119 
pp. Price, $1.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 
$1.10. 

Thb Position of the Laborer in a System 
of Nationalism. By Edgar S. Furniss. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 258 pp. Price, $2.00 ; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

Our Democracy and the American Indian. 
By Laura Cornelius Kellogg. Burton Pub- 
lishing Co. 152 pp. Price, $2.00 ; by mail of 
the Survey, $2.15. 

The Science and Philosophy of Eugenics. 
Bv Ellis B. Guild. Burton Publishing Co. 
247 pp. Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.20. 

Laboratory Manual of English Composition. 
By Stanley R. Oldham. World Book Co. 148 
pp. Price, $1.20 ; by mail of the Survey, 
$1.35. 

The Idea of Progress. By J. B. Bury. The 
Macmillan Co. 375 pp. Price, $5.50 ; by 
mail of the Survey, $5.80. 

Budgets of Families and Individuals of 
Kensington. Philadelphia. By Esther 
Louise Little and William Joseph Henry 
Cotton. A Thesis. University of Pennsyl- 
vania. 273 pp. Paper bound. Free distri- 
bution ; by mail of the Survey, 15c. 

Toy-Making in School and Home. By R. K. 
and M. I. R. Polkinghorne. Frederick A. 
Stokes Co. 299 pp. Illustrated. Price, 
$3.50 ; by mail of the Survey, $3.75. 

Poland and the Minority Races. By Arthur 
L. Goodhart. Brentano's. 194 pp. Price, 
$2.50; by mail of the Survey, $2.70. 

The Passing of the New Freedom. By James 
M. Beck. George H. Doran Co. 169 pp. 
Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

Four Hitherto Unpublished Gospels. By 
the Rev. William E. Barton. George H. 
Doran Co. 149 pp. Price, $1.50 ; by mail of 
the Survey, $1.60. 

Schooling of the Immigrant. By Frank V. 
Thompson. Harper & Brothers. 408 pp. 
Price, $2.00; by mail of the Survey, $2.20. 

What's on the Worker's Mind? By Whiting 
Williams. Charles Scribner's Sons. 329 pp. 
Price, $2.50 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.75. 

The Gulf of Misunderstanding. By Tancredo 
Pinochet. Boni & Liveright. 275 pp. Price, 
$2.50; by mail of the Survey. $2.70. 

The Dark Mother. By Waldo Frank. Boni & 
Liveright. 376 pp. Price, $2.50 ; by mail 
of the Survey, $2.75. 

The Course of Empire. By R. F. Pettigrew. 
Boni & Liveright. 700 pp. Price, $4.50 ; by 
mail of the Survey, $4.75. 

Rachel. By Angelina W. Grimke. The Corn- 
hill Company. 96 pp. Price, $1.25 ; by mail 
of the Survey, $1.35. 

"Broke" ; The Man Without the Dime. By 
Edwin Brown. The Four Seas Company. 
370 pp. Illustrated. Price, $2.00; by mail 
of the Survey, $2.25. 

Labor in Politics, or Class Versus Country. 
By Charles Norman Fay. Published by the 
author at 205 Brattle Bldg., Harvard Square, 
Cambridge, Mass. 284 pp. Paper bound. 

' Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

Human and Industrial Efficiency. By 
Henry Chellew. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 149 
pp. Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.20. 

Reconstruction in Philosophy. By John 
Dewey. Henry Holt & Co. 224 pp. Price, 
$1.60 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.80. 

$1200 a Year. By Edna Ferber and Newman 
Levy. Doubleday, Page & Co. 173 pp. Il- 
lustrated. Price, $1.50 ; by mail of the 
Survey, $1.70. 



Outwitting the "T. B. Bugs." By Mary 

Mack. Cahill Publishing Co. 70 pp. Illus- 
trated. Price, $3.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 

$3.15. 
The Garden of Eden. By George Hodges. 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 203 pp. Illustrated. 

Price, $2.50 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.75. 
Cox — the Man. By Rodger W. Babson. Bren- 
tano's. 128 pp. Price, $1.50 ; by mail of 

the Survey, $1.70. 
The Young Citizen's Own Book. By Chelsea 

Curtis Fraser. Thomas X. Crowell Co. 314 

pp. Illustrated. Price, $1.75 ; by mail of 

the Survey, $2.00. 
Problems of Today. By Moorfield Storey. 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 258 pp. Price, $1.50 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.70. 
Good Times for Girls. By Mary E. Moxcey. 

Methodist Book Concern. 96 pp. Price, 

$.60 ; by mail of the Survey, $.70. 
Handbook of English Composition. By 

Luella Clay Carson. World Book Co. 266 

pp. Price, $1.28 ; by mail of the Survey, 

$1.38. 
The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 385 pp. Price, $5.00 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $5.25. 
Gymnastic Dancing. By S. C. Staley and 

D. M. Lowery. Association Press. 212 pp. 

Price, $2.25 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.40. 
Accepting the Universe. By John Bur- 
roughs. Houghton Mifflin Co. 328 pp. 

Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 
Clothing — Choice, Care, Cost. By Mary 

Schenck Woolman. J. B. Lippincott Co. 289 

pp. Price, $2.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 

$2.25. 
The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. 

Vol. 5. By William I. Thomas and Florian 

Znaniecki. Richard C. Badger. 345 pp. 

Price, $5.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $5.25. 
Growth During School Age. By Paul Godin. 

Richard G. Badger. 268 pp. Price, $3.00 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $3.20. 
Chums and Brothers. By Edgar H. Webster. 

Richard G. Badger. 247 pp. Price, $1.75 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $1.90. 
Dental and General Hygiene. By Clair Els- 
mere Turner. C. V. Mosbv Co. 400 pp. 

Price, $4.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $4.25. 
Casting Tackle and Methods. By O. W. 

Smith. Stewart & Kidd Co., Cincinnati. 

257 pp. Price, $3.00 ; by mail of the Survey, 

$3.20. 
The New World. By Frank Comerford. D. 

Appleton & Co. 364 pp. Price, $2.00; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.15. 
The Historical Child. By Oscar Chrisman. 

Richard G. Badger. 471 pp. Price, $4.00 ; 

by mail of the Survey, $4.25. 
Eugenics, Civics and Ethics. By Sir Charles 

Walston. Macmillan Co. 56 pp. Paper. 

Price, $1.60 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.75. 
Alaska Man's Luck. By Hjalmar Rutzebeck. 

Boni & Liveright. 260 pp. Price, $2.00; by 

mail of the Survey, $2.15. 



Relativity. By Albert Einstein. Henry Holt 
& Co. 168 pp. Price, $2.50 ; by mail of the 
Survey, $2.65. 

Industrial Housing. By Morris Knowles. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co. 408 pp. Illustrated. 
Price, $5.00 ; by mail of the Survey, $5.30. 

Woman and the New Race. By Margaret 
Sanger. Brentano's. 234 pp. Price, $2.00; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.15. 

Potterism. By Rose Macaulay. Boni As Live- 
right. 227 pp. Price, $2.00; by mail of 
the Survey, $2.15. 

Jailed for Freedom. By Doris Stevens. 
Boni & Liveright. 388 pp. Price, $3.00 ; by 
mail of the Survey, $3.20. 

Everyman's Child. By Sophie Irene Loeb. 
Century Co. 286 pp. Price, $2.00 ; by mail 
of the Survey, $2.15. 

Roaming Through the West Indies. By 
Harry A. Franck. Century Co., 486 pp. 
Illustrated. Price, $5.00 ; by mail of the 
Survey, $5.30. 

Education for Democracy. By Henry Fred- 
erick Cope. Macmillan Co. 275 pp. Price, 
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The Power to Heal. By Henry B. Wilson. 
Nazarene Press, Boonton, N. J. 68 pp. 
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The Release of the Soul. By Gilbert 
Cannan. Boni & Liveright. 166 pp. Price, t 
$1.75 ; by mail of the Survey, $1.90. 

The Modern Book of French Verse. Edited 
by Albert Boni. Boni & Liveright, 299 
pp. Price $2.50 ; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.70. 

Best American Humorous Short Stories. 
Edited by Alexander Jessup. 276 pp. A 
Modern Book of Criticism. Edited by 
Ludwig Lewisohn. 210 pp. Salome : The 
Importance of Being Earnest : Lady 
Windermere's Fan. By Oscar Wilde. 216 
pp. Boni & Liveright " Modern Library." 
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The Junior High School. By Leonard V. 
Koos. Harcourt, Brace and Howe. 179 pp. 
Price $1.36 ; by mail of the Survey $1.50. 

CONSTANTINE I AND THE GREEK PEOPLE. By 

Paxton Hibben. The Century Co. 592 pp. 

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Occasional Papers and Addresses of an 

American Lawyer. By Henry W. Taft. The 

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Pic the Weapon-Maker. By George Langford. 

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Socialism on Trial. By Morris Hiliquit. B. 

W. Huebsch, Inc. 74 pp. Price $0.50; by 

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Y"men, social workers 

and all welfare organizations recommend 
and buy this book for their reference and 
circulating libraries. It is a correctional 
presentation of the subject, aimed at the 
scourge — syphilis. By Dr. John H. Stokes, 
of The Mayo Clinic. 

At Bookstores or 

W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY, Philadelphia 




$2.50 



Know Something About Naturalization 

7Ae AMERICANIZATION DICTIONARY 
SSr^JrSS FOR THE AMERICAN 

executive, superintendent, foreman, welfare worker, teacher, or anyone in con- 
tact with the alien enabling them to give him such information as will help him 
become a citizen. Ask your dealer or mail 30c stamps or coin for sample copy. 



333 Shepard Bldg. 



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Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1920 



No. 3 



TBI 

U' 






TEE SURVEY 
PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editob 

ASSOCIATE EDITOBS „_«— 

EDWARD T. DEVINB BRUNO LASKEB 

WILLIAM L. CHENERY PAUL L. BENJAMIN 

JOSEPH K. HART MICHAEL M. DAVIS, JR. 

S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editob 

Published weekly and Copyright 1920 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
W East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. deForest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

Pbicb : this issue, 15 cents a copy; $o a year; foreign postage, $1.25; 
Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment i* by check a receipt will be sent only upon 
request. 

Entbbbd at second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, New 
York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at 
a special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 
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s&ta 

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A 







m 



HOME SERVICE 

TEN year old boy came into the headquarters of 
the Mountain Division of the American Red Cross 
and asked for the manager. "Can you tell me," in- 
quired the boy when that high official appeared, " where I 
can go to have this wart taken off my hand ?" Much amused 
the manager said, " Son, when I was your age they used to tell 
me that people got warts from playing with toads." " Oh," 
•aid the younger, " you misunderstood me. I don't want any 
more warts; I want to get rid of this one!" 

STREET ACCIDENT COMPENSATION 

SUGGESTIONS, foolish and sound, showered quickly 
after the Wall street bomb explosion which took so heavy 
a toll of human life. Politicians of various parties and 
groups sought to make capital of the excitement which fol- 
lowed. The police commissioner of New York cannily used 
h as the basis of a plea for an enlarged appropriation. Any 
proposal which is genuinely and sincerely directed toward ren- 
dering impossible such catastrophes should, of course, be wel- 
comed, while those which, for selfish ends, seek to exploit a 
public disaster, are naturally resented. 

Among the very few of the large number of suggestions 
recently offered which seem to promise greater public protec- 
tion is that of John R. Shilladay, executive director of the 
National Consumers' League. Mr. Shilladay proposed two 
measures. The first is the obvious one of a more careful po- 
licing of explosives. He urges that companies transporting 
combustibles be required by high licenses, or otherwise, to pay 
for this enlarged police supervision. More novel and more 
important because of its capacity of wider application is his 
second scheme. That, in fact, looks to the extension of the 
workmen's compensation principle to street accidents of all 
kinds. As a matter of fact, since automobile traffic has reached 
its present point, using the streets even when explosives do 



not add to one's terrors, has become a dangerous occupation. A 
certain number of men, women and children are going to be 
injured and killed by street traffic, regardless of how careful 
the individuals may be. The victims of the Wall street explo- 
sion are in an analogous situation. Neither they nor pedes- 
trians hurt in automobile accidents are more culpable for 
their sufferings and losses than are individuals hurt in the 
course of work. In each case, provision for the victims of ac- 
cidents is a social obligation. 

Mr. Shilladay suggests that it would be easily possible to 
work out an insurance scheme covering the situation. The 
licenses issued to automobilists and to dealers in explosives 
might be increased sufficiently to care for the insurance 
charges decided to be necessary by actuaries. In that way the 
traffic would pay its own toll. 

NATIONAL CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT 

THAT the United States is a laggard in the matter of 
developing public employment offices was again demon- 
strated at the recent annual meeting of the American 
Association of Public Employment Offices at Ottawa. Canada, 
according to the reports there presented seems far ahead of 
this country. Admittedly there are in the United States many 
excellent employment offices but as a nation we are almost 
totally lacking in an integrated employment policy. Too 
literally in this respect we have practiced the scriptural in- 
junction concerning keeping the right hand in ignorance of 
the left hand's undertakings. 

Thus Brice Stewart, chief of the Canadian employment ser- 
vice, and for the second time president of the association, re- 
lated the episode of a Buffalo plant which desired to establish 
a Canadian branch. For the new office ten men trained in a 
very special technique were needed. The firm proposed to 
bring the men from Buffalo. The Canadian employment 
office insisted that it first be given the chance to look for men 
in Canada with just such training. It found five. The Buf- 
falo firm decided to disregard the request. At the border, 
however, just five men were permitted to pates. In that in- 
stance at any rate there was complete coordination between 
the immigration and the employment authorities. The prob- 
lem in the United States is frankly larger and more difficult 
than it is in Canada but officially we hardly seem aware that 
it exists. 

Reports from the United States were not, however, dis- 
couraging. First of all a less orotund note was struck by the 
American employment officials. Instead of talking in terms 
of sweeping achievements — a thing impossible under the pres- 
ent niggardly organization of employment service on this side 
the St. Lawrence — concrete activities in behalf of individuals 
were discussed. A more wholesome spirit of cooperation be- 
tween the federal and the state authorities was also noted. 

83 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



"EUROPE IS DYING" 

From an interview with Anatole France — regarded by many as the greatest living novelist 
— by Joseph Gollomb in the New York Evening Post 



The war has brought victory to the 
Allies as crushing to them as the defeat to 
the Germans. In some places the war is 
blazing still; in others it started new con- 
flagrations. In many instances the suffer- 
ings of whole peoples surpassed the 
darkest days of the war. All nations feel 
added economic burdens ; some are break- 
ing under them. It is Europe now that is 
the "sick man" of the world. And peace 
has not brought its balm. 



What each nation did during the war 
on the constructive side, all the nations 
together must do if they wish not to be 
crushed by their common enemy, disin- 
tegration. For the maximum effort in the 
war each nation pooled all its resources 
and its strength and, theoretically at 
least, the people of that nation were for 
the time but one family. This on an in- 
ternational plane seems to me the only 
- hope for Europe. To pool in common 
the resources of the world and to redis- 
tribute them on the basis of a common 
bond and a common need would not only 
save Europe materially but spiritually, 
as President Wilson hoped it would be 
saved. 

But the spirit that made common cause 
possible within each nation is the very 
thing that in its ugly and negative aspect 
works against the same action on an in- 
ternational plane. 



So far from approaching the spirit in 
which Europe can be saved we are drift- 
ing away from it. Out of all this disin- 
tegration I think but one nation may 



recover — Russia. There is something 
new coming from that quarter. There is 
all the travail, strength, and agony of 
something great being born there. And 
nothing doomed to early death could 
rouse such a stir of emotion throughout 
the entire world. Nothing short of a new 
and giant spirit could have accomplished 
what Russia's Red armies, barefooted and 
half starved, did against a ring of ene- 
mies. Of course, there are tremendous 
faults and lacks, elemental crudeness 
there. But that is all the nature of newly 
born great things. The whole world is 
reverberating with what is taking place 
in Poland. I mean that for the first time 
Socialism is a tremendous fact instead of 
an agitating theme only. Socialism in 
one form or another is inevitable through- 
out the world. And it is the one hope for 
Europe. 

* * * 

Today, strictly speaking, race is disap- 
pearing. The mixing of currents of 
humanity, due to increasing facilities for 
intercommunication, is blurring away al- 
most all racial lines except those of color. 
So that today "race" is really a word ex- 
pressing a certain mode of feeling, think- 
ing, and living rather than a blood 
relation. No, I think ascendency here- 
after will not be along racial lines. 



I feel as a friend of mine, a savant, 
once expressed the matter. We were sit- 
ting at a table in front of a cafe at the 
busiest part of the Grands Boulevards in 
Paris. Before us passed men and women 
of all nationalities and races — black, white 



yellow, brown; Chinese, Germans, Jews, 
Americans, Russians. My friend deeply 
enjoyed the scene. He said: "I wish we 
could at this moment set up a barrier at 
each end of these two blocks so as to 
catch within them all these people. Then 
if we could transport them, all races and 
nationalities, to some bountiful island in 
the South Seas and keep them from leav- 
ing, in fifty years we would have on tnat 
island the most perfect race on earth. 
And what an art they would produce!" 

Something of this sort is taking place, 
of course, all over the world, but on so 
vast a scale that, although the old racial 
lines are disappearing, the new are not 
yet visible. This process, however, is 
going on much more rapidly on the plane 
of political and social thinking. Every- 
where there is springing up this free- 
masonry based on a new social order. So 
that, for example, a French Socialist 
meeting an American Socialist in Paris 
often feels a closer kinship toward him 
than toward his own bourgeois-minded 
neighbor. As yet this new redistribution 
of allowances is in its early stages. But 
momentum of growth is there. Action on 
an international scale is increasing be- 
tween labor masses. There are even the 
slight beginnings of an art expressing the 
new social order. But such art is not 
necessarily due to socialism. An artist 
may express himself partly as a Socialist 
in his work. But it does not follow that 
his socialism will produce his art. Social- 
ism is not yet the main force in the world. 
Nor will it prevail for some years to come. 
And meanwhile the human tragedy con- 
tinues. 



That is an encouraging indication. For some Congress in the 
near future will be called upon to rebuild the employment 
service. This cam only be done soundly if there is a genuine 
desire to render public service on the part of all affected. The 
Ottawa meeting gave encouraging evidence of such a desire. 

SCHOOL MILITARY TRAINING 

RETURNS are appearing on the experiment with mili- 
tary training in the public schools of New York state. 
The state association of school superintendents, at its 
annual meeting at Saratoga Springs, last week went on rec- 
ord as being strongly opposed to the system developed under 
the present law [see the Survey for October 9, p. 70]. The 
report of the legislative committee, which was adopted by the 
association, held that the law was not being properly en- 
forced as to the working boys of the state and that it was 
being unjustly enforced in the case of school boys. This is 
a healthy development of criticism. Undoubtedly there will 
be a struggle between the schools and industry for the control 
of the machinery of the law's enforcement. Why should the 
law be enforced as to school boys and evaded as to working 
boys ? This is what the school men of the state want to know. 

THE Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

AT a conference held in April at Tientsin, the Y. M. 
C. A. workers of China adopted a new social program. 
Speaking of this conference, Joseph S. Burgess, director 
of the Peking Y. M. C. A., writes : 

The association in China is not content to have a few set- 



ting-up exercises in the "gym"; the health of the whole com- 
munity is more and more becoming its aim. Films on teeth, fresh 
air, eyes, the merry microbe, etc., are to be extensively used 
throughout China through the net work of the Y. M. C. A.'s in 
all the big provincial capitals and port cities. 

The most significant evening of the conference was the inter- 
national night. The address of Mr. Saito, the Japanese delegate, 
was a credit to him, and the way it was received was most 
remarkable. The constructive program of the association is one 
which has an educational significance in the Orient which it will 
be hard to realize in America. 

The North China Star, in editorial comment on this con- 
ference, which it reports in full, says: 

In the aftermath of the world-wide struggle, China has been 
brought to a turning-point in her national existence, politically, 
financially, industrially and socially. . . . 

The greatest hindrance to business progress as well as 
Christian propaganda in this country has been lack of flexibility 
and adaptation to material conditions and the psychology of the 
people. The Y. M. C. A. in China stands today as one of the 
most successful enterprises in China, carried out by native en- 
deavor under experienced foreign counsel — the working principle 
which must make the China of tomorrow. 

The social program, adopted by the conference, starts out 
by setting forth general principles bearing upon home life, 
social life, social virtues, education, labor and good citizenship. 
In the working out of these principles to practical application 
it lays stress on the pioneering of the Y. M. C. A. in social 
service outside the activities carried on on its own premises. It 
says: 

The association should be a training place for social servants. 
Its staff should be trained in social methods, not only those that 
can be conducted in an association building but also those that 
can be carried on through other organizations, such as guilds, 



! 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



85 




educational societies, churches, street unions, industrial concerns, 
schools, philanthropic organizations, etc. 

The associations owe a much larger obligation than has yet 
been performed to those classes which work with their hands. 
In another place it says of labor: 

The association believes in the vilue of intelligent, honest and 
efficient labor in the upbuilding of a nation's industrial greatness, 
and of the right of labor to a fair living wage and healthy 
working conditions. It believes in the wisdom of protecting 
labor while engaged in the industries, so that the development of 
our natural resources will be accompanied not by the destruc- 
tion of, but the enrichment of our human resources. 

CALIFORNIA UNDER ATTACK 

HE so-called " Better America Federation " of Los 
Angeles appears to be conducting a singularly virulent 
attack on the California State Immigration and 
Housing Commission. The attack follows closely upon the 
reprinting by the Sacramento Star, of an article by Edward 
Krehbiel in the Survey for August 16, which lays bare the 
attack of the Better America Federation upon the Los An- 
geles Y. W. C. A. after that body's progressive industrial 
action in Cleveland last spring. Mr. Krehbiel is a partner 
of Simon J. Lubin, the chairman of the commission. 

The present attack charges the commission with being 
a friend of the I. W. W. The latest incident in this cam- 
paign is the publication of a pamphlet by Francis Ralston 
Welsh of Philadelphia, who apparently is cooperating with 
the Los Angeles enemies of the commission. Mr. Welsh's 
brochure is a curious example of scurrility. Although pro- 
duced near the Atlantic seaboard it has all of the exaggerated 
venom and apparent inaccuracy of the political pamphleteering 
of the pioneer country. It is all color. For example, although 
Professor Carlton H. Parker, the first secretary of the Com- 
mission, has been dead for more than a year and a half, he, 
too, is attacked. The commission is falsely accused of employ- 
ing I. W. W.'s and others who were never connected with it. 
The secretary of war, the secretary of labor, Justice Brandeis, 
Federal Judge George W. Anderson, former Secretary of the 
Treasury William. G. McAdoo, Louis F. Post and others 
high in authority are pictured as members of a conspiracy to 
aid I. W. W.'s and anarchists. 

The commission has done distinguished work. Mr. Parker, 
its first secretary, was afterwards dean of the School of Com- 
merce at the University of Washington. Its second secre- 
tary was George L. Bell, secretary of the War Labor Policies 
Board during the war, and the first impartial chairman of the 
Men's Clothing Industry in New York. Its president, 
Mr. Lubin, is one of the leaders in intelligent American- 



From the Social Hygiene Bulletin 



OM 



his » 



. 



3 



jns& 



TO SURVEY ASSOCIATES 

Pekin, Prague, Constantinople — some of the most inter- 
esting cities in the whole world have been applying the 
American method of civic stocktaking which gave the 
Survey and Survey Associates, Inc., its name, following 
the pioneer work in Pittsburgh. 

' At the annual meeting of Survey Associates [see page 
m] Ruth Crawford, associate executive of the Divisipn 
for Foreign-Born Women of the Y. W. C. A., will speak 
on the social survey of Prague, of which she was director; 
a survey of one of the oldest and most fascinating of the 
mid-European cities, with a history dating back into the 
Dark Ages, now become the capital of one of the new 
republics; a survey made at request of Dr. Alice Mazaryk, 
daughter of the president of the Czecho-Slovak Republic 
and herself president of the Czecho-Slovak Red Cross 
and a member of the National Assembly, who was anxious 
to have a body of facts as the basis of a social program 
for the new-old capital; a survey in which the War Work 
Council of the Y. W. C. A. was assisted by the American 
Red Cross and the American Relief Administration. 




We've learned much about the 
treatment of Crime since the 
days of the Stocks, but— 

Have we progressed equally 
in the Control of Preventable 
Diseases? 



L 



" How the New Jersey State Department of Health Advertises Its 
Venereal Disease Campaign in the Public Press" 

ization work. The California Commission has had a notable 
record for real efficiency. Its report on the Wheatland riots 
is one of the landmarks in the effort to understand industrial 
maladjustment in this country. Throughout its career this 
state organization has continuously rendered public service of 
very high quality. 

It would be hard to conceive a more maliciously fantastic 
and unreal fabrication, yet it appears to be an important part 
of an extraordinarily vicious effort to misrepresent and to ham- 
string a public body whose fault has been its loyal service to 
the republic. 

ECONOMIC VIEWS AND PUBLIC OFFICE 

THE New York Assembly is by no means the only body 
in America which is trying to purge itself of members 
who hold unorthodox views on the relation of capital 
and labor. In Seattle, C. J. France, executive secretary of the 
Port Commission, was forced out by two members of the com- 
mission who publicly announced their intention to oust him 
from office and so, in his own estimation, undermined his use- 
fulness to the port district. His crime was his candidacy on 
behalf of the Farmer-Labor Party for the office of United 
States senator. A committee of the Municipal League, after 
investigation of the proposed removal of Mr. France, reported 
that his services had been " inestimable " and his severance 
from the office was " a distinct loss " to the community. The 
committee, nevertheless, did not censure the action of the 
port commissioners, whose objection to Mr. France, they say, 
is not due to his work or personality. They add : 

The Port of Seattle is a business institution. However desir- 
able freedom of opinion is, the Port Commission is not primarily 
concerned in enforcing that or any other abstract right. The 
practical problem before the commission is to establish good-will 
with those who are being urged to make use of the port's facili- 
ties. If, for any reason, an executive officer of the port becomes 
personally objectionable to the customers of the port district, 
regardless of whether the prejudice existing against him is well 
founded or not, we believe it is the right of the commission Jo 
remove him. 

That officers of the port commission of Seattle or any others 
of its public authorities have ever been removed because their 



86 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER i6, 1920 



views were objectionable to large classes of workers (without 
whose cooperation there would be no port or any other public 
" facilities ") has not so far been reported. 

A strike to retain a mayor in his job, which illustrates an- 
other form of economic pressure upon democratic municipal 
government, took place earlier this year at Hill City, Minn. 
Here Vice-President Sayler, of the local Coopers' Union, was 
elected mayor. The manager of the local plant where Sayler 
worked got it into his head that a man who gave time and 
thought to municipal matters must be a poor workman and 
fired him from his job. The sequel was a mass strike, with 
the result that the mayor was reinstalled. Here, again, the 
lack of imagination on the part of persons in authority is illus- 
trated. What would they say if the workers in an industrial 
plant struck because, they did not like the president of the 
company's vote as a member of the legislature? 

ALCOHOLISM AND PARENTHOOD 

DR. C. W. SALEEBY, physician and eugenist, of the 
British delegation to the recent International Congress 
Against Alcoholism at Washington, is not one of those 
who are unduly distressed at the recent partial resumption 
of the trade in liquor. He has seen America dry in one state 
and wet in another in the old days, and America variously 
wet and dry the past few months. Just before sailing for 
England last week he put the situation as it appears to a 
scientific man who has studied alcohol and its effect on human 
beings — and particularly on parenthood — for many years and 
as chairman of the National Birthrate Commission of Lon- 
don. Prohibition takes on new dimensions as viewed from 
such an angle and it is perhaps significant of the present 
status of the movement that Dr. Saleeby has been touring 
several states including New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio 
as a speaker for the Anti-Saloon League and for the World 
League Against Alcoholism, of the executive committee of 
which he was elected chairman at Washington a few days 
ago. He is now about to plunge into the campaign for local 
option in Scotland, where a vote is to be taken in November. 
The federal amendment Dr. Saleeby calls " the greatest 
health measure in history." It hits straight toward the heart 
of the menacing symptoms of race decay which have been 
visible for some time and came out clearly into view during 
the war. In Scotland and France, countries which Dr. 
Saleeby knows well, " one has only to study the birth-rates 
and the death-rates, to watch adolescence — which I call ' pre- 
parenthood' — in the streets, the too often malnourished or 
racially poisoned children, to see that the racial omens are 
adverse." 

Alcohol, f Dr. Saleeby, is a racial poison — a term he in- 
troduced in 1906. To cut it out of men's lives is an excur- 
sion less into moral law than into preventive medicine and 
racial health: 

I do not believe that any modern urban civilization can be rid 
of tuberculosis and venereal disease until it is first rid of alcohol, 
as you are or soon will be. Gorgas had to have prohibition in 
the Canal Zone before he could cope with yellow fever and 
malaria. In England we have a degree of drinking amongst 
youth, and notably young women, which you have never had 
here. There you see young women at the public house doors with 
children in their arms and children in their wombs. We are 
slipping back into our old ways — last year our consumption of 
alcohol was 60 per cent greater than the year before, which was 
the last year under the war regulations. Meanwhile we are 
professing to be trying to stop the spread of venereal disease 
and have to date a record of complete non-success. But I learn 
from your Federal Health Department in Washington and from 
health officers in many of your great cities that in this country 
you are succeeding, and that prohibition is greatly helping your 
health officials in this fight. 

Hence it is of the greatest importance to him that the 
American experiment of prohibition be given a fair trial. 
Here is the most favorable place in which to make such a 
test. American sentiment is behind it, American drinking 
habits are very different from those of Great Britain and 



the Continent, Americans have been taught the truth about 
alcohol. 

We have never had a cabinet minister in England who knew 
so much about it as the average American school child knows. 
The United States has become the laboratory of mankind and 
the interest is as wide as mankind. All eyes are upon you. 

As to law enforcement, Dr. Saleeby is an optimist. He 
realizes the difficulty of enforcing rigidly a new law making 
so profound a change in the habits of many people, the in- 
sufficient number of enforcement officers, the inadequate ap- 
propriations at their disposal, the lack of coordination between 
federal, state and local offices leading not to action by all three 
but sometimes to action by none. But in traveling extensively 
over the country his observation has been that in communities 
where the population is characteristically American there is 
strict enforcement — " liquor is absent from public and do- 
mestic life, and that is colossal as a matter of principle and 
of racial practice." In communities where the population is 
largely of recent immigrants with European habits and cus- 
toms, the situation is different — " that is part of the price 
you are paying for your hospitality to immigrants." Under- 
neath it all, howeevr, Dr. Saleeby finds the chief source of 
difficulty the fifty or sixty million gallons of distilled liquor 
in bonded warehouses and the unknown quantities elsewhere. 
Put in at pre-war and pre-prohibition prices and worth now 
many times as much, it is bound to leak out. Until it is 
gone, men will continue to find ways to sell it at the enor- 
mous profits which they can reap. 

Dr. Saleeby's view is that the government should take this 
over and adapt it for commercial uses. Alcohol is indis- 
pensable to commercial chemistry. Manufacturing cannot get 
along without it. During the war he first proposed the use 
of crude whiskey in the manufacture of munitions, a plan 
which was first tried out in the United States and later in 
England. Today motor buses are being experimentally run 
in London with power alcohol because of the prohibitive price 
of gasoline. It is, he holds, a perfectly practical and demon- 
strated plan. No one but the government could handle so 
large an order and no one but the government could be trusted 
to do it. The result would be to make the fifty million gallons 
available for power and for industry and to remove it at one 
fell swoop from all possibility of use as a beverage. This sug- 
gestion, he says, has recently been made in this country by 
Ernest H. Cherrington, the executive secretary of the Worli 
League Against Alcoholism. 



" 



Moreover [said Dr. Saleeby] you must enforce this law to 
protect yourself from your enemies. All critics of the United 
States abroad and those who are trying to make trouble between 
your country and mine are sneering at it as a typical piece of 
American humbug — the passage of a law which you do not in- 
tend to enforce. You should not permit that to go on. 

After two trips through many parts of the country, Dr. 
Saleeby's deliberate judgment is that, taking the United States 
by and large as he has seen it, alcohol has gone out of our life: 

It is a fact that some men accustomed to drink are still drink- 
ing. They are mostly elderly " bummers " — as you call them. 
They are not destroying the home and the race. It is deplorable 
and all that, but it is not significant for national destiny. My 
formula is, protect parenthood from alcohol. What the non- 
parents do is to me only of secondary importance. Youth and 
the race are everything. 

The International Congress Against Alcoholism meets next 
year in Lausanne, and the World League Against Alcoholism 
will also hold its first World Conference in Europe next year. 
The Washington meeting last month was attended by dele- 
gates from thirty-five countries who were entertained by the 
Department of State. The Congress has been hitherto a 
scientific body, but at this first American meeting it got down 
to practical methods of securing and enforcing world prohibi- 
tion. Or, as Dr. Saleeby put it, " The Congress has been 
talking for some thirty years and more in Europe, but here, 
meeting for the first time in America, it significantly took on, 
the form of research, counsel, preparation and high resolve for 
action." 



1 



THE SURVEY 



\ 

FOR 



OCTOBER 16, 1920 



87 




The I. W. W. Judgment 

A FEW days ago the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals for the seventh district — sitting at Chicago — 
handed down its unanimous decision in the famous I. 
W. W. cases, or in the official case of " William D. 
Haywood et al. versus United States of America." 

To the surprise of many intelligent laymen and not a few 
awyers, the decision was sweepingly adverse to all the de- 
ndants. The judgment of the jury was upheld without a 
single exception, although the court threw out two of the four 
counts of the indictment on which the convictions were se- 
cured. 

" To the surprise of many laymen and not a few lawyers," 
I repeat, because the long midsummer trial of the I. W. W. 
leaders and officers was a loose-geared affair and the general 
impression was that numerous errors were committed in its 
course — errors in the admission of irrelevant and improper 
evidence, as well as errors in the interpretation and applica- 
tion of the basic principles of the criminal law. Moreover, 
the evidence against some of the defendants seemed to be too 
slight and doubtful to warrant conviction under laws that 
presume innocence and give the accused the benefit of any 
reasonable doubt of his guilt. 

To account for the complete vindication of the trial court 
and the jury by the three able and experienced judges of the 
federal Circuit Court of Appeals, Messrs. Baker, Alschuler 
and Page, and for the keen disappointment of those who, 
without in the least approving of the tactics and loose talk 
of the I. W. W. leaders before and during the war, had 
hoped for and expected a reversal of the judgment, as to 
some of the defendants at any rate, one must of course care- 
fully study the opinion of the court, delivered by Judge Baker, 
whose liberal and logical opinions in important labor cases, 
involving the question of picketing and moral suasion in 
strikes, have become " classics." 

Some of the declarations and conclusions of the court are 
truly momentous and far-reaching. Thoughtful men and 
women will do well to ponder them, for they suggest reforms 
in judicial procedure and in legislation. So far as the guilt 
of the ninety-four defendants is concerned, the court says 
briefly and trenchantly: 

We find such an abundance of clear and competent evidence 
within the indictment period that we believe the verdict was 
inevitable. Some of the defendants claim that there was no 
evidence connecting them with the conspiracy except the fact 
that they were members of the I. W. W. And several, who 
were not members at the time, insist that there is no evidence 
against them at all. In each case our finding is that there was 
sufficient evidence on which to submit to the jury the question 
whether the particular defendant was a member of the estab- 
lished conspiracy. 

In other words, it was the province of the jury to decide in 
the case of each of the defendants whether there was suf- 
ficient evidence to convict him of the crimes charged despite 
the legal presumption of innocence and the benefit he was 
entitled to of any reasonable doubt as to his guilt. 

»Now, in certain states, if not in all, the appellate tribunal 
clothed with authority to review the evidence in a crim- 
inal case, to determine anew whether or not it warranted con- 
viction, and to set aside the jury verdict if, as a matter of 
^j fact, the evidence failed to establish guilt beyond a reason- 
able doubt. The jury's judgment, in other words, is not 
conclusive. But the federal Circuit Court of Appeals takes 
the position that if there was sufficient evidence on which to 
submit to the jury the question whether a particular defen- 
dant was a member of the established conspiracy, the jury's 
judgment is conclusive, and the appellate tribunal cannot go 
back of the verdict, examine the record and determine for it- 
self whether or not the evidence justified conviction. 



Will the United States Supreme Court adopt the same 
view? Is this thoroughly established law in the domain of 
federal criminal jurisdiction? 

Here is a vital issue that should be pressed for final deter- 
mination. It is the more necessary to press this issue since, 
as a matter of fact, the jury in the I. W. W. case, worn out 
by a severe ordeal — for the trial lasted from the middle of 
April to the middle of August, 191 8 — returned its sweeping 
verdict after forty minutes' " deliberation." It is manifestly 
humanly impossible for twelve simple laymen to deliberate 
in forty minutes on 94 cases and decide whether there was 
sufficient evidence against each defendant to warrant his con- 
viction, regardless of the guilt of other defendants. 

If, then, the jury did not really " deliberate," and was not 
even afforded an opportunity to deliberate, for, as may be 
remembered, the attorneys for the defence committed the 
astonishing indiscretion of waiving the right to make an 
argument to the jury, analyze the evidence, show the exist- 
ence of reasonable doubt as to this or that defendant, and 
thus compel the jury similarly to weigh and consider the evi- 
dence — if the defendants because of the negligence or jaunty 
optimism of their lawyers, failed to secure the benefit of the 
protection the law intends to accord to them, to what tribunal 
can they appeal for justice under the ruling that the jury's 
judgment is conclusive? 

The Circuit Court makes another significant observation — 
namely, that under existing law " a review by an appellate 
tribunal is not a requirement in affording a defendant the 
due process of law secured to him by the Constitution." Con- 
gress might have entirely withheld the privilege of review 
had it chosen to do so, and is free to restrict and reduce the 
privilege after granting it. Is it not the duty of Congress 
to take cognizance of facts, instead of legal fictions, and en- 
able appellate tribunals to correct mistakes committed by 
juries through carelessness, misapprehension or bias? 

Two other points must be briefly noted. The defendants 
complained that much of the evidence admitted against them 
related to matters that antedated the passage of the laws they 
were accused of having conspired to violate. The court now 
says that such evidence was proper and admissible because 
it bore on " defendants' possession and use of the means by 
which the felonies could be committed." This means that 
speeches and articles and letters that were not criminal when 
written, or sent, were admissible because they showed the de- 
fendants had knowledge and instruments, such as news- 
papers, leaflets, meetings, local organizations, which enabled 
them to commit crimes after the passage of the laws in ques- 
tion. 

As to the claim that the defendants were convicted on docu- 
ments seized in their own offices or homes, and thus were 
forced to testify against themselves, the court remarks that 
applications should have been made at the right time for the 
restoration of the documents. Once in possession of the gov- 
ernment, the prosecution might use it, and it was not the 
duty of the trial court to stop the proceedings and inquire 
how the documents had been obtained. This view is amply 
supported by precedents, but it raises the question whether 
the defendants ought to suffer for the sins of omission com- 
mitted by their counsel. 

The opinion of the Circuit Court is, indirectly, a powerful 
argument for executive clemency in the case. No unpre- 
judiced person can read it without arriving at this conclusion. 

Victor S. Yarros. 

TO THE SPIRIT OF THIS AGE (1920) 

Not more power, louder cannon can assuage 
Thy sorrow, thou hast tried all these, thou groaning age, 
— Only love, only truth: — grave-strewn thy pilgrimage. 
Margaret Maitland Radford. 

— Cambridge Magazine. 



88 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER i6,\ 1920 

Growing Race Cooperation 

By TV. D. JVeatherford 



PRESIDENT, SOUTHERN COLLEGE OF 

FOR many years there has been a growing determi- 
nation on the part of southern white men to see to 
it that the southern Negro had justice, fair play, and 
a chance for development. Parallel with this deter- 
mination on the part of the white people there has been a 
similar determination on the part of the colored people to 
continue knocking at the door of opportunity until it was 
opened wide. 

This double tendency has been greatly accelerated by the 
war, and by the heroic part which the Negro played in the 
war. If you talk to any company of colored people at the 
present time, they will remind you quickly of the fact that 
the Negro subscribed for 225 million dollars' worth of Lib- 
erty bonds; that in the United War Work Campaign for 
the various social and volunteer agencies the Negroes of the 
southeastern states gave nearly a million dollars, and the 
southwestern section did proportionately as well. They will 
remind you that nearly four hundred thousand Negroes were 
drafted into the army, and that forty-two thousand of these 
Negroes actually saw righting at the front. They will call 
your attention to the fact that in the examination before the 
draft boards the Negroes showed up fully as well as the 
white, and they will not fail to tell you that the 369th, 
the 70th, the 71st, and the 72nd regiments have all been 
highly commended for exceptional bravery. 

The fact that Negroes had a share in the great war, that 
a large number of them got overseas and consequently got 
a broader outlook, means that there is a distinctly new situa- 
tion as to inter-racial relations in America. 

Partly due to this new sense of value on the part of the 
Negro, partly due to sensitiveness on the part of the white 
man, but still more, largely due to the new distribution of 
Negro labor throughout America because of war conditions 
of production, there have come a number of very serious con- 
flicts between white and colored labor in Washington, Chi- 
cago, Omaha, St. Louis, and various other centers of labor 
population. Even before these conflicts arose, there were a 
number of organizations that were attempting to bring about 
a better understanding between the races, and in certain cities, 
such as Chicago, commissions have been appointed, partly for 
investigation of causes, and partly for amelioration of condi- 
tions growing out of the juxtaposition of white and colored 
laborers. 

In the city of Chicago following the Chicago riots of July, 
1919, there was organized a Chicago Commission on Race 
Relations. This commission was appointed by Governor 
Lowden with the express object of " studying and reporting 
upon the facts of the riots, and upon the broad question of 
relations between the Negro and white races of Chicago." 
Its methods of work will be largely a matter of publicity, 
bringing to the attention of the people of the state the full 
facts as found by a corps of twenty paid investigators in the 
field. These investigators are attempting to study the follow- 
ing questions: 

1. Causes of racial clashes; 

2. Conditions of Negro housing; 

3. Conditions of the Negro in industrial life; 

4. Crime and police administrations with reference to the Negro; 

5. Problems of racial contacts between white and colored peo- 
ple, and 

6. How to get an intelligent public opinion. 

On each of these phases of work there is a special commit' 



Y. M. C. A., NASHVILLE, TENN. 

tee of three, composed of three members of the commission. 
Edgar A. Bancroft was appointed chairman of the commission 
by Governor Lowden, and Dr. Frank W. Shepardson, who 
is director of the Department of Registration and Education 
of the State of Illinois, is vice-chairman. Graham Romeyn 
Taylor is the executive secretary, and writes as follows of 
the report to be made this fall: 

While the investigation covers the facts of the riot, still more 
attention is being given to the study and interpretation of the con- 
ditions under which the Negro population in Chicago lives, and the 
relation between the Negro and the white people. It is hoped that 
the recommendations of the commission will suggest ways in which 
these conditions and the relations between the races may be improved. 

Growing out of the conflict between the races, particularly 
in the form of two or three very brutal lynchings, there was 
organized in the state of Tennessee, in March, 1918, a Law 
and Order League of Tennessee. Its object was to combat 
mob violence in all its forms, and to bring about a better re- 
lationship between the two races. Not only was a state organi- 
zation formed, with John E. Edgerton, president of the 
Tennessee Manufacturers' Association, heading the league, but 
in a number of the local communities, such as Nashville, 
Chattanooga, and Memphis, local organizations were created. 
Large and representative state meetings were held in Nash- 
ville during the year 19 18 and again during the year 1919, 
in which the whole problem of lynching was discussed, as 
well as industrial readjustments which would avoid conflicts 
between the races. Sectional meetings were held in Knoxville, 
Chattanooga, and Memphis, and local meetings in many of 
the counties. 

As a branch of the Law and Order League, the People's 
Cooperative League, which really serves the Negro section, 
was organized under the leadership of Mr. Clay, of Bristol, 
Tenn. The objects of this cooperative league are the better 
understanding of relations between the races, better health, 
better homes, better farms, better citizenship. This league is 
working through the Inter-racial Committee of the Young 
Men's Christian Association throughout the state, and it has a 
paid executive, who is also the representative of the Inter-racial 
Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association for the 
state. 

The Law and Order League of Tennessee has held 
a universal law observance week, with proclamations by the 
governor and by mayors sent broadcast throughout the 
counties, men's meetings, celebrations in colleges, meetings of 
business men's clubs, sermons in churches — all of which added 
to the momentum of public opinion in favor of law and order. 

Perhaps the most significant piece of work being done 
throughout the whole country to meet the new conditions that 
have arisen out of the war is the inter-racial work of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, fostered by the Wax 
Work Council. This work was begun immediately on the 
declaration of the armistice, when there were gathered a series 
of schools for white men at Blue Ridge, and a similar series 
of schools for colored men at Gammon Theological Seminary 
in Atlanta. These groups of representative citizens — about a 
hundred at a time — came together for ten days to study the 
present conditions in the South, including industrial readjust- 
ments and inter-racial cooperation, for the purpose of reaching 
conclusions on what the existing organizations of church, 
school and association could do to meet the emergency which 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



89 



I 









every wide-awake southerner realized would immediately 
arise. Nearly fifteen hundred of the choicest leaders of the 
South — white and colored — were trained in these various 
groups, and went back to their communities determined to 
meet the critical issues which were prevalent throughout the 
South. 

The War Work Council, sensing the situation brought 
about primarily by war conditions, and feeling its responsibility 
not only to serve the soldiers in the camps, but to serve them 
as they went back to their homes, immediately organized what 
is known as the Inter-racial Commission, made up of in- 
fluential southern white men and some of the outstanding 
leaders of the colored people in the South. This Inter-racial 
Commission is functioning throughout the state organizations 
of the Young Men's Christian Association in the southern 
states. The method of procedure is to organize a cooperating 
committee in each of the counties of the South where large 
numbers of white and colored people live side by side. This 
cooperating committee may be either two independent com- 
mittees — one white and the other colored — which meet to- 
gether from time to time to discuss the problems of racial 
adjustments and to see to it that all occasions for racial con- 
flicts are eliminated, or a more common type of organization 
— a united committee of white and colored citizens. In every 
case there is a definite attempt to get white men who are not 
only representative of the best of their people, but who are 
entirely satisfactory to the colored people of the county, and 
on the other hand to get colored men who not only are leaders 
in their race, but who believe in and are, therefore, satisfac- 
tory to the white men of the county. 

There are 769 counties in the South in which there are 
sufficient colored people to warrant the commission organizing 
such inter-racial committees, and of these 769 counties more 
than five hundred are already thoroughly organized and at 
work. It is contemplated that by October 1 the commission 
will have a cooperating committee in every one of these 
counties. Reports that come from these committees are the 
most encouraging of anything that has happened in the South 
for many years. When any trouble arises the committee is 
immediately called into action. By counsel and sane judg- 
ment many racial conflicts have been avoided; the colored 
people have been assured justice; the white people have been 
guaranteed the protection of law and order. 

Another effort to meet the new conditions of Negro life in 
America is the Commission on Colored Work appointed by 
the International Committee of the Young Men's Christian 
Association under the direction of the International Conven- 
tion held in Detroit in November, 1919. This commission, 
composed of northern white men, southern white men, and 
colored men from both sections, held its meeting in New York 
in March, and went rather carefully into the needs of the 
colored men at the present. Some of the findings of the com- 
mission indicate: 

1. That more adequately trained leadership for various depart- 
ments of the association should be provided; 

2. That a nation-wide plan to provide funds for developing the 
work among colored men and boys must be found; 

3. That a new sense of confidence between white and colored lead- 
ers must be promoted; 

4. That the Negro should be given a larger share of self-determina- 
tion in the association movement. 

The commission felt in most cases where the association 
was doing work for both white and colored men that the 
boards of directors were ready to welcome the fullest voice of 
Negro representatives on boards, and to work with the Negroes 
of the local communities in developing the most efficient service 
to Negro men and boys. This is rather a radical departure, 



and bids fair to do more than almost anything else to bring 
about full confidence between the two races. 

Growing out of the war conditions, a number of the most 
important cities of the South have undertaken specific forms 
of cooperation with the Negro. In Nashville — to illustrate — 
representatives of the board of governors of the Chamber of 
Commerce called together a group of representative Negroes 
from the city, and after long and full discussion with them 
about conditions of inter-racial comity, the colored representa- 
tives were asked to draw up in writing a statement of present 
conditions and changes needed in order to bring about better 
feeling. The report of this committee was full and frank, 
and was met by the finest spirit on the part of these members 
of the board. A permanent committee of cooperation was 
formed to give attention to the following points: 

1. Justice in the city and county courts; 

2. Uniform and impartial application of street car laws; 

3. The handling by newspapers of news relating to Negroes; 

4. The improvement in equipment, and in the quality of teachers 
in the Negro schools; 

5. Providing parks, playgrounds, and better living conditions. 

This committee has been at work for a number of months, 
and has effected a great deal in the way of better feeling be- 
tween the races. Among other things, a lawyer has been em- 
ployed to see to it that Negroes get justice in the petty courts, 
and much attention has been given to the just administration 
of the street car laws. 

In Atlanta, even before the war, there was a Christian 
council of white and colored people, representing the churches 
of the city. This grew largely out of the cooperative work of 
the white and colored ministers' associations following the 
Atlanta riot in 1907. This Committee on Church Coopera- 
tion, as it is called in Atlanta, is composed of ministers and 
laymen representatives of all the evangelical denominations in 
the city. There are standing committees on racial relation- 
ships, civic betterment, law enforcement, education, evangeli- 
zation, industrial relations, legislation, public presentation and 
findings. A great deal of good work has been done and both 
races in Atlanta have come to understand each other far better 
than in the past. 

The Chamber of Commerce of Memphis has organized an 
Industrial Welfare Committee, which is charged specifically 
with seeing that the Negro has proper working conditions. 
This committee is giving special attention to ( 1 ) fair adminis- 
tration of segregation laws; (2) the proper handling of poll 
tax and road taxes; (3) the loan shark evil; (4) sanitary con- 
ditions; (5) better housing conditions; (6) park and play- 
ground facilities; (7) better schools, especially along voca- 
tional lines. 

Cooperating with this committee is a Social Agencies En- 
dorsement Committee, which is supervising the raising of all 
funds in the city of Memphis for public and philanthropic 
causes. It insists that no organization be allowed to raise 
funds which is not doing genuine work, and is thereby raising 
the standard of work done by various philanthropic organiza- 
tions. The committee has a full time secretary with a number 
of assistants. 

Birmingham, Ala., New Orleans, La., Greenville, Miss., 
and a number of other cities might be named as undertaking 
similar types of work. 

In any discussion of constructive work being done in the 
South at the present time, mention should be made of the 
University Commission, composed of one representative from 
each of the southern state universities, officially appointed by 
the faculty of the various institutions. This group of men 
was organized by Dr. James H. Dillard, who is in charge of 
the Jeanes Fund and is president of the Slater Board. The 



90 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



commission has been meeting annually for a number of years 
with the express object of studying race problems and bringing 
about on the part of the college leaders of the South a better 
understanding of the Negro. 

Parallel with this, the Student Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation in the South and Southwest has been carrying for- 
ward a rather thorough propaganda of race study. Thirty 
thousand or more students have been enrolled in voluntary 
classes of from five to ten weeks for studying the facts about 
the relationship of the races. Particular attention has been 
given to the social, economic, and educational life of the Negro 
people. In conjunction with this, and through the efforts of 
the association, a number of special conferences have been held 
at the student conference period, when large numbers of pro- 
fessors, representing various institutions throughout the South, 
have been called together for a period of ten days to study and 
discuss the relationship of the universities to the race problem. 

At Blue Ridge, N. C, the official conference grounds for 



the associations in the South, during the month of June, 1920, 
sixty-nine professors met for ten days for the study of this 
problem. Growing out of these sessions of professors in the 
student conferences, quite a number of colleges throughout the 
South and Southwest have introduced race study into the de- 
partments of sociology as regular curriculum and credit study. 
Although the conditions are not as yet ideal, anyone who 
looks squarely at the facts can see that tremendous progress is 
being made in the South in regard to race relations. Follow- 
ing the war, feeling was very high and the expectancy of the 
Negro was greater than ever before in his history, and yet dur- 
ing this period lynching has actually decreased, and there have 
been more opportunities for counsel and conference by repre- 
sentatives of the two races than ever before in the South. 
This is greatly to the credit of the Negro race in its modera- 
tion and forbearance, and also to the credit of that growing 
company of southern white men who are setting themselves to 
the task of bringing about justice and good-will among men. 



Health and Insurance 

By Harold Alexander Ley 



PRESIDENT, FRED T. LEY AND COMPANY; 

LAST winter our welfare man suggested that we 
ought to give health insurance to our people. I told 
him that I was fed up on giving things. My reason 
for feeling this way was because while 90 or 95 per 
cent of our people seemed to appreciate what we were doing, 
occasionally some man would say or do something that made 
me realize that he was perfectly willing to attribute some 
ulterior motive to our action. The welfare man said that 
health insurance was something the men wanted and that 
they would be willing to pay part of the expense. I was will- 
ing to go fifty-fifty with our men on anything they wanted. 
I discovered that an employe, by paying twenty-five cents 
a week, or $13 a year, with the firm paying a like amount, 
could get $1,000 life insurance, $10 a week health insurance, 
and a complete physical examination. I made up my mind 
that is was foolish to offer a man who was earning $50 a 
week, $10 a week health benefits, so I decided to divide our 
people into three groups. Those earning $1,200 a year or less 
were put into one group in which they would pay twenty- 
five cents a week and get $1,000 life insurance, $10 a week 
health insurance, and a complete physical examination; those 
earning between $1,200 and $2,500 compose the second group 
and pay fifty cents a week to receive $2,000 life insurance, 
$20 a week health, and a complete physical examination; 
those earning over $2,500 made up the third group and they 
pay seventy-five cents a week, receive $3,000 life insurance, 
$30 a week health, and a complete physical examination. 
Those in the third group would cost the firm $39 a year, but 
I figured that we could better afford to pay $39 a year on 
these high-grade men than pay $13 a year for group one. 

We decided to handle this entire matter through a mutual 
benefit association, and to make membership in the association 
more attractive we decided to recognize length of service, and 
the firm agreed to give additional insurance to the men on the 
following basis, providing they joined the association: 

Those -who had been in our employ three years we gave $500 
additional insurance. 

Those who had been with us five years we gave 5)1,000 addi- 
tional insurance. 

Those who had been with us ten years we gave $1,500 addi- 
tional insurance. • ..... 
Those who had been with us fifteen years we gave $2,000 
additional insurance. 



PRESIDENT, LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE 

We found this plan appealed particularly to the older men. 
As they were generally the high-priced men and the ones who 
had been the longest in service, when they found they could 
get this insurance regardless of their age or physical condition, 
and cheaper than in the open market, we had no difficulty in 
interesting them. 

But the firm wanted to get the men interested in the serv- 
ices of the Life Extension Institute, because we felt that if 
they would take a vital interest in the results of the examina- 
tion and the recommendations they received we would have 
a healthier group of employes, and that would mean a greater 
output of work. If they carried out the recommendations of 
the institute it would mean better health, fewer deaths and 
less sickness, and this automatically would reduce the cost 
of the insurance. 

We were not interested in saving this money for the insur- 
ance company. Therefore we got the insurance companies to 
agree that if their experience with our company was better 
than their average experience, they would increase the divi- 
dends on our insurance proportionately; and we turned 
around and told the men that all the dividends they could 
get from the insurance company they could have to put into 
their mutual benefit society. They were entitled to this sav- 
ing because they were the ones that had to do the things that 
would improve health. It was something that the firm 
couldn't do. 

The experience of the Life Extension Institute has been 
that in examining employes there has always been a certain 
percentage of cases where the men could not afford to carry 
out the recommendations of the doctor. Knowing that we 
would have similar cases in our group, I agreed to put $1,000 
into the association treasury to be spent in any way the asso- 
ciation saw fit, but we hoped that they would use this money 
to help deserving men in the organization to carry out the 
recommendations of the doctor. I also told them that this 
was all the money I was going to give them and that they 
had an opportunity of getting a considerable check from the 
insurance company at the end of the year if they would take 
an interest in cutting down sickness. 









THE SURVEY FOR) OCTOBER 16, 1920 



91 



We have been getting a 20 per cent dividend from the in- 
surance company on our Group Life for the past few years, 
and I figured that if we could get a 20 per cent dividend on 
the $1,600 (which was practically the amount we were pay- 
ing the insurance company), it would mean a dividend of 
$3,200 — a sufficient amount of money to induce the 400 men 
who comprised the association to try to earn it. The more 
interest they took in their health, the bigger their dividend 
was going to be and that would mean less lost time on the 
part of employes on account of sickness. 

We persuaded the insurance companies to agree to allow 
a committee of the employes to decide when a person was en- 
titled to compensation. The insurance men have told us that 
one of the biggest expenses of health insurance has been the 
malingerer. They have found no way of compelling the em- 
ploye to return to work when they are satisfied he should, 
without antagonizing the rest of the men. But we found 
that as soon as the men themselves were financially interested 
in having a man back at work they wouldn't stand for any 
malingering. 

We have had the service in force now for nine months and it 
seems to be working admirably. The following cases illus- 
trate how the Mutual Benefit Society is functioning: 

The first case brought to my attention was during the flu 
epidemic. The president of the association came to me and 
told me he thought the association had saved the life of one 
of our men. It seemed that this man, who was one of our 
head-office timekeepers, had had double-pneumonia, and his 
wife and baby both had had the flu. He had spent all his 
money and needed additional medical and nursing assistance. 
It came to the attention of the officers of the Mutual Benefit 
Association and they called together the executive committee 
and voted to spend $200 on the case. Then they made it their 
iusiness to go out and find the additional nurses and doctors — 
a difficult thing to do at that time. They succeeded in securing 
the additional help and were gratified after the man was on 
the road to recovery to have the doctors tell them that if it 
hadn't been for this additional assistance the man would never 
ave lived. The man was so grateful that he sent word he 
was going to pay back the money they spent on him in $5 
installments as soon as he got back on his feet. This he has 
since done. 

Another case was where two men on a job in Worcester 
had been found with hernias and the doctor recommended 
operations in both cases. The men agreed to go to the hos- 
pital together and have the operations performed at the same 
time. One was a foreman and the other a superintendent. 
The foreman had joined the association but the superintendent 



had not. One day the president of the association told me 
that he had received word from the superintendent to the ef- 
fect that he wanted to join the association and that the execu- 
tive committee had turned him down. I asked him why thej 
had taken such action. He replied that the superintendent had 
had a chance to join the association six months before when it 
was formed and hadn't done so; they had now replied to his 
request that they would be glad to have him join after he 
came out of the hospital; they could see no reason why he 
should draw five or six weeks' compensation and in that way 
reduce their dividend, when he hadn't joined the association 
at the time it was formed. 

The plan has solved another problem in connection with 
full-time employes when they are taken sick. This question 
of what happens to a person when he is sick or when he dies 
is an individual problem and one that every person should 
help solve. So the firm has taken this stand : For any persons 
who would ordinarily draw full pay when sick we will make 
up the difference between the amount the association pays 
them and their regular wages, just as long as the association 
pays them, and we have given the employes to understand 
that those who don't join the association do not need to look 
to us for any compensation when sick. We have made it 
possible for everyone to be financially protected from sickness 
and death, and if any one decides that he wants to carry this 
risk himself then we feel that we are relieved of any 
responsibility. 

The services of the Life Extension Institute seem to work 
into this plan exceptionally well. 

While the results of the examination are confidential we 
find the individuals seem to be perfectly willing to discuss 
their cases with the secretary before and after the examina- 
tion. In this way the secretary has the opportunity of dis- 
cussing questions of a confidential nature with the employe 
and thus establishes a relationship which enables him to take 
an interest in that employe for months afterwards, and when 
necessary to urge him to carry out the recommendations of 
the institute's doctor. The institute strongly recommends that 
any information the secretary obtains under these conditions 
be treated in an absolutely confidential way. Many of the 
employes have carried out the recommendations of the doc- 
tor without any urging, but others for one reason or another 
neglect to do the things recommended in spite of the fact that 
it would be for their best interest to do them. A little pres- 
sure on the part of the secretary has resulted in a number of 
these persons carrying out the doctor's suggestions. The net 
result has been a decided improvement in the physical con- 
dition of several of our most important men. 



THE LEADEN-EYED 

Let not young souls be smothered out before 
They do quaint deeds, and fully flaunt their pride. 
It is the world's one crime its babes grow dull, 
Its poor are ox-like, limp and leaden-eyed. 

Not that they starve, but starve so dreamlessly, 
Not that they sow, but that they seldom reap, 
Not that they serve, but have no gods to serve, 
Not that they die, but that they die like sheep. 

Vachel Lindsay. 

— From The Congo and Other Poems. 



92 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



CIVICS 



Conducted by 
BRUNO LASKER 



The Need for Permanent Housing Boards 



THE state of New York in its struggle with its hous- 
ing problem is in a situation similar to that of a com- 
munity that confronts an epidemic of disease without 
a health department or a health officer. In a recent 
address given at the City Club of New York city, Gov- 
ernor Smith pertinently observed that although the state 
furnished him with expert official advice on a multitude of 
subjects bearing on the state's welfare, it had neglected to 
provide for one of the most important of all, and that he 
would be at a loss where to turn to obtain authoritative infor- 
mation or responsible counsel on any question relating to the 
housing of the people of the state. 

Governor Smith's reminder was exceedingly timely, direct- 
ing attention as it did to an omission from the administrative 
machinery of the state that must be remedied before the sub- 
ject of housing can receive legislative treatment adequate to 
its importance or to its complexity. At present New York 
state is without any department, board, bureau or officer 
whose duties comprise any study of subjects related to hous- 
ing or town planning, or whose responsibilities imply the 
slightest competence to furnish the state with expert advice 
as to its housing requirements. 

When the body politic is suffering from any acute discom- 
fort, legislators, like any other laymen, are apt, in the ab- 
sence of trusted professional advice, to treat the symptoms in- 
stead of the disease. This is precisely what happened at last 
winter's session of the New York legislature, when, con- 
fronted by a great shortage of houses and consequent rapidly 
rising tents, the legislature contented itself with the enact- 
ment of a series of drastic laws in regulation of rentals, which 
brought about some temporary relief so far as existing build- 
ings were concerned but naturally enough failed as an incen- 
tive to build more houses. 

At the special session of the legislature convened to con- 
sider the housing situation, these rent laws — their limitations 
having been widely recognized — have been reinforced by rad- 
ical measures designed to stimulate house building. Permissive 
exemption from local taxation of new dwellings begun within 
a specified period, for a term of years, was the principal one 
of these measures. But neither this nor, for the matter of 
that, any other form of subsidy to building can be made sweep- 
ing, undiscriminating or self-executing in character without 
serious danger to the state. Some administrative body must 
be charged with the duty of determining whether each pro- 
posed dwelling is of a character to deserve the taxpayer's spe- 
cial consideration — or the very success of the new legislation 
will be the measure of its potential harmfulness. 

What the state wants is not merely more houses; it wants 
more houses of a certain standard of acceptability — as to sani- 
tation, as to light and air, as to surroundings, and as to artis- 
tic merit. The state has enough houses below that standard 
now. The successful stimulation of a hasty, state-wide build- 
ing campaign would, if the building were not controlled, 
bring relief from a temporary difficulty by greatly augment- 
ing a permanent one. And outside of its largest cities, the 
state today imposes absolutely no regulation upon dwelling 
house construction. 

It was with a view to all of the foregoing considerations 
that the State Reconstruction Commission in its report on 
housing conditions, submitted to the governor last March, 
placed in the forefront of its recommendations the proposal 
that the state establish permanent local housing boards, to 
be appointed in each community of ten thousand or more peo- 
ple, and a central state housing agency to coordinate and 
render effective the work of the local housing boards. It was 



proposed that the members of these boards be unpaid, and 
that their initial functions be as follows: 

Aiding each locality in meeting the immediate pressing need 
for sufficient homes. 

Collecting and distributing information relating to housing and 
community planning. 

Assisting in the preparation of housing laws, zoning ordinances, 
state-wide regulatory or restrictive housing and building codes, 
etc. 

Studying the means of lowering the cost of housing through 
better planning and construction of homes, and through their 
proper location. 

Development of a means for using state credits to apply to 
housing at low rates of interest without loss to the state; setting 
the standards for the use of such credits and fixing limitations 
upon the return of money borrowed from the state for housing 
purposes, so that its use shall assist in the most practical manner 
possible in the erection of adequate homes in wholesome en- 
vironments for workers, at a rental cost dependent on the actual 
cost of land and building. This work to be preparatory to the 
final passage of a constitutional amendment permitting the ex- 
tension of such state credits (which amendment formed the 
second of the commission's recommendations). 

A bill providing for these proposed housing boards was in- 
troduced at the regular session but failed of passage. Re- 
drawn, it was again introduced at the special session, but, al- 
though it was put forward as a part of the program of the 
Joint Legislative Committee on Housing and has at all times 
had the hearty support of the governor, its fortunes at this 
session were no happier than they were at the last. 

The bill provided for local housing boards, each consisting 
of not more than nine members, to be appointed by the re- 
spective mayors of the communities affected, and their ap- 
pointment made mandatory. The state advisory housing 
board, to consist of five members, was to be appointed by the 
governor, and placed in the Department of Labor. 

The duties of the boards, which are prescribed in detail, 
follow in general the lines suggested by the Reconstruction 
Commission in its report, but are even broader in their scope. 
The functions of the local boards may be described as falling 
into three classes, educational, advisory and supervisory. In 
the first class are requirements dealing with the collection and 
dissemination of information as to housing and town plan- 
ning, the study of local housing needs, and the rendering of 
reports to the state board. In the second class are the pre- 
scribed duties of assisting in the preparation of local ordin- 
ances in relation to housing, zoning, etc., and the develop- 
ment within a prescribed period of a plan in contemplation 
of the probable future growth of the city with its surround- 
ing territory, and providing for the appropriate location of 
residential, industrial and business sites. In the third class 
is the requirement for the approval by the local board of all 
plans for the erection or location of any houses erected by 
the municipality or with the use of its money. 

The duties of the state advisory housing board comprise 
the supervision and direction of the work of the local boards; 
the compilation of the data locally collected ; the study in all 
their aspects of the problems connected with housing; the rec- 
ommending of legislation ; assistance and advice to munici- 
palities, public officers, etc. ; the preparation of a report on 
the best means of extending state credit in aid of the build- 
ing of low priced houses ; and finally, the approval of all 
houses as to both character and location, for the building of 
which the state shall lend its credit, or as to which it shall 
relieve the owner from taxes. 

From the point of view of housing as a complex and per- 
manent problem, it is not too much to say that the enact- 



r 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



93 



ment of such a measure as that just described would be of 
great and lasting importance to the state. Its effects would 
me, in all likelihood, permanent, widespread and of con- 
trolling importance, for it furnishes a basis — a foundation — 
on which can be built a consistent, far-sighted and beneficent 
housing policy for the state. 

Diffused throughout all parts of the state as these housing 
boards would be, and forced as they would be to study the 
problem with the consciousness of responsibility, the effect of 
their study could not fail to be promptly and widely educa- 
tional. The reaction of such wide-spread study upon future 
legislation would be as certain as it would be wholesome. Such 
a group of responsible local boards, functioning collectively un- 
der the guidance of a central state body, would not only 
speedily begin to mould public opinion through the mere per- 
formance of their required duties, but would in a short time 
be prepared to bring to bear on state and local authorities a 
weight of expert official advice on matters pertaining to hous- 
ing and community planning that could with difficulty be dis- 
regarded. With such a governmental organization in existence, 
no future legislature could face the housing problem without 
having at least the benefit of sane, well considered counsel from 
its responsible official advisers. 

By centering responsibility upon these boards for the admin- 
istration of all state-wide measures passed in aid or regula- 
tion of housing, and of loans by municipalities, the state 
would go far toward assuring itself of lasting benefits from 
legislation that otherwise might be highly detrimental. All 
the good of such legislation could be preserved by enlightened 
administration, and the evil effects minimized or avoided. 
Not the least of the benefits to be looked for from this meas- 
ure would be the series of town plans that would be forth- 
coming, covering every considerable community in the state. 
That would have to be done carefully and with forethought 
which has hitherto been done carelessly and at random, and 
r the first time it could be said of an entire state that it 
ad no large community without a definite plan for its own 
ture development. Most important of all is the considera- 
ion that these boards in the years to come would assure New 
York state of an authoritative source of opinion upon all 
matters connected with housing — a source of opinion that 
would make itself felt throughout the state. 

Who can doubt that the result would be a more widely 
extended realization that since environment strongly affects 
character, a far-sighted commonwealth will take care that all 
its children shall be reared, so far as may be, among sur- 
roundings that will give them at least the opportunity to grow 
up physically, mentally and morally straight? 

John Alan Hamilton, 
Chairman, Housing Committee, New York State Recon- 
struction Commission. 



Afforestation by a Small Town 

LAST spring the Malone Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany turned over to our Chamber of Commerce of the city 
thirty acres of fenced-in land, about two-and-a-half miles out 
of the village, for the purpose of reforestation and with the 
idea of later turning it over to the village as a community 
forest — under a state law which was passed by the New 
York legislature to encourage reforestation in communal as 
well as private enterprise. With the aid of school boys, I 
set out the thirty acres in one day with four-year-old trans- 
plants, chiefly pine and spruce and some poplars, 30,000 in 
all. Probably 15 per cent will not pull through and will 
have to be replaced next spring. A little town, north of us, 
called Constable, started a small park of 10,000 transplants 
at the same time. The community forest idea had its start 



in Switzerland, where whole villages get their living out of 
scientific forestry. The New York State College of Fores- 
try, which is very much interested in this project, greatly 




Medal of the New York State Conservation Commission which is 
leading the mo-vement for community enterprise in afforestation 



aided us by sending one of the professors to plan and direct 
the work. Our State Conservation Commission is doing a 
great work in its different departments, which, in the years 
to come, will be more and more appreciated. 

John H. King. 

Two Community Surveys 

THE Community Service of Stillwater, Minn., with the 
aid of the Department of Sociology of the University 
of Minnesota, has made a survey for the purpose neither of 
" boosting " or of " showing up " the town but of stock-tak- 
ing, and more particularly of seeing whether the best results 
are obtained from the social forces at work within the com- 
munity. Stillwater, founded in 1843, has a staple population 
which has slightly decreased in the last ten years through the 
passing of the lumber industry. It is gradually developing 
into a manufacturing center and the distribution point of a 
good farming area. Prices are low compared with those in 
surrounding cities, and living conditions generally seem to be 
good. The chief lack of the town, however, as brought out by 
Prof. Manuel C. Elmer's summary of the findings, is that of 
cooperative activity. City workers and farmers constitute 
separate groups, business men and workingmen do not meet on 
common ground. The town is over-churched. As a result, 
while there is nothing seriously wrong with its living condi- 
tions or government, it is weak in social enterprises that require 
the common action of all good citizens. 

Lane county, Ore., the community life of which has been sur- 
veyed by Joseph D. Boyd, of the University of Oregon, is in a 
timber district still prolific and offers an interesting contrast. 
Here good roads are one of the major problems; conservation 
both of timber and of cultivable soil are important considera- 
tions of human welfare. Eugene, the county town, is the center 
of hundreds of scattered communities, and exercises its influ- 
ence over a very wide area. People in the village or in small 
groups of villages have developed an intensive neighborhood so- 
cial life; but often it is a good road, connecting more scattered 
homes, that forms the link between them. This, according to 
Mr. Boyd, is an increasingly important consideration, since 
agencies are as yet too apt to limit their activities within corpor- 
ate boundaries instead of extending rhrm m natural communi- 



94 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



ties bounded only by outlines of common interests and intimate 
acquaintance. The social map of Lane county is a road map, 
not a map of townships. To a lesser extent, newspaper and 
telephone have created their own territories of social solidarity. 
In such a county, the need of leadership is obviously para- 
mount, and one is not surprised to hear that in many places it 
is lacking. Population fluctuates in some instances with the ex- 
ploitation of natural resources, and evidences of a progressive 
spirit alternate with signs of decadence. Teachers and preach- 
ers as well as farmers and lumbermen are fleet-footed, and 
often a social residuum remains without intelligent, vigorous 
leadership. In consequence of this condition, too many schools 
are small and old-fashioned ; recreational facilities, abundant 
in one place, are altogether lacking in another, and the county 
as a whole is not knit together by a cooperative community or- 
ganization. Mr. Boyd believes that more intensive local sur- 
veys, enlarging the individual farmer's view of his social re- 
sponsibilities, would eventually make also for a more united 
effort to improve conditions over a larger area. 

Books and Beds 

IN the October Atlantic, A. Edward Newton, the well- 
known book lover and collector, proposes that American 
publishers should adopt war drive methods of advertising on 
a national scale to increase the sale of books, and suggests 
" Buy a book a week " as a suitable slogan. One wonders what 
sort of a house Mr. Newton lives in and whether he has given 
any thought to the dire consequences of his rash proposal were 
it widely adopted. Let us say a young man starts buying at the 
age of twenty. In ten years, allowing, say, 4 per cent for books 
lost and " lent," his hall bedroom will hold 500 books. He 
gets married; his wife, three years his junior, contributes a 
trifle of 350 volumes. On their silver wedding, when both 
are still comparatively young people, the couple will have 
accumulated a library of 3,350 volumes (not counting any ac- 
quired by their children). Now, this sort of thing is, of course, 
wholly preposterous; and it is quite clear that American book- 
sellers if they want materially to increase their business among 
all classes will have to spend their surplus profits not on adver- 
tising but on improving the housing conditions of the people. 
But unfortunately, the tendency is for house room to get 
smaller and smaller. The so-called California type of apart- 
ment (the all-in-one) has already arrived in the East. Since 
here every bookcase is really a bed and every bed, it seems, is 
hoisted up against the wall, you cannot even store a half hun- 
dred books, not to speak of thousands. What is worse, the de- 
creasing size of apartments has not led to the adoption of 
simpler or less furniture; the tendency is rather to pile up more 
and to make a veritable antiquity shop of what ought to be 
a living room. This is what George Bernard Shaw had to say 
on this topic recently: 

After living in one of the "literary and artistic" houses with 
an exalted sense of doing the right thing, one realizes that all 
the time one has been living in a sort of architectural hell. I 
am so far modern that I have come to the conclusion that what 
is wanted is a law that every building should be knocked down 
at the end of twenty years and a new one erected. We have 
got into the incorrigible habit of sponging on the past. 

Apropos of smaller dwellings for those of the middle classes, 
as they call them in England, their experience indicates what 
we have to expect here if sub-division goes much further. 
Driven by taxation and the servant difficulty to sell their 
houses, they have in all the larger cities created a slump in 
moderate-sized one-family houses which, in some cases, can 
be bought for a song. All kinds of subdivisions conformable 
with the law have been attempted ; but apart from those which 
involved expensive alterations with a great deal of new plumb- 
ing, only those have been successful where the occupants of the 
separate sections, obliged to share kitchen and offices, have been 
relatives or friends. In one case, recently described in the Lon- 
don Times, ten-room semi-detached houses in Hampstead 
were converted into separate apartments by the construction of 



external brick staircases; in another, separate entrance is pro- 
vided by enlargement of the basement entrance for the occupant 
of basement and first floor, leaving the staircase and main 
entrance for the occupant of the two upper floors. In all cases, 
and this is the important lesson, the improvements are penalized 
by an increase in the valuation of the houses for taxation 
which often takes away a large part and sometimes all of the 
revenue which it was expected to realize from the subdivision. 

Town Planning in Norway 

AMONG the most interesting contributions to the recent 
international town planning conference in London were 
papers on housing and town planning in Norway by Christian 
Gierloeff, secretary of the Norwegian Housing and Town 
Planning Association, and Sverre Pedersen, a Trondhjem 
architect. The latter described the transformation of that 
old Viking stronghold into one of the most modern indus- 
trial and residential towns to be found anywhere on the con- 
tinent. With the failure of private housing enterprise, here 
as everywhere, the municipality has been obliged to sink 
many millions of kroner in developments of its own, buying 
large estates on the outskirts, until, at the present time, it 
can develop its building program " without being handicapped 
by private interests." The city has founded a factory of its 
own for the standardized manufacture of wooden houses 
and, by skillful planning, has managed to create residential 
suburbs of unusual beauty without costly excursions into 
fanciful styles of architecture. The city is as yet small enough 
(53,000 inhabitants) to make possible the application of gar- 
den city principles to its future development; and Mr. Peder- 
sen has worked out a plan which would limit its present size 
by an agricultural belt, provide for new industrial areas out- 
side this belt, and group future suburban settlements along 
local railroads which are now under construction and which 
will link up with the state-owned railroad system. The plan 
preserves existing woods, utilizes city-owned waterfalls for 
electric power — not only to run the local railroads, but later 
also to supply the industrial areas — and secures for each dwell- 
ing a garden and beautiful surroundings. 

The principle of decentralization was particularly empha- 
sized in the paper of Mr. Gierloeff who, by means of regional 
planning, would deliberately arrest the flow of population 
from rural to urban areas. He was able to describe several 
fine examples of garden village and small town development 
in different parts of the country and the suburbs of Chris- 
tiania which compare in every respect with the best of those 
created in recent years in England. He said that for some 
time the building of new tenement and apartment buildings 
had practically ceased; and that, since the war, practically all 
new residential building was, under the force of circum- 
stances, undertaken directly by the municipalities. Christiania, 
the capital, with 260,000 inhabitants, between 1916 and 1919 
invested some eleven to twelve million dollars in the erection 
of 2,500 houses and plans the building of at least 1,000 an- 
nually in the years to come. With no alternative, the cities 
are forced to subsidize rents — sometimes up to 50 per cent — 
or to sell or let on the same basis to public utility societies, 
composed and controlled by those directly interested in se- 
curing good homes. These societies in Norway, have al- 
ready become an integral and indispensable part of civic or- 
ganization in almost every city. 

There is a possibility [said Mr. Gierloeff] that we may, from 
this voluntary beginning, succeed in making the formation of 
such public utility societies compulsory in all towns exceeding 
a certain size ; the societies being composed of the employers 
within the town and their officials and workmen, the employers 
being obliged to enter all the men in their employment as mem- 
bers of a communal cooperative savings and buildings society, 
and contribute a certain fixed sum weekly which may be either 
withheld from the wages or wholly paid by the employer as 
working expenses, for every official and workman from the day 
his employment commences. 

In this way, combining the advantages of public, coopera- 



THE SURVEY F x R OCTOBER 16, 1920 



95 



tive and employers' provision of houses in a single form of 
organization, Norway is likely to lead the world by her ex- 
ample out of the present housing impasse. 

Line Fourteen Club 

YEARS ago, I think about seventeen or eighteen, a few 
families in our neighborhood decided to spend a day at 
the Illinois River, eleven miles distant, fishing and boating. 
These families were so enthusiastic over their outing that the 
next year they went again and invited a few more families to 
go with them. This time it was decided to make it an an- 
nual affair. These gatherings proved to be such a success 
that people came from far and near. Some thought that if 
it was good to meet in mid-summer, why not meet in mid- 
winter, so about the same families that started the annual 
" fish fry " started an annual oyster supper. We continued 
this for several years, but several of us saw something greater 
and better for our community and so decided to organize a 
club. We meet once every month, and as we meet at our 
homes we limited our membership to those families that have 
a telephone on line 14. There are usually fifteen families on 
the line, so we have a membership between fifty and sixty. 
Ours is perhaps a peculiar club in that all members of the 
family, from the gray haired grandfather to the youngest 
baby, belong to it. 

Among all of our activities what has perhaps brought this 
club before the public more than anything else is our road 
work. Not long ago after organizing, the men of the club 
evolved a system of Toad dragging that has proved very suc- 
cessful. It is the duty of our road boss to watch the roads 
and whenever they need dragging he calls the men on the line 
by giving the line ring, which is different from any other 
ring. In this way all men are notified to drag at the same time. 
Each man drags a certain distance, one beginning where an- 
other ends. Thus in about an hour a stretch of road seven 
miles long is put in fine condition. Our road has been pro- 
nounced the best dirt road in Illinois or Missouri. 

During the war, we took a prominent part in all war ac- 
tivities. We adopted a French orphan. We gave as a club to 
all drives for money, besides contributing individually. The 
purpose of our club is to further the interests of its members 
in particular, to better the community in general, and to 
further better roads. Mrs. Fred Kern. 

Pittsfield, 111. 

Municipal Landing Fields 

A RECENT summary of eleven weeks' flying between 
London and Paris snowed that only 17 out of 166 flights 
scheduled were prevented or interrupted, 14 of them by 
weather and 3 by mechanical defects, and that the time 
schedule was kept more nearly than by boat and train. Of 
the American overland services no quite recent statistics are 
available, but their regularity has surprised traffic experts. 
This form of transportation, then, has already become one that 
must be reckoned with in city planning, the more so since the 
materials soon to be thrown on the market by the British gov- 
ernment, including 10,000 airplanes aand 30,000 engines, and 
the increasing peace-time output of American plants will give 
a further impetus to commercial aviation. 

The subject of municipal responsibility in this matter was 
recently discussed at a meeting of the League of California 
Municipalities. W. P. Butcher of Santa Barbara announced 
the formation of a $130,000,000 corporation to promote aerial 
navigation on the Pacific coast and gave it as his opinion that 
the minimum accommodation for safe landing was a field of 
twenty acres, so improved as to have a solid surface. The 
mayor of Modesto claimed for his city the distinction of being 
the first to provide in its charter for an aviation field for which 
a bond of $50,000 was to be issued. He further stipulated 
that a first-class aviation field must have a grade of about 




OUT OF THE SMOKE 

r J~ f HE Civic Club of Allegheny County which recently celebrated 
-*• its twenty-fifth birthday, within a somewhat modest sphere of 
activity has contributed not a little to render life in the steel city 
more worth living. It has not only put useful laws on the statute 
book but it has seen to it that they are enforced. It has held high 
the ideals of good citizenship and human welfare 

1.5 per cent, that it should not be composed of too much clay 
or too much sand and that it should be so situated as not 
to be interfered with by power lines or buildings and yet as 
close to the city as possible. A representative of the Cur- 
tiss Aeroplane Motor Corporation said that lack of landing 
fields was the only thing that was holding back the rapid 
development of commercial aviation and predicted that be- 
fore long the airplane would be as popular as the automobile. 
Ten or fifteen firms in California were waiting for landing 
fields to do business and were prepared to aid the municipal 
authorities in the education of the public to the necessity of 
voting the necessary appropriations. He also intimated that 
aviation was bringing the different cities of the state so close 
together that before long they would have to consider this 
problem cooperatively rather than from the point of view of 
individual advantage to each city. 

In England where, in the densely settled industrial cities, 
it is practically impossible to secure enough land for landing 
fields close to the commercial centers, much hope is had for the 
success of towers which are being constructed by the 
Vickers company at Barrow. These, which are meant for the 
present to moor dirigible airships only, will consist of steel 
lattice work about 150 feet high and carry supplies and pas- 
sengers up and down on elevators. The head of the tower is 
revolving so that the airship can swing to the direction of the 
wind. It is intended later on to expand the waiting rooms at 
the foot of these towers into hotels. 



96 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



FAMILY WELFARE : SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 



PAUL L 



Conducted by 
BENJAMIN 



Block Organization on the East Side 



THE mixed foreign population of an East Side block 
would hardly appear to be the best material for a block 
organization, yet the Bridge Community Council has for 
some time been conducting an experiment along these lines 
with interesting results. The scope of the work is limited only 
by the fact that it is dependent for its support almost entirely 
upon the people with whom it works. The possibilities of the 
organization are limitless. 

When the stimulus of the war on the country's cooperative 
spirit had been moved, it occurred to one of the workers at the 
Jacob A. Riis House, a member of the Bridge Council, that 
much could be accomplished if the neighbors on her block 
worked together as one organization and helped to further the 
community spirit which seemed so sadly lacking. Consequently 
she, with some of her workers, visited the people on the block 
and met with an enthusiastic response. 

The block in question is a fairly typical one. Housing 
conditions are not as bad as in some places, but they are no 
better than in most others. Housing, however, was the first 
problem that the organization faced. A housing committee 
was appointed whose duty it was to inspect the houses on the 
block once a month and report on their general cleanliness. 
A banner made by one of the block workers was to be awarded 
to the house which stood highest in the report. All went well 
until it was found that the house which, in the opinion of the 
committee, merited the banner had a Polish janitor. When 
one considers that most of the members of the Neighbors' 
Union (as the organization was called) were Russian Jews, 
and that at the time pogroms were the order of the day in 
Poland, the result of this award may easily be imagined. The 
banner could not be awarded until another inspection had 
been made by a special disinterested committee, which found 
that the house in question ranked far below another house on 
the block. For a time all went well and the organization 
grew. Then, one day came a bolt out of the clear blue: The 
rent in the prize house was raised. " All on account of that 
banner," said the neighbors, and no amount of argument could 
convince them that there was any other cause. Despite the 
fact that investigation proved that the rent had not been 
increased during the previous eight years, and that even with 
the additional rental tenants here paid no more than in other 
houses of equal standing, the prejudice which resulted against 
the Neighbors' Union was dispelled only after much hard 
work on the part of the workers. 

Faith was, however, again restored and during the summer 
the block through its organization appealed to the Police De- 
partment to have its street closed to traffic and set aside as a 
play street. When this was accomplished they voted to pay 
a part of a play leader's salary. The work of the Neighbors' 
Union has been recognized by some of the city departments. 
The Tenement House Department has appointed one of the 
workers an honorary member of its staff to facilitate the hous- 
ing work, while the Street Cleaning Department has conferred 
a similar honor on another worker. 

Encouraging as the work has been, it has, however, failed 
in one direction: Most of the organizing work in the Neigh- 
bors' Union has been done by professional social workers. It 
is questionable just what would happen to the organization if 
the assistance of this group were withdrawn. Nevertheless the 
experiment has borne fruit. - 

A neighboring block, one which had, for a long time, been 
considered more or less hopeless, hearing of the work of the 
Neighbors' Union, decided that it, too, would organize. The 
nucleus about which this organization was formed was a very 
small one. It consisted of just one family: a mother, a father, 
their married daughter and her family, and another daughter 



. 



who was really the prime mover of the whole scheme. This 
young girl, a dressmaker by trade, was born and brought up on 
this block, where some four thousand Sicilians live and try to 
adapt themselves to American customs. She called a few of 
her neighbors together in the local schoolhouse and asked the 
assistance of the Community Council in helping to work out 
her plan. When she placed her ideas before the meeting she 
was answered by such a recital of grievances that the need for 
further organization was at once evident, and the Monroe 
street organization was an accomplished fact. At that first 
meeting in June only a handful were present. Since then a 
number of Italians from Monroe and adjoining streets have 
come to have their difficulties straightened out at the Thursday 
night meetings. The weekly dues of ten cents defray all of 
the expenses connected with the work. 

On this block, too, the housing situation was of prime im- 
portance. What conditions are can be imagined when one con- 
siders the mass of population in so limited a space. The popu- 
tion of Monroe street has never been as shifting a one as that 
of most similar blocks in New York city, and it is not at all 
uncommon to find people who have been neighbors here for 
more than five years. The shortage of housing has, however, 
kept many in this district who would otherwise have sought 
better quarters further uptown. Rents have been raised here 
quite as much as in more desirable neighborhoods and although 
unemployment is not a problem, an increase in rent is felt 
seriously. Usually the difficulties have been amicably settled 
by simply showing the landlord that he is violating the pro- 
tective laws that have been passed by the state. Where this 
has not been possible, however, the courts have been resorted 
to and scarcely a judge has sat in the local municipal court 
who has not at some time decided a rent case which involved 
some member of the Monroe street organization. The Tene- 
ment House Department has done much to relieve the almost 
impossible conditions which existed in some of the tenements 
on this block. It is along the line of procuring better housing 
conditions that the organization hopes to work when the most 
pressing and immediate housing difficulties have been dealt 
with. 

When the Supreme Court decided that the New York state 
workmen's compensation law did not apply to maritime 
workers, it gave the Monroe street organization another 
problem to deal with. Most of the men in the families of 
the members are longshoremen. In this hazardous industry 
injuries are constantly occurring and with the new ruling 
there is no set commission to which an injured man can turn. 
The man consults a lawyer, for he feels that otherwise he 
cannot get what is due him. Under the type of practitioner 
that infests this neighborhood the case drags along and when 
the settlement is finally made it is for no more than the insur- 
ance company offered at the time of the accident, and the 
lawyer gets 50 per cent ! Many of the men have come to the 
Thursday night meetings where the block worker has encour- 
aged them to make settlements with the company when the 
amount offered was fairly reasonable, thus saving the expense 
of a lawyer. 

The little block worker on this street has plans in store for 
the organization. She wants Monroe street cleaned up. 
During part of the summer the Street Cleaning Department 
and the Police Department put men at the disposal of the 
organization whose sole duty it was to serve summonses and 
warnings on those who violated the Sanitary Code. Two 
weeks of intensive work along these lines made a great differ- 
ence in the appearance of the street. The members of the 
organization felt that much more could be done if the push- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



97 






carts which daily lined the street with their displays of 
everything from fruit and vegetables to fancy dress goods. 
could be removed. A quiet agitation was begun and finally a 
public market was established about a block away. This 
makes it illegal for a pushcart to come on the organized block 
and, thanks to the watchfulness of the members and the police 
force, pushcarts on Monroe street will soon be a memory. 

A pressing problem for the organization to solve is the lack 
of recreational facilities. The entire neighborhood boasts of 
but one outdoor playground and that is absolutely unequipped. 
Although there are settlement houses within a short distance, 
there is, outside of the schoolhouse, no center of community 
activity. An evidence that a need exists and is felt was the 
attendance at the weekly community sing which was held on 
the block throughout the summer. The organization paid the 
salary of a cornetist and the Y. M. C. A. furnished a leader. 
With the coming of the cooler weather these outdoor activities 
have had to be discontinued, but plans are now under way to 
substitute for them a program of indoor recreation. The 
school is to be used as a center. 

Although the problems of the community at large are the 
chief interest of the organization, the social and physical needs 
of the members are by no means overlooked. Referring 
expectant mothers to the pre-natal clinic; telling how the 
nurse might help the babies and older children ; finding out 
about some youngster who has been committed to an institu- 
tion ; helping to get naturalization papers ; all these are as 
much a part of the work as the working out of a community 
program. ■ 

Who can tell, perhaps these two modest experiments will 
help to find a new way of approaching the problem of com- 
munity organization. Ida Oppenheimer. 

A Texas State Council 

ORGANIZATION of a Texas State Council of Social 
Agencies, consisting of eighteen charter member agencies 
with state-wide programs, was effected at a special conference 
in Austin, Texas, in September. According to the constitu- 
tion adopted, the purpose of the council is " to enable each of 
the associating agencies to discuss its program and policies with 
other agencies of the council, to prevent overlapping and dupli- 
cation of social work, to enable the associating organizations 
to coordinate their state work and work in local communities, 
and to enable them to act jointly in promoting social work in 
local communities." The wording of this section of the con- 
stitution is modeled on that of the Ohio State Council of So- 
cial Agencies. 

The Texas State Council will meet bi-monthly, except 
during the summer. Each of the agencies becoming members 
may be represented by not more than two delegates and shall 
have one vote. Action by the council shall not bind any agency 
participating in the council should that action not conform 
to the principles or program of that agency. New agencies 
may be admitted by a two-thirds vote of the member agencies. 

The executive committee elected consists of Elmer Scott, 
Civic Federation of Dallas, chairman; Ruby A. Black, secre- 
tary of Texas Conference of Social Welfare, secretary, and 
Max S. Handman, professor of sociology, University of Texas, 
Austin. 

The agencies becoming charter members of the Texas State 
Council of Social Agencies are: State Bureau of Labor Sta- 
tistics, State Board of Health, State Food and Drug Depart- 
ment, University of Texas, United States Interdepartmental 
Social Hygiene Board and Bureau of Protective Social Meas- 
ures, American Red Cross, Salvation Army, Young Men's 
Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Association, 
Texas Children's Home and Aid Society, Texas League of 
Women Voters, Texas State Federation of Women's Clubs, 
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, State Depart- 
ment of Education, Texas Public Health Association, Texas 
State Teachers' Association, Association of Family Social Ser- 
vice Agencies, and Women's Christian Temperance Union. 



HELP 


Your House 


to win the flag!! 


Keep Your 

1. Fire-escape Clear 

2. Hall and Stairs Clean 

3. Back-yard and Cellar Neat 

4. Toilet Sanitary 

5. Garbage in Can 


HELP 


Your House 


to win the flag!! 



Handbill given out at a Neighbors' Union meeting 

Other agencies, unable to attend the first conference, have 
indicated their desire to become members of the council. 

It is the unanimous opinion of the members of the organiza- 
tion that this must be a council that really brings about co- 
operation, and not merely an additional organization which 
ends its activities with the preparing of letter-heads and a 
constitution. On account of this emphatic stand, the move- 
ment is expected to effect results of real significance in the 
social progress of Texas, and to help in the creation of a strong 
social solidarity. The organizations becoming members re- 
main entirely independent. Ruby A. Black. 

Training Volunteers 

THAT only war or disaster will produce large numbers of 
volunteers, but that peace and prosperity may also produce 
them if proper methods are employed, is the experience of the 
Boston Volunteer Service Bureau for Social Agents. The 
bureau, which is an outgrowth of war emergency work, was 
continued and financed after the Armistice by the Metro- 
politan Chapter, American Red Cross, purely as an experi- 
ment. At the time of the Armistice there were 10,000 volun- 
teers enrolled. The results, despite an inevitable falling-off 
in numbers, have been so satisfactory that they have entirely 
justified the bureau's maintenance. Of its beginning and 
work, Nell Alexander, the director, says: 

In the fall of 1919, with the arrival of a director, a new office 
system was installed and experiments began in dead earnest. 
Everybody was anxious to know how much of the ardor for ser- 
vice of 1917 remained, but an attempt to discover quickly how 
many of the war workers were still available failed and we were 
compelled to submit to the slow, patient, hand-picked method. 
Of the 639 volunteers who have enrolled since January 1, 370 
were war volunteers. 

It has been increasingly evident that steady publicity is at 
least half the life of the bureau, for volunteers are drawn from 
no particular group in the community and appeals for helpers, 
therefore, must be sent broadcast. There have come to the bureau 
retired business men, society girls, middle-aged women whose 
responsibilities were lighter than they once were, the matron of 
a large office building, a lady's maid, private secretaries, musi- 



98 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



cians, artists; even children have asked to help. A clearing 
house for volunteer service needs to have for presentation such 
an unlimited variety in kinds of work to be done that practically 
any normal individual seeking an avocation among social agen- 
cies may be properly employed. 

From January 1 to July 1, sixty different social agencies have 
requested volunteers for 80S positions. Of these positions the 
bureau has filled 678 with unpaid workers. Forty per cent of the 
placement has been clerical; sixty per cent has been social ser- ' 
vice — entertaining, visiting, hostess work in hospitals, teaching 
cooking, sewing and English to foreigners, story telling to chil- 
dren, reading to the blind, game work on a playground, camp 
councilor and hospital ward visitor. 

The bureau has issued a folder, placed in the hands of each 
agency served and of every volunteer given work to do, stating 
that the bureau gives preference to those agencies which do the 
best training and give the best supervision. Volunteers have been 
refused agencies which are only partially organized and volun- 
teers are not sent to financial drives. The folder explains to the 
volunteer that every engagement carelessly broken hurts the cause 
in which she is interested. "Blind alley" jobs in which there is 
no opportunity for acquiring knowledge or imbibing inspiration 
should obviously not be given volunteers unless for a short time, 
under stress of peculiar necessity or as the first step toward some- 
thing better. Each month blanks are sent to the social agencies. 
Upon these they are asked to report on volunteers sent to them 
during the month — the quality of work done, the hours spent and 
an estimate in cash as to the value of the service given. Each 
volunteer may thus finally be rated. 

An effort is made to increase the variety of the requisitions for 
volunteers sent in to the bureau by the agencies for it is easy to 
fall into the habit of expecting only the superficial from unpaid 
workers. Of the 273 different volunteers who went out to 483 
positions from January to May far too few gave long time ser- 
vice. Even during the war, service was more or less spasmodic 
with the majority of workers. 

During the influenza emergency in Boston last winter 279 
people promised to help nurse the sick as volunteers and 195 
actually did. These were an immense lift to the Instructive 
District Nursing Association at a time when trained nurses were 
not to be had at any price; and 172 of those who assisted were 
willing to enroll with the bureau for continued service. 

The bureau gave two short courses of lectures to volunteers 
last year and held one large conference, but to increase 
efficiency and secure fresh recruits it has decided upon a more 
concrete plan for the coming winter, probably srriall confer- 
ences with those at work and a system of preparation for 
those beginning volunteer service supplementary to that train- 
ing given by the agencies. 

"Suppose Nobody Cared" 

Tf IGHTEEN organizations comprising the Welfare Fed- 
-L'eration of Worcester, Mass., conducted a joint campaign 
for funds, the Golden Rule Fund, the beginning of this month, 
to raise a total budget of $400,000 to cover a period of eighteen 
months, from April 1, 1920, to October 1, 1921. 

An effort was made to bring the work of these eighteen 
organizations to the attention of every individual in Worcester 
through an intense educational campaign. The distinctive 
features of this campaign were the blazing forth of the slogan 
Suppose Nobody Cared across the side of the 
City Hall and from windows throughout 
the city, the graphic presentation of the work 
of the societies through window displays, the 
wide publicity given the movement through Im- 
press and pulpit, and the cooperation of some 
two hundred and fifty business men who \,l- 
gave most of their time during the period of 
the campaign. One day in the week was 
designated as Golden Rule Day when every- ; • * 
one was expected to work for someone else. 
Industrial, mercantile, and other workers 
were asked to work one day. Many manu- 
facturing and mercantile concerns matched 
the total amount given by their employes. 

The Welfare Federation of Worcester is 
the consummation of several years of discus- §L 
sion and of meetings during the past twelve 
months. Eighteen societies, comprising the §|| 



Associated Charities, Bethel Help Society, Boys' Club, Boy 
Scouts, Children's Friend Society, Clean Milk Society, Dis- 



JDUDGETS of all the organizations participating: in the 
£j Golden Rule Fund campaign held in Worcester, Mass., 
by the Welfare Federation of Worcester, Sept. 27-Oct. 4. 

Total Estimated Estimated Balance Contri. 

Expenses Total Ex- 
Last Fiscal penses Year 



Year 

Associated Charities $18,030.90 

Bethel Help Association. . 10,855.79 

Boy's Club 24,892.29 

Boy Scouts 2,327.02 

Children's Friend Society. 34,155.57 

Clean Milk Stations 1,802.98 

District Nursing Society. . 28,083.28 

Door of Hope 2,693.01 

Employment Society 9,873.56 

Fresh Air Fund 3,110.16 

Girls' Club 1,510.25 

Memorial Hosp. Aid Soc. 2,299.00 

Memorial Homes for Blind 5,181.51 

National Civic Federation 2,491.94 

Temporary Home 9,632.54 

Travelers' Aid Society. . . 1,890.00 

Y. M. C. A 161,499.27 

Industrial Work 9,270.01 

Y. W. C. A 67,143.96 

Industrial Center 



ending 

April 1, 1921 

$22,790.67 

7,490.00 

31,792.50 
8,368.66 

46,600.00 
2,600.00 

60,204.67 
7,164.78 

12,812.85 
4,000.00 
2,959.82 
3,145.79 
9,975.00 
7,548.68 

12,598.88 

2,500.00 

193,515.00 

22,000.00 

84,845.48 
4,000.00 



Income from on Hand bution* 
Operation at Begin- needed 



and 


nine ol 


Endowment Year 


$5,690.67 




2,990.00 




9,292.50 






$368.66 


28,100.00 






600.00 


15,200.00 


13,004.67 


164.78 




5,809.40 


1,503.45 


1,109.00 


50.82 


1,005.00 


1,140.78 


3,975.00 




1,720.74 


1,727.94 


4,448.00 


1,150.88 


137,515.00 




4,065.00 


290.14 



$16,«0° 

4,50°, 

22,50° 

8,00° 

18,50°, 

2,00° 

32,000 

7,000 

5,500 

4,000 

1,800 

1,000 

6,000 

4,100 

7,000 

2,500 

56,000 

22,000 

29,000 

4,000 



Totals $396,843.04 $547,763.27 $276,575.43 $21,187.84 $250,000 

Last Year $396,843.04 $238,919.83 $18,251.65 $148,798 




trict Nursing Society, Door of Hope, Worcester. Employment 
Society, Fresh Air Fund, Girls' Club, Homes for Blind, 
Memorial Aid Society, National Civic Federation, Tempo- 
rary Home and Day Nursery, Travelers' Aid, Y. M. C. A. 
and Y. W. C. A., formed the charter members of the federa- 
tion. The special reasons given for federating the societies are : 

1. To increase their efficiency by closer cooperation. 

2. To prevent overlapping in their work by a better knowledge . 
of the field of operation of each society. 

3. To cover that field more thoroughly by a cooperative study 
of the needs of our city. 

Additional reasons given for the campaign were to give wider 
publicity to the work of the welfare organization, to increase 
the clientele of interested people, to relieve the tired business 
man from overtaxing calls upon his time and money, and to 
release the societies from the worry of securing adequate funds 
for carrying on efficient work. 

The A. R. C. in Wall Street 

\X7TTHIN fifteen minutes after the explosion on Wall 
* * street, the New York County Chapter of the American 
Red Cross had recruited 20 emergency nurses. Within an 
hour they had recruited 98. The Motor Corps was at work 
on the street before the news had reached some of the receiving 
hospitals. Thirty-five field directors, men skilled in handling 
crowds, were rushed to the scene in automobiles. These 
men established communications with the police and two of 
them were detailed to each of the half dozen hospitals to which 
the Motor Corps was carrying the injured. 
There they set up information bureaus, get- 
ting in touch with relatives of the injured 
with the help of messengers. The Division 
Headquarters served as a clearing house for 
the names of the injured. Stenographers 
were dispatched to assist the hospital physi- 
cians and workers in making hospital 
records. 

Sixty-four thousand four hundred and 
forty-one surgical dressings, 1,098 hospital 
supplies and 508 sewn garments were fur- 
nished from the warehouse. Surgical imple- 
ments and dressings were bought in the open 
market and turned over to the Broad Street 
Hospital. 

The Chapter has been widely congratu- 
lated for this demonstration of the working 
of its machinery for disaster Telief. 



■1 






■ 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



99 



PUBLIC HEALTH 



Conducted by 
MICHAEL M. DA VIS, Jr. 



Health Work for Girls 



THERE are many people who are not what would be 
called really sick, but who are burdened with trivial 
handicapping symptoms. They do not require a rigid 
directing of their lives but do need some guidance in effecting a 
satisfactory adjustment to business, recreation and home con- 
ditions. For this adjustment as far as it can be achieved makes 
for health. The adjustment may be merely physical — the better 
adaptation of the diet of these persons to their needs, the in- 
troduction into their daily regime of more exercise and rec- 
reation. It may mean a better psychical adjustment to difficult 
family or marital situations. In either case, the responsibility 
of the change rests with the individual. The doctor is merely 
the expert adviser. 

The New York Foundation Health Center was established 
by the War Work Council of the Y. W. C. A. to create this 
point of view in the minds of the women who came to it and 
to give them the knowledge of how to conserve health. It 
also undertook to open up more opportunities for healthful 
activities in New York city. 

It was opened in September, 1919, with the primary object 
of educating for health, not curing of disease. Nor was thi9 
education mere instruction. It included opportunity for physi- 
cal examinations and corrective exercises for bad posture, as 
well as opportunity for all kinds of organized recreation. 

Before June, or in nine months, the Health Center had ex- 
amined between 1,500 and 2,000 women and children, and had 
given corrective exercises to about 700. Between 300 and 400 
took advantage every month of the recreational outings. The 
first 1 ,000 women averaged in age 25 years. They represented 
19 different nationalities and came from 46 occupations. 

Where did the idea arise that there is no cooperation among 
industrial and business women in improving their own health ? 
I think, from their attitude toward compulsory examinations 
administered by firms. Girls have come to the Health Center 
who are employed by firms with the most up-to-date medical 
departments. One girl when asked why she came to a Health 
Center when she had compulsory examinations by the firm 
for which she worked, replied: 

I get no satisfaction out of the examination given there. It 
occupies about fifteen minutes, is given by a young man doctor, 
and I learn nothing. When, after the examination, I am not 
tent for, I infer I am physically sound. But I have lots of in- 
digestion, and pain at menstruation. I'm never told anything 
to do for these things, and I'm not really sick enough to go to 
a doctor. 

At the Health Center, the girl comes for examination by ap- 
pointment. She is not kept long waiting. She is first examined 
by a woman physician who takes time not only to go over heart, 
lungs and other vital organs but to inquire into habits of diet, 
exercise, etc., and to give instruction. Sometimes the girl takes 
this opportunity to tell of mental problems that are oppressing 
her and handicapping her in her work. Because the examina- 
tion is not " rushed," " systematized " — limited to an exact 
number of minutes — all serious emotional difficulties come to 
the surface. And these are legitimate problems for the health 
doctor; for they certainly impair a girl's physical capacity as 
much as any faulty functioning of the body — and even more 
than many organic disturbances. The doctor's part of the ex- 
amination occupies at least thirty minutes. She then passes 
the girl into the hands of the physical educator, who takes 
strength tests and examines for faulty posture and any foot 
weaknesses. This is done before a triple mirror so that 
the girl can perceive her own defects and can be given not gen- 
eral instruction such as "you need more exercise" but individ- 
ual instruction such as "you have a hollow back and should 



have this or that special type of exercise to correct it. Come a 
week from tonight at 7 p. M. and I will show you what I 
mean." 

The girl recognizes that this type of examination has real 
value to her. She gets something out of it and tells her friends; 
thus an endless chain is started. By May I, the Health Center 
was filled up through July with dates for examinations. No 
more appointments could be made, but a waiting list was made 
up which within two weeks reached about two hundred. 

A strong feature of the Health Center has been its gymna- 
sium. The physical examination is valuable ; but to the girl 
the opportunity for special exercises to improve posture means 
even more. Girl after girl who passed through the Health 
Center learned to get control of her indigestion, pain at men- 
struation and other handicapping illnesses, through improving 
her posture and taking adequate exercise. 

The young women who took advantage of the Health 
Center would not have gone to private doctors or clinics. They 
were so-called " well " girls. Yet how burdened with trivial 
complaints! If a girl was sick enough to need real medical 
care she was referred to her family physician or a specialist. 
The Health Center did not " treat " medically. 

The first 1000 girls examined showed the following general 
weaknesses : 

Headaches 59.6 per cent 

Indigestion 40 " " 

Constipation 43.5 " " 

Menitrual Disturbance 50.6 " " 

Nineteen and two-tenths per cent missed a day's work a 
month on account of menstrual difficulties. This means about 
1 per cent (8/10 of 1 per cent) of girl power lost from that 
handicap alone. 

The poorness of posture is unbelievable to the individual who 
watches groups of young industrial and business women 
hurrying energetically to and from their place of occupation. 
Yet on examination, only about 10 per cent have really erect 
posture. The average American girl is droop-shouldered, 
hdllow-backed, flat-chested. 

But the character of her life is enough to account in part for 
these defects. How can a young girl whose parents are for the 
most part city born and bred be expected to show splendid or 
even normal muscular condition when she spends eight hours 
a day at a typewriter, two to three hours commuting in 
crowded trains, one hour in domestic work, six days a week 
through the winter or entire year? Unless her evenings and 
Sundays are wisely planned she is bound to deteriorate under 
this regime. 

The Health Center aimed to open opportunities for the girls 
to use their free time to the best advantage. Camping, hiking 
parties over the week end, tennis in the late afternoons, horse- 
back-riding — all for very inexpensive prices — were arranged. 
To enter into all these activities has meant also a different type 
of clothing. The high heel has been discarded. Many of the 
girls no longer wear corsets — not necessary for the slender 
type — but dress more and more in the one-piece gown. Sample 
shoes, gowns and corsets are kept on exhibition and an increas- 
ing number of girls are testifying to the benefits of simpler 
dressing. 

Just what does the Health Center mean to the girls that go 
there? Take three or four typical cases. 

Mary came to the Health Center because she didn't feel 
well. But she chose the Health Center rather than a doc- 
tor because she didn't feel ill in any particular way. Dur- 
ing the winter she had passed through a series of fears. 



100 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



ON BEIN' A CRUSADER 

{ f f T EY, Billy, <wanta be a Crusader, becha don't know 
f~~M ' "what a Crusader is! Sure it's a fellow what 
"*• gets a gold badge for doin' things and gets called 
a Page and a Squire and a Knight and a Knightbanneret 
just like in a story book. And if all us kids is Crusaders 
maybe our school'll get a big banner or maybe a big silver 
lovin' cup, and if you are a Knightbanneret Crusader you 
get a- ticket to a big show. If you ain't you can't go, 'cause 
money's not 'what gets the ticket. Guess I know, 'cause I 
done went last year and I'm goin' agin next year. Say, 
Billy, that show's the grandest show you ever seen. It's 
gotta Dragon bigger'n a lion and he nearly eats up all the 
sick kids. Gee, you oughta hear 'em scream and scream 
and you oughta hear him holler. He almost gets 'em too. 
Only just as he's gettin' closer and closer, King Health and 
mil his Knights come runnin' in and save'm and kill the 
Dragon and carry his head off on a big spear, and every- 
body marches and sings and everything — everybody that's a 
Crusader. Sure I knowed you'd wanta be a Crusader, Billy, 
all you gotta do is wash your hands before ever' meal, and 
wash your face and hands and neck and ears ever' day, 
and clean your fingernails, and keep your fingers and every- 
thing dirty out of your mouth and drink lots of fresh water 
ever' day, and stop drinkin' tea and coffee and keep your 
teeth clean, and take lots of deep breathin' and sleep ten 
hours ever' night with the windows wide open, and always 
stand up straight, and be cheerful, and take lots of baths. 
It ain't hard, when you get used to it. I bin doin' it two 
years." 

BY this indirect method, the direct motive of the 
Modern . Health Crusade — war on tubercu- 
losis — is being accomplished and good health habits 
are being established among the " Billies " of the coun- 
try. Six years ago the Modern Health Crusade was 
' founded by a member of the National Tuberculosis 
Association. He knew children. As a consequence, 
he founded this new international health game upon 
the sound principle of learning by doing, and he clothed 
it so attractively in knighthood chivalry with tangible 
awards to be jousted for, that the child's imagination 
and interest are immediately aroused. 



When her cold hung on longer than usual she thought she 
had tuberculosis. Just as she had made up her mind to go 
to a doctor she got rid of her cold, but then had indiges- 
tion. This again passed by before she got around to consult- 
ing the family physician — and so on through the winter. She 
had learned from the girls in her office about the Health 
Center physical examination and came eagerly. She was shown 
on physical examination to have nothing organic the matter 
with her. But the circumstances of her life were more than 
enough to explain her condition. She was an able stenographer 
in an eight-hour job that she liked well enough. The money 
she earned, however, enabled her only with great economy to 
support an aged and ill mother and herself. Daily after her 
work she went home, prepared dinner, served it to her mother, 
houseridden for some years, helped her mother to bed and staid 
home fearing to leave the invalid alone in the evenings. Al- 
most always, in a case like this, the circumstances of a girl's 
life can be bettered ; but she has some wrong idea in the back- 
ground of her mind that prevents her doing it herself. She 
needs to understand herself and her situation. In course of 
time, Mary has worked out a plan for freeing herself more in 
the evenings and getting the social and out-of-door life she 
needs. One of the greatest problems the Health Center has 
to deal with is just this relation of the unmarried daughter to 
the home. How willing the average family is to sacrifice the 
unmarried girl — and how trained she is to submit. Before she 
is thirty-five the monotony and responsibility of her life shut 
her in like prison bars. A case like this is more a psychical than 
a physical case — although the symptoms are physical. 

But more often the girl's difficulty is physical. A worker in a 
factory manufacturing underclothing came to the center. She 



was pale and stoop-shouldered, but very eager to improve 
her condition because she wanted to continue to attend evening 
high school, but found her health would not allow it. Her 
life was wholly incompatible with her physical needs. She got 
no exercise except that obtained after work in helping her 
mother get the dinner. Four evenings a week she studied in 
evening high school. The other evenings she spent at home. 
She had few friends, and was never able to afford recreation in 
the form of movies or theatre. 

When she first came to the center she was constantly feel- 
ing fatigued. She had not felt that way two years ago. What 
did it mean? Was she giving out? She felt her work was 
suffering on account of her weakness. This girl began attend- 
ing gymnasium regularly every evening she went to night 
school. She came around right after her work for adapted exer- 
cises and took her dinner away from home. She began shortly 
to feel much better and has kept up the new mode of life all the 
year with remarkable persistence. The change in her appear- 
ance is as striking as that of men who went from factory to 
army — and her petty complaints has steadily decreased. 

To improve physically a person must want to improve. All 
the advantage must be on the side of getting well. And I think 
it is true that when the person wishes strongly to get well — 
strongly enough to do something about it — she always im- 
proves. The center has demonstrated this. 

What the Health Center has attained is a well nigh uni- 
versal improvement in the case of all who have taken advan- 
tage of it- — an improvement that will count in the character 
of the work that these girls do. 

The women who came to the Health Center were not sick. 
They were average well girls. Most industrial firms in their 
medical departments deal only with their sick. They cannot 
afford this personal health-improvement work for their average 
employes. Yet it is primarily the kind of work the woman 
employe desires — the kind that makes her feel better. She val- 
ues it to the point that she would be willing to pay for it. The 
Health Center should be jointly supported by employer and 
employe — for the employe cannot afford by herself this kind of 
individual work. If, however, the employe paid half the cost 
(on a voluntary basis) the work of the Health Center would 
have to be adapted to the real needs of the girl. She would have 
to value it enough to pay for it. It could not be perfunctory. 
When industrial firms begin to see the value of health work 
that makes girls well through their own effort, they will be 
willing to sustain the kind of place that the girl herself really 
values. Kristine Mann, M. D. 

Negro Health Week in Texas 

Dear sir: i am Pushing the Negro helth weeak to be served 
in April the 4, 1920. i was very glad to reseave the letter from 
you as i had bin talking one of serving that day and we are 
working on the problum now eny thing that you can send me 
to help me in this work i shall be glad to reseave it. 

THIS is one of the many letters of its kind received . 
by the Texas Public Health Association, which di- 
rected a Negro Health Week in Texas last spring. Many 
of these letters were illiterate, many written by polished 
Negro students, but all expressed the intent idea of help- 
ing the Negro race toward better health. 

The following lines from letters will show the extreme 
types of Negro ministers of Texas, who played the major 
part in making the week a success. One writes: 

Listen i do not like to make excuse but i have it to do know 
I am and old man i suffer with the reumatisem to i am a man 
i cannot read and write one word would not know my name if 
i would see it. I have some person do all my reading and 
writing butt i will do all i can to healp my pepul. 

Another writes: 

I heartily congratulate you, and endorse the stand the asso- 
ciation has taken for the betterment of the human race, and 
particularly the colored people. I have delivered six sermons 
on the several subjects suggested by you. I believe that my 
people see things in the right light, and that they have been 
greatly benefited. 



THE SURVEY I+t) R OCTOBER 16, 1920 



101 






f/7>-- 




<-ewojJlxyL difavwyxddsAifi} 



Posters from a Booklet Distributed in France by the American Red Cross 



2,000 other communities were 



Picture the old gray- 
headed Negro minis- 
ter who can neither 
read nor write, who 
preaches to his people 
the things which have 
been told him by his 
old "Marster" or 
"Missus" about the Bi- 
ble; on the other hand, 
the young Negro min- 
ister, intelligent and 
bright, yet both striv- 
ing for the same end: 
the health of their 
people. 

Year after year, the 
Negro death rate has 

been greater than that of the whites. Epidemics claim more lives 
among the Negroes than among the white population. In 19 16, 
according to the Negro Year Book, deaths from tubercu- 
losis among Negroes per one hundred thousand numbered 
312.7; while the average deaths among the whites was only 
110.5. 

It has been estimated that there are 450,000 Negroes sick 
in the South at all times, and that the annual cost of this 
sickness is approximately $75,000,000. The annual economic 
loss to the South from sickness and deaths among the Negroes 
amounts to $300,000,000, of which one-half could be saved 
through proper health measures. This amount would pro- 
vide good schoolhouses and six months' schooling for every 
child, white and black, in the South. 

These were the reasons for carrying on the Negro Health 
Week: to help the Negroes themselves, and to lessen the 
chances of diseases spreading from them to the other races. 

The Rev. F. Rivers Barnwell was placed in charge of the 
Negro Health Week, aided by a number of field workers of 
the organization. Each day of the week was specially des- 
ignated by Governor W. P. Hobby, of Texas, who, in a 
proclamation to all the Negroes of the state, named them 
as follows: Sunday, Health Sunday; Monday, Personal Hy- 
giene Day; Tuesday, School Sanitation Day; Wednesday, 
" Swat the Fly " Day ; Thursday, Tuberculosis Day ; Fri- 
day, Children's Health Day; and Saturdav, General Clean- 
Up Day. 

The work for each of the days was outlined by the asso- 
ciation, with health sermons; talks by doctors, teachers and 
nurses on personal hygiene ; clean-up of school buildings and 
grounds, as well as homes and the entire community; destroy- 
ing the breeding places of flies and mosquitoes; stories and 
songs for the children, etc. The outlines, with suggestions 
for lectures and sermons, were sent to the Negro ministers 
of the state for distribtuion. In a num- 
ber of places " volunteer health Leagues " 
were organized and many of these have 
since become permanent. 

The following system was used to 
carry out the health program : ( 1 ) let- 
ters to Negro ministers and thousands of 
others announcing the Negro Health 
Week; (2) letters containing facts and 
statistics on Negro health, with a stuffer 
outlining the week; (3) a pamphlet with 
. full plans for the observance of each day 
in the week, the outline for lectures, a 
health story, etc.; (4) a letter to all Ne- 
gro ministers in the state with a health 
sermon by the lecturer to Negroes; (5) 
a final letter just before the opening of 
the Health Week, urging its observa- 
tion. Special letterheads and envelopes 
were used for all correspondence. 

A questionnaire was sent to 150 com- 






,«««»>„, 




munities over the state 
in scattered sections, so 
as to give an idea of 
the extent of the Ne- 
gro health week. Re- 
ports were received 
from 59 different com- 
munities. Only 39 of 
these reports were 
complete, but this sum- 
mary showed that 
health talks were made 
in 208 churches and 
120 schools, with a to- 
tal observance of 61,- 
320 Negroes. This is 
the total from only 150 
communities, while al- 
organized for the 




most 
week. 

All over the state the little Negro children, who are very 
enthusiastic over the Modern Health Crusade, scoured 
themselves, their homes and their communities, in the effort 
to better their own health as well as that of the people around 
them. These Modern Health Crusaders were formed into 
squads and went over their city or district and looked for 
places where disease thrives. They cleaned up trash piles, 
searched out leaking garbage cans, and did a great deal of 
other good work. 

It is impossible to estimate the amount of good done dur- 
ing the week; but it is certain that many Negroes were given 
lessons in personal hygiene and community responsibility. 
With almost 14,500 deaths among the Negroes of Texas 
yearly, and a financial loss of $24,800,000 a year to the state 
because of Negro sickness and deaths, there continues to be a 
necessity for this health work among the Negro race. 

Wilbur A. Fischer, 
Dwight E. Breed. 

A Tooth-Growing Diet 

ESQUIMOS use no sugar and do not know the use of a 
tooth-brush but they have no cavities in their teeth ; Italians 
use very little sugar and have very few defective teeth; while 
the Americans use a very large amount and have many cavities, 
although they are so careful about cleansing their teeth, ac- 
cording to a Bridgeport Board of Health pamphlet, quoted 
by Dr. Henry Larned Keith Shaw in an article on dental care 
in Mother and Child for October. " The sugar habit," as the 
pamphlet calls it, is very harmful to both the digestion and the 
teeth and should be jealously guarded against. 

For the two-year old, Dr. Shaw offers 
an appetite-producing sample menu : 

Breakfast. Cooked cereal. Crisp toast or 
stale bread and butter. Milk to drink. Raw 
apple. 

Dinner. Split pea soup with croutons. Rare 
roast beef. Baked potato. Spinach. Stale 
whole wheat bread and butter. Rice pudding. 

Supper. Cooked cereal. Apple sauce. Stale 
whole wheat bread and butter. Milk to drink. 

In order to insure against cavities, be- 
sides the diet, Dr. Shaw insists on a 
careful cleansing of the teeth night and 
morning. 

He sums up by saying: 

Diseased teeth are preventable and there- 
fore unnecessary. The principles of dental 
prophylaxis should be more widely taught 
and both parents and children should realize 
that proper diet, local cleaning and periodic 
dental supervision will eliminate the aching 
tooth. 



jit 1U. f>cu/> fltuA •WUJ/VUKA Jj. £onfrtm» 



102 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Price 



THE SPHERE OF PRIVATE AGENCIES 

By Katherine Vassault. 178 pp. 

COMMERCIAL RECREATION 

By Charlotte Rumbold. 155 pp. 

PUBLIC PROVISION FOR RECREATION 

By Rowland Haynes. 198 pp. 

A COMMUNITY RECREATION PROGRAM 

Summary Volume. 116 pp. Cleveland Foundation. 
$0.50 each; by mail of the Survey $0.60. 

The first three reports of the recreation survey made by the 
Cleveland Foundation, containing studies of recreation influences, 
have already been reviewed in the Survey. Four additional 
reports present studies of the agencies in the city. The compre- 
hensiveness of the material brought together, the amount of gen- 
eral information which is condensed into these small volumes and 
the broad application possible from many of the conclusions 
make these reports of interest to people outside of Cleveland. 

There is a distinct need along recreational lines, it is pointed 
out in the introduction to the report on the Sphere of Private 
Agencies, which cannot be met by commercial recreation, or by 
public recreation "which is limited by lack of funds and difficulty 
of administration to little more than caring for the wholesale, 
absolutely necessary needs of children of school age, on the play- 
ground and on the street and of the grown folks in the parks." 
However much the advocates of municipal recreation may take 
issue with a statement which so limits the field of public recrea- 
tion in its efforts to reach adults — particularly in view of the 
experiences of Milwaukee and other cities in the use of schools 
as social centers — no one will challenge the statement that there 
is a very distinct and important place for private recreation op- 
erated either on a cooperative or philanthropic basis. 

In this report the Cleveland survey has shown very clearly the 
contributions which are being made to the recreational life of 
specialized groups by such agencies as the Y. M. C. A., the 
Y. W. C. A., the churches, industries, settlements, clubs and 
societies of various kinds and by the art museum. It points out 
the limitations to these private agencies and suggests how these 
groups may be made more positive forces in the city's leisure- 
time life. Especially significant is the discussion on industrial 
recreation, particularly as it relates to the employe as a citizen 
of the community and to the duty of the employer in observing 
the cooperative principle of control and support of recreational 
facilities and in cooperating both with the group of his own 
workers and with the larger community groups of which his 
workers are a part. One will go far. to find as telling a state- 
ment as is made in the chapter on Cooperative Recreation Among 
the Foreign-Born, on the contribution of the foreign-born to 
American civilization or so sympathetic a presentation of the 
" genuine self-created pleasures " of the various races represented 
in a large city's population. 



One cannot but feel after reading the report on Commercial 
Recreation that in the main Cleveland is unusually fortunate in 
the quantity and quality of its commercial recreation which the 
survey wisely and frankly recognizes as having a large and legiti- 
mate place in the sum of recreation agencies. The report does 
not advocate a transfer of the recreation now conducted for 
private profit to governmental or philanthropic management, but 
believing that such agencies are meeting a distinct need, seeks 
only to secure facts which may be constructively used. Motion 
picture theaters, billiard rooms and bowling alleys, dance halls, 
coffee houses and saloons, commercial amusement parks, the base- 
ball club, lake excursions and burlesque theaters are the forms 
of commercial recreation chosen for study and many interesting 
facts are presented regarding legal control, censorship, trade 
control and other phases. There are persons who may not agree 
that the enforcement of laws touching the regulation and con- 
trol of motion picture theaters and some other forms of com- 
mercial amusement should be a function of the municipal recrea- 
tion department; but the recommendation that licensing power 
should be more carefully safeguarded and administered and a 
definite unified policy of licensing and inspecting adopted, is one 
to which all public spirited citizens will heartily subscribe. One 
is impressed with the broad-mindedness with which the report 



views the entire field of commercial recreation with its many 
problems and the constructiveness of its suggestions not only for 
eliminating existing evils through repression, regulation and the 
power of public opinion, but for making of still greater importance 
the really good features which commercial recreation has to offer. 
A timely warning to other cities lies in Cleveland's discovery 
of the grave problems in connection with billiard rooms, coffee 
houses and other forms of commercial amus.ement, arising from 
the elimination of the saloon. Many of these problems can be 
met only by directing the spare time of great numbers of men 
to new and more wholesome recreation. 



In Public Provision for Recreation the survey committee hat 
dealt specifically with the public facilities of Cleveland as repre- 
sented in the playgrounds conducted by the schools and by the 
Department of Parks and Public Property, the school community 
center, municipal bath house, public park and the public library. 
The provision for adequate play space, the quality of the play 
leadership on school and city playgrounds and the effectiveness 
of the service centers established during the war are all factors 
carefully studied. Certain conclusions made are of interest to 
all communities. No one doubts the wisdom of using all the pity 
space a city has, of providing enough additional space to care 
for the needs of the most congested districts and of securing play 
space now for the future before land values soar too high. Never- 
theless, many cities are finding to their sorrow that they have 
neglected too long these three fundamental requirements. The 
necessity is recognized in recreation administration for trained 
leadership of a high type, for year-round playgrounds for children, 
for increased evening use of playgrounds for adults, for a broad 
program of community centers, some of which at least shall have 
activities paid for by the people of the neighborhoods, and for 
a central administration of all play centers, both of school and 
park property, under a unified plan. Many will agree that 
gardening might be made a legitimate part of the school program 
and the recommendation that the public baths shall be real com- 
munity centers and the public libraries made to function more 
definitely for recreational purposes makes a wide appeal. 



In the last volume, The Community Recreation Program, we 
have the summary and interpretation of the six reports in terms 
of life and their application to Cleveland's problems. The study 
of Delinquency and Spare Time shows there is a connection 
between delinquency and the habitual uses of spare time in three 
out of every four cases. Not " wayward " but " wayless " are 
most delinquents whatever their age. The man who in youth 
has developed or has had developed for him a rich, resourceful 
background of recreative life is not going to be led easily into 
the sort of spare-time activity that draws inevitably to delinquency. 

The report on School Work and Spare Time reveals a closer 
relation between spare time pursuits and school progress than 
between either native ability or economic status and school prog- 
ress. Spare time activities should therefore be utilized in di- 
recting school work as well as in helping in the development of 
•pare time habits for adult life. 

The importance of leadership outside the home, as well as in, 
is the primary contribution of the volume on Wholesome Citizens , 
and Spare Time. Sixty-one per cent of the wholesome citizens 
selected for study had an active play life in childhood largely 
because of the leadership of playmates, of parents, children and 
adults in the home and of teachers, Sunday school leaders and 
others outside the home. 

In The Sphere of Private Agencies, it is convincingly pointed 
out that private recreation has perhaps its greatest value in the 
field of " obscure experimentation " with specialized groups. 
Because of its very liberty in planning programs, private recrea- 
tion has often failed to perform a considerable part of its leader- 
ship function. Commercial recreation will always carry the 
brunt of away-from-home adult recreation. Legal control, trade 
control and social control — the latter the most powerful of all — 
must all function to make it a greater community asset. 

In Public Provision for Recreation is emphasized the absolute 
necessity for a city's meeting out of public funds the wholesale 
needs of its citizens which cannot be met by individual direction 







THE SURVEY fSr OCTOBER 16, 1920 



103 



and which can be handled by the city more economically from 
the point of view of space and equipment than under cooperative 
or commercial auspices. 

In the final chapter, entitled The Program, it is shown that, 
while nearly two-thirds of the problem can never be handled by 
any agency, but must be left to the individual and the home, there 
are many millions of hours per week to be taken care of by pub- 
lic, private and commercial agencies. On this basis a comprehen- 
sive program is outlined for Cleveland's future development, the 
strength of which will lie in the successful coordination of all 
agencies conducting recreation and the building up of a promo- 
tion body closely affiliated with public agencies and with the 
Welfare Federation. Abbie Condit. 



SELF-HEALTH AS A HABIT 

By Eustace Miles. E. P. Dutton & Co. 
$2.50; by mail of the Survey $2.70. 



341 pp. Price 



MASSAGE AND EXERCISES COMBINED 

By Albrecht Jensen. Published by author, New York. 93 

pp. Illustrated. Price $4.00; by mail of the Survey $4.20. 

The vogue of Mr. Miles as a dietary expert dates fifteen or 
twenty years back. He has written extensively on his subject; 
and from a list of his writings it is clear that in the course of his 
work and studies he has become more and more impressed with 
the relation of other health habits to diet. The present book 
concerns itself with mental as well as physical habits, and in both 
fields gives much practical advice, some of it decidedly original 
and based, seemingly on long experience with individual clients. 

It is noteworthy that, in spite of his individualistic appeal, the 
author does not neglect the importance of the social atmosphere 
and conditions which determine health. Still he insists that most 
popular writers on health over-emphasize the importance of 
social hygiene and neglect the vast range of efforts toward better 
health which the individual can and must make for himself. 
Thus, emphasis is laid on diet, exercise, the choice of hobbies and 
use of leisure time. While experts will probably not agree with 
all that Mr. Miles teaches, his advice is stimulating and helpful. 



Mr. Jensen was formerly in charge of the medical massage 
clinics at various New York hospitals, and in the present book 
endeavors to give a " permanent physical culture course for men, 
; women and children." The originality of his system consists of 
a combination of gymnastic and Indian Yogi's concentration 
exercises with scientific massage movements, and especially with 
deep breathing exercises. The importance of breathing exercises 
has made enormous strides in recent years; and the author's 
substitution of them for the use of heavy apparatus, weights and 
strenuous exercise is endorsed by most specialists; though the 
conversion in many cases is but recent. 

Unfortunately, the explanatory chapters of this book fail to 
answer a frequent objection to excessive use of massage, as 
liable to lead to the formation of a harmful dependence on it — 
not dissimilar in effect to drug habits. On the value of the 
specific exercises prescribed we do not feel competent to comment. 

B. L. 

ALBANY: THE CRISIS IN GOVERNMENT 

By Louis Waldman. Boni & Liveright. 233 pp. Price $1.50; 

by mail of the Survey $1.65. 

Mr. Waldman's book is so convincingly written and his argu- 
ment so forceful that the unbiased reader can but conclude that 
the voters in the districts concerned, who believe in the principle 
\ of fair play and the preservation of democratic institutions — no 
matter how unsympathetic they may be with the principle of 
Socialism — welcomed the opportunity given them by the recent 
election to fill the seats from which the Socialist assemblymen 
were expelled, to go on record against the action of the Assembly. 

The author (himself one of the expelled members) tells his 
story in a fair and straightforward manner. He gives a faith- 
ful account of the four episodes of the affair — the suspension, 
the reaction of the country at large to the Assembly's act, the 
" trial," and the expulsion which took place nearly three minutes 
after the suspension resolution was introduced. 

To anticipate the probable charge, that, being the product of 
a partisan, his work has little scientific worth, Mr. Waldman 
in the main lets the official record of the proceedings (editorials 
from leading dailies and statements of prominent men) tell the 
tale. The greater part of the book is given to quoting verbatim 



whole pages of testimony and argument of the opposing sides, 
and the reader is thereby left free and uninfluenced to form his 
own conclusions. The excerpts are fairly selected from the mass 
of material available, and faithfully portray the viewpoint of 
both prosecution and defense. 

It is unfortunate, however, that the objective method of pre- 
sentation is not consistently followed throughout. As the story 
progresses the author occasionally injects his own opinions, not 
infrequently characterizing his opponents in strong and sarcastic 
terms, while describing his own supporters and adherents only 
in the most sympathetic and glowing language. The prevailing 
spirit of the work is, however, not biased. 

In fact a careful analysis of the unvarnished record of the 
expulsion as presented in this book must lead the reader to agree 
with Mr. Waldman in his conclusions — that the verdict of guilty 
was based on evidence which was most inadequate, that there 
was a complete lack of understanding on the part of the prose- 
cution as to the aims and methods of the Socialist movement, 
that the investigating committee converted the trial into one of 
the Socialist Party in general without proper authorization, and 
that it unjustly held the accused men responsible for every act 
of the party solely on the grounds of membership, while at the 
same time holding the party responsible for the deeds of every 
one of its members, no matter whether such acts had taken place 
years ago, or whether they had received official approval or dis- 
approval at the time of commitment. Loula D. Lasker. 

LITTLE LESSONS IN CORRECTIVE EATING 

By Eugene Christian. Corrective Eating Society, Inc., New 

York. 24 pamphlets in case. Price $3.50; by mail of the 

Survey $3.70. 

At the beginning of Lesson XXL, Mr. Christian says: "The 
limited knowledge possessed by people in general of the diseases 
caused by wrong eating makes them accept very readily almost 
anything told them regarding diseases of the stomach and 
digestive organs." Apparently he also feels that they are quite 
ready to believe whatever is told them with reference to cor- 
rective eating whether or not it fits in with what are ordinarily 
accepted as desirable dietary standards well proven by race 
experience. 

Certain of Mr. Christian's recommendations are good, such 
as his emphasis upon the generous use of fruits and vegetables 
and the importance of accurate knowledge concerning food func- 
tions and desirable food combinations. Much of the material in 
the pamphlets, however, seems based on personal opinion of 
rather narrow type, and might cause considerable difficulty if 
followed implicitly without skilled supervision. It is doubtful, 
for instance, if appendicitis can always be cured by a diet of 
" grapes, skins and all, wheatbran, and other coarse foods." 

About twenty pages of fairly large print would scarcely seem 
sufficient to make possible a thorough discussion of the causes, 
results and dietetic remedy for superacidity, fermentation, gas- 
tric catarrh and ulcer, intestinal gas and auto-intoxication. 
Throughout the pamphlets are extravagant claims with refer- 
ence to the importance of diet, such as the claim that faulty diet 
is the main cause of suicide and that " the character of the diet 
wields quite as much influence over the morals and the mind as 
heredity and education." 

The pamphlets contain a number of sample menus, some of 
which are very good and some of which would probably be en- 
joyed only by people with a taste for the unusual, such as a 
desire for a breakfast dish of omelet rolled in whipped cream and 
sprinkled with nuts. The subject matter in the lessons is well 
organized and indexed and its presentation in separate pamphlets 
should add to its usefulness. Many of the suggestions will 
doubtless prove helpful to the person with a good foundation of 
nutrition training, but it would seem questionable if the lessons 
fulfill their apparent aim of providing any person with all 
necessary information concerning corrective eating. 

Emma A. Winslow. 

DRAMATIC DANCES FOR SMALL CHILDREN 

By Mary Severance Shafter. Music by Eva O'Brien. A- S. 
Barnes Co. 63 pp. Price $2.00; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 
Teachers of folk dancing and leaders of girls' clubs have often 
felt obliged in the past considerably to abridge and modify the 
folk dance arrangements in books aiming at accuracy of presen- 
tation rather than usefulness in classes that only meet once a 
weeL The present book is especially designed for younger chil- 
dren who lose interest when the same evolutions are practised 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



too long. The dramatic element also has been strengthened. Sev- 
eral of these dances, we are told, are based on suggestions made 
by children; others more obviously are based on traditional folk 
dances. A very useful addition to the recreational library. 

B. L. 

SOME PROBLEMS OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE 

By Charles Homer Haskins and Robert Howard Lord. 
Harvard University Press. 307 pp. and 6 maps. Price 
$3.00; by mail of the Survey $3.25. 

This collection of lectures delivered by two of President 
Wilson's experts at the Lowell Institute last January con- 
cerns itself almost exclusively with territorial questions in 
Europe which came before the Versailles conference. This work 
of territorial adjustment, which the authors consider the " most 
reasonable " and the publishers the " most permanent " accom- 
plishment of the conference, may yet prove the undoing of the 
whole structure of international agreement built upon its basis. 
It was, as the authors show, carried through by a process of 
simplification of objectives which ruled out many considerations 
which might have helped to create frontiers that will be re- 
spected by the peoples concerned for generations to come. Al- 
ready there are -ndications that a more searching inquiry into 
economic as well as ethnic and historical factors might have 
given more lasting results (especially in Eastern Europe). 

The authors' summary of the principles on which the settle- 
ment of these territorial controversies was sought throws further 
light on the methods employed. Their separate treatment of the 
findings of the American commission as regards Belgium and 
Denmark, Alsace-Lorraine, the Rhine and the Saar, Poland, 
Austria, Hungary and the Adriatic, Bulgaria, Greece and 
Turkey is clear and concise. The book is to be welcomed 
warmly just because the Peace Conference did not accomplish 
(whether it could have done so we need not here discuss) the enor- 
mous task it set itself, and Americans will be forced again and 
again to take a stand on new disputes arising from the settle- 
ments made. B. L. 

EVOLUTION OF THE BUDGET IN MASSACHUSETTS 
By Luther H. Gulick. Macmillan Co. 243 pp. Price 
$2.50; by mail of the Survey $2.70. 

The author has prepared an interesting and well written 
history of the steps taken by Massachusetts toward a sound 
budget procedure, from the early colonial days, through the de- 
velopment of the civil war period ; the pre-constitutional efforts 
of 1918, and finally the results of the constitutional measure 
under Governor Coolidge. The illustrative excerpts from poli- 
tical speeches and journals add decided readability to what 
might be otherwise tedious history. 

Yet, as Dr. Beard states in his prefatory note, the actual 
purpose has not been the writing of history but to present an 
account of actual appropriation practices prevailing under an 
important piece of budget legislation. As such the later chapters 
are of large importance as throwing light on the unsolved prob- 
lems of state budget methods. These chapters put into distinct 
relief what has happened in one state under several plans — the 
hodgepodge committee process, the single legislative committee, 
and preparation by the executive. 

It is an expensive process for securing information, but 
doubtless, when the actual budget practices of some of the other 
important states have been disclosed in equal detail, there will 
be afforded a practical basis for formulating sound budget legis- 
lation for the rest. Mr. Gulick has done his share of this task 
in a very acceptable fashion. Lent D. Upson. 

Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research. 

THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES 

By Everett Kimball. Ginn & Co. 329 pp. Price $3.60; 
by mail of the Survey $3.85. 

Professor Kimball in this book shows the historical origins and 
the development of our national political institutions. He goes 
a little further than some writers on this subject by giving many 
vivid pictures taken from actual life of the real inner workings of 
the government. Consequently this book is not as technical as 
many texts on political science. Professor Kimball comes right 
down to earth with illustrations that even a layman without any 
training in political science can understand. He gives names, 
dates, and places, with examples, with the effect of principles. 



personalities, and patronage. For instance, in his chapter on the 
organization of Congress, in speaking of the unfortunate effect of 
the customary requirement that a Congressman be a resident 
of the district he represents, he says: 

A defeated candidate cannot seek another constituency. He 
must therefore satisfy the local organization and local appetite 
for governmental favors in order to retain his seat. Conversely, 
the House of Representatives may be deprived of a valuable 
leader because he fails to satisfy the electorate in some particular 
district. Thus Mr. Littlefield, of Maine, chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Judiciary, was barely elected in 1906 and decided 
not to be a candidate in 1908 ; and William McKinley, through 
certain changes made in his district by his opponents, was not 
returned to meet the attack upon the tariff which bore his name. 
Another telling illustration clears up the evils of our voting 
system by showing the vote for Congressmen in Massachusetts 
in 1912. Professor Kimball never loses sight of the fact that the 
Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and its interpretation 
by the Supreme Court, until altered, authoritative. He em- 
phasizes the important fact that in all phases of our national 
life the government of the United States of America is a govern- 
ment of law. This book has double value because it is a source 
book as well as a text book. John Edward Oster. 

College of the City of New York. 

JESUS' PRINCIPLES OF LIVING 

By Charles Foster Kent and Jeremiah W. Jenks. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. 149 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey 

$1-35. 

When a teacher of biblical literature and a teacher of public 
administration and politics collaborate on a book of Christian 
ethics, one may expect interesting results. That expectation is 
fulfilled by this little book, and especially those chapters of it 
which deal with Christianity applied to social responsibility. 
"The value and use of wealth," for instance, is a subject on 
which a coordination of the viewpoints of Christian minister and 
student of society is helpful in these days of rapidly accruing new 
fortunes. The problem of a " fair " division of surplus between 
employer and employed is, the authors rightly claim, insoluble 
on moral grounds; but as to the uses of profits they are able to 
lay down quite definite rules to govern the conduct of the con- 
scientious. 

The treatment of the separate claims of family and community 
is, on the whole, sound but not original, and adds little to the 
understanding of personal duty under the complex conditions 
which now often obtain. In the same way, other aspects of the 
subject are treated in many cases without sufficient recognition 
of such real conflicts of responsibility as are involved in modern 
social relationships. Nevertheless, the book is thoroughly 
wholesome in essentials and promotes thought in the reader. 

B. L. 

A. RED CROSS CHAPTER AT WORK 

By Marie Cecile and Anselm Chomel: Indianapolis Chapter 

of the A. R. C. 374 pp. Illustrated. Price $2.00; by mail 

of the Survey $2.25. 

This volume is compiled by Marie Chomel and her brother, 
Anselm Chomel, from a study of the records of the Indianapolis 
Chapter of the American Red Cross and of its various depart- 
ments, to preserve the history of its activities during the great 
war. 

The record is both interesting and illuminating, being not a 
mere compilation of dry statistics, but a study of the soul and 
spirit which animated those who were actively engaged in the 
work of the chapter. The reader is surprised not so much by 
the discovery of the total amount of the funds collected by and 
contributed to the chapter, but by the revelation of the variety 
and scope of its activities and of the number of persons of all 
classes and conditions engaged in its work. Every activity is 
described in detail, the list being too long to be here enumerated. 

Not only in the text is reference freely made to those who 
served, both in prominent position and in the most humble 
capacities, but in the appendices a complete list is given of the 
members awarded certificates for service, of the workers in the 
Red Cross Shop, as well as of the officers and members of the 
various committees. By these men and women directly affiliated 
with the Indianapolis organization the volume will be preserved 
as a testimonial to be handed down with pardonable pride to the 
succeeding generations, bearing witness to the contribution which 
each made toward the success achieved by the chapter as a 
whole, Florina Lasker, 






, 






It do 

Ikctj 

biai 

D: 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



105 



CONFERENCES 



PUBLIC HEALTH 

THE annual meeting of the American Public Health Associa- 
tion held recently in San Francisco, was especially opportune 
because of the present agitation in California to abrogate the 
compulsory vaccination law, a movement which threatens to set 
back the progress of public health in California. 

Dr. W. S. Rankin, the president, dwelt on the need for co- 
ordination of all official and non-official public health agencies, 
there now being thirty-three federal bureaus of public health and 
189 non-official national health agencies. This multiplicity of 
health agencies leads to wastefulness of resources, overlapping of 
functions and confusion. 

Dr. Rankin mentioned the movement for coordination which 
has crystallized itself during the last year in legislative bills, 
which, it is expected, will be passed. The legislation aims to in- 
stitute a congressional survey of all existing health agencies in 
the country and bring all of them under the auspices of the 
Federal Health Department with a secretary of health in the 
Cabinet. It is also planned to make the Red Cross an official 
federal organ rather than a non-official philanthropic one. 

The view points of the official agency and that of the non- 
official agency were discussed in two papers by Dr. Haven Emer- 
son of New York city, and Dr. Charles J. Hatfield, secretary of 
the National Tuberculosis Association. Dr. Emerson divided 
the functions of health organizations into six groups: inspection 
and control, diagnosis records, education, research, treatment, 
and contact. He. claimed that the objective of the official and 
non-official agencies is the same. But the advantages of the 
official agencies over those of the non-official are very great 
especially in the manner of inspection and control in public health, 
diagnosis records, in research and study, and in treatment of 
certain specific diseases. He likewise showed the advantages 
enjoyed by public and official health organizations in health 
propaganda, and in encouraging cooperation of various health 
promoting bodies in the community. Dr. Emerson conceded the 
value of the non-official agency in the field of education, and in 
promoting progressive health legislation. He stated, however, 
that, in his opinion, the future of public health progress in this 
country will depend on the development of a federal official agency 
leading and coordinating all other work in the field. 

Dr. Hatfield, on the other hand, although his points of dis- 
agreement with Dr. Emerson were few, claimed that the non- 
official agency assists and supplements instead of supplanting the 
official agency. He also spoke of the inadequacy of many of the 
present official agencies, with their uncertain appropriation and, 
at times, inefficient leadership as well as frequent political per- 
sonnel changes. 

The health center, its present status, its relation to other 
agencies, its value in the urban communities, was intensely dis- 
cussed. Dr. Ira S. Wile of New York city, emphasized the need 
for preventive medicine and for medical service along social lines. 
He claimed that socialization of medicine means likewise its 
democratization. 

Dr. W. H. Brown, associate director, department of health, 
American Red Cross, and Dr. Philip S. Piatt, director New 
Haven, (Conn.) health center, also presented papers on the sub- 
ject. Dr. Piatt in his paper, Is the Health Center a Health 
Center or a Disease Center? brought out a new point in his claim 
that a health center should not have any curative purpose but 
concentrate its efforts upon preventive activities. 

Dr. George M. Price of the Joint Board of Sanitary Control, 
made a plea for an industrial basis for the health center on the 
ground that the ties of the shop, factory, industry and labor or- 
ganizations are much more potent, especially in urban and indus- 
trial communities, than the local ties upon which health centers 
are usually based. 

One hundred thousand babies under one month old die each 
year in the United States; another 100,000 babies are still-born; 
this makes a total of 200,000 infants that are lost to the country 
each year largely because of the poor physical condition of 
mothers during pregnancy or the poor obstetrical service they 
receive, said Dr. Louis I. Dublin, statistician of the Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Company. The control of this waste of life 
is the chief public health problem of the present day, according 
to Dr. Dublin; almost every other health problem has been at- 
tacked with good results but this one of early infant mortality is 



still unsolved. Little or no progress has been made because the 
right methods of conserving lives have not been tried. Dr. 
Dublin insisted that this heavy loss every year is largely preven- 
table; that it is necessary only to establish in each town a ma- 
ternity clinic where mothers can receive instruction in the hygiene 
pertaining to pregnancy. Pre-natal care when properly carried 
out results in a reduction of more than half of the deaths of 
mothers from confinement and of babies during the first month 
of life. This, he explained, has been the experience of the Ma- 
ternity Center Association of New York city, which is working 
out a demonstration in the proper methods of caring for expec- 
tant mothers. Its excellent results show that its work is feasible 
in every community of the United States. Just as milk stations 
were established during the last twenty years for the saving of 
older babies, so these maternity centers must be organized for 
the saving of the babies in the more dangerous first month of 
life and to insure their being born alive. 



GEORGE W. NASMYTH 



DR. GEORGE W. NASMYTH, who died recently in Geneva, 
was one of the most ardent of workers for social and inter- 
national betterment. Hardly was he out of college when he 
became interested in the promotion of international good-will. 
As a student in the German universities he undertook the forma- 
tion of student groups to study the whole subject of better inter- 
national relationships. This experiment was so successful that 
for several years he devoted his time to visiting the student 
centers of Europe and Asia, and coming home to America, or- 
ganized in this country the chain of clubs in the various universi- 
ties, where students from every nation might come together, not 
only for mutual acquaintance but for the free and frank discus- 
sion of the things that made for war and peace. 

The outgrowth of this work was a series of annual conferences 
held at various university centers, which brought together several 
hundred students who had the modern vision of an organized 
world and of a community life which could rise above nationality. 
Many of the present workers for international good-will got 
their first impulse in these meetings. 

After a while Dr. Nasmyth became connected with the World 
Peace Foundation of Boston and devoted himself to lecturing, 
especially in universities, and to writing literature upon the gen- 
eral subject of international peace. His book, Social Progress 
and the Darwinian Theory: A Study of Force as a Factor in 
Human Relations, was recognized as a contribution to the science 
of international politics. 

In 1919, the World Alliance for International Friendship 
Through the Churches secured the services of Dr. Nasmyth as 
its international organizer. In this work he spent the last year 
of his life. He met with remarkable success and has begun a 
work which promises to be one of the most important factors in 
the establishment of the new international order. He visited 
practically every country of Europe, spending several weeks in 
each country, and established national councils made up of the 
officers and leaders of the various denominations, each of these 
councils being the division of the international organization of 
the World Alliance. 

Dr. Nasmyth's last and crowning work was to bring together 
all of these councils at St. Beattenberg, near Interlaken, for a 
four days' conference. It was a great success and included 
delegates from the Greek Church who met with delegates of 
the Western Church for the first time in many years. Taken 
altogether it was probably as fine a group of men as has assembled 
since the war. 

Dr. Nasmyth was also intensely interested in social and economic 
problems, and on his way to the Continent last year spent some 
time in England holding conferences with Mr. Smillie, Mr. Lans- 
bury, and other prominent leaders of the labor movement. He 
also came in contact in every country which he visited with the 
leaders, not only of the labor movement but also of the various 
new political parties. He had cherished the idea of getting into 
Russia this coming winter that he might make a first-hand study 
of the workings of Sovietism in that country. 

A man of a gentle, childlike nature, Dr. Nasmyth was loved 
wherever he went. He died in Geneva of typhoid fever. The 
body was brought to this country last week. Funeral services 
were held at Sage Chapel, Cornell University. 

Frederick Lynch. 



106 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



COMMUNICATIONS 



THE DISTRICT PRISON 

To THE Editor: For a number of years I have been a regu- 
lar and interested reader of the Survey; I have considered it one 
of my most authentic sources of information and have been 
most heartily in accord with its policy. It was with the ut- 
most astonishment, therefore, and chagrin, that I read in the 
issue before the last (August 16) your report of the admirable 
( ?) prison conditions existing in the District of Columbia. 

I was astonished and chagrined because I would never have 
believed that the Survey would permit an article to go through 
upon such a flimsy and superficial investigation. And in this par- 
ticular instance I have thorough and personal knowledge of the 
facts so I know that only the most superficial — or prejudiced — 
investigation could have admitted of the conclusions reached in 
that article. 

In January 1919, only last year, I gained my personal ex- 
perience on this question through a sentence served in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia Jail, then under the direction of Superintendent 
Zinkham — and of Commissioner Brownlow, of course. I was 
one of the later suffrage prisoners and because of that was sup- 
posed to have seen a somewhat brighter side of jail life than did 
other unfortunate inmates. The investigations and exposures of 
the early suffragists who were held in government prisons in 
1917 and 1918 were responsible for a sort of hasty and frenzied 
" whitewashing " prior to the unexpected advent of more suf- 
frage victims a year later. That meant a superficial washing out 
of the particular cells assigned to us, nothing else. A little paint 
or whitewash or water may be very effective sometimes, but it is 
scarcely adequate to cover up the vileness of many years of such 
prison conditions — especially when applied only in spots. 

I know absolutely that no jail can be said to be managed after 
a modern and scientific and humane system when its inmates are 
subjected to the sort of rotten insanitition that I saw accepted 
as a matter of course in the bath room of the women's ward in 
the District of Columbia jail; subjected to foul odors, almost 
total lack of fresh air and infection from loathsome disease in 
their every-day living quarters; fed regularly on the vile sort of 
food that was offered us, a few months of which had turned the 
white girl prisoners there into emaciated, alabaster-faced crea- 
tures, listless and energyless. I know that no system which 
herds a hundred or more prisoners, white and black, well and in- 
fectiously diseased, hardened criminals and young girls only under 
suspicion and yet awaiting trial, in the same restricted, common 
ward, can be called scientific or humane or even decent. And 
yet prisons run after this fashion are pointed to in the article 
printed in the Survey as models for the country and for the 
world. 

This of course is the sanitary aspect only. As to brutality, 
both gross and petty, as to poor and inefficient management, as 
to totally neglectful and incompetent medical attention, any one 
conversant with inside conditions could say much. The ex- 
posures made by the National Woman's Party of general con- 
ditions in the District prisons which housed its members arrested 
for picketing the White House are available to any honest in- 
vestigator and give facts in full detail. Moreover, no person 
interested in investigating prison conditions in the District of Co- 
lumbia could be ignorant that such exposures had been made 
and would form a very valuable addition to the sum of available 
information on the subject. Whether their nature was known 
or not beforehand, they could have been reviewed. In your ar- 
ticle, purporting to be a fair investigation of prison conditions 
there, such exposures were totally ignored. This to me was a 
most amazing thing — that anyone should imagine for one mo- 
ment that they had secured a fair aspect of such conditions by 
taking one point of view only — that of the commissioners in 
charge of the prisons — and ignoring the testimony of actual 
inmates. 

It was because of this, — that a journal with your reputation 
for authenticity and fairness should sponsor so ill-advised an 
article, an article which so many individuals have had ample 
opportunity to know is untrue, as I have, — that I have been moved 
to write to you and protest. To women who feel that the next 
most important step to be taken is the cleaning up of our prisons 
and who are now ready to give their energies to that movement, 
such an article can appear as nothing short of a calamity. It gives 
the general impression that conditions need no changing, no bet- 
tering, and makes initial efforts in that direction infinitely more 



difficult. This is the most serious phase of the whole matter and 
one that I trust will appeal to you, whose sole aim as a magazine 
is the promotion of better social conditions. 
Great Notch, N. J. Elizabeth Green Kalb. 



To the Editor: We have become so accustomed to looking 
to the Survey for a judicial and truthful account of social condi- 
tions that the article on the prison system of the District of Co- 
lumbia in your mid-August number was greeted with no small 
interest. For many this interest has been converted into sur- 
prise. 

The report of the National Committee on Prisons and Prison 
Labor might prove most convincing, had we not had first-hand 
information about the prisons here. The suffragist pickets have 
given to some of us an account of the prison system of the Dis- 
trict that is not as flattering as that of the committee with its 
impressive charts and graphs. The story of their experience dur- 
ing the period of their imprisonments from July, 191 7, to Feb- 
ruary, 1919, has given women all over this country a good deal 
to think about concerning the human and decent side of the prison 
system of the District. The protests raised by the suffragists 
against the conditions they found here were published widely. 
Were these protests without cause? If they were not, the usual 
accuracy of the Survey is called into question in the publication 
of an article which so highly commends a prison system that was 
attacked by over 200 intelligent women who went into the jails 
without any bias against the management. 

It was not my fortune to be one of the prisoners, but members 
of my family are among those who suffered imprisonment, and to- 
day are suffering physical ills as the result of a few days in the 
district prisons. 

No prison system can be perfect or nearly perfect if the pris- 
oners suffer in health as the result of a few days in prison. The 
kitchens, the toilets, the plumbing arrangements are as important 
a part of the system as the farm, the shops, the docks and ship- 
yards. Until this domestic side of the penal institutions of the 
District of Columbia receives attention, I trust the day is far 
distant when our prison system can be exhibited as a model for 
the States and foreign countries. Emma Wold. 

Washington. 



I 






To the Editor: It is to be regretted that the militant suf- 
fragettes did not read the official report of the Penal System of 
the District of Columbia before commenting upon my article in 
the August 15 issue of the Survey. It is to be regretted also 
that the Survey's rough paper does not carry half-tones so that 
it might have been possible to reproduce from the report photo- 
graphs contrasting former workhouse conditions with the new 
Occoquan. These would have answered effectively the statement 
that no progress has been made in the District penal system. 
Perhaps the representatives of the National Woman's Party will 
regret that their refusal to cooperate in an unprejudiced investi- 
gation of Occoquan at the time the White House pickets were 
confined there caused the postponement for more than a year of 
the survey finally made by the National Committee on Prisons 
and Prison Labor. 

During this period we have been in touch with the prison af- 
fairs in the District of Columbia. Its imperfections have been 
frequently aired. When we were asked to make constructive 
recommendations we naturally dealt with present and future con- 
ditions. Fundamentals were stressed in the report and personal- 
ities were omitted. The formal report is intended primarily for 
the information of Congress in important matters requiring legis- 
lative action. Details of administration, such as toilet and plumb- 
ing arrangements, food and discipline, have been taken up with 
the administrative officials, who have been changed since the time 
of the suffragettes' imprisonment. 

We are glad to know that there are, as one of the writers 
says, " women who feel that the next most important step to be 
taken is the cleaning up of our prisons." It is only fair to advise 
them, however, that in attacking the problem of Occoquan they 
face the problem of the misdemeanants confined in 2,500 county 
jails in the United States. County jails have been " cleaned up " 
spasmodically during the last hundred years but without much 
improvement. Fundamental changes in the entire system are de- 
manded. The District of Columbia workhouse at Occoquan 
shows notable progress. It is time for everybody to cooperate in 
bringing the county jails, in the country at least, to the level 
which Occoquan has attained. Oliver Hoyem. 

Executive Secretary, Washington Bureau, National Committee 
on Prisons and Prison Labor. 



le 



Harding and Coolidge 





stand for 



Good wages for good work. 

Fair profit and full encourage- 
ment for business enterprise. 

Restoration of the nation's credit, 
now disgraced by the low value 
of Government bonds. 

Good pay and full protection for 
American workmen. 

No foreign flag and no foreign 
council sharing power in the 
United States. 



They will concern themselves with im- 
mediate problems — not fancy theories. 
They are of the people and for the peo' 
pie — old-time Americans who place 
their faith in the Declaration of 
Independence. 

When you send them to Washington, 
there they will work for you. They will 
protect you and yours from foreign 
entanglements. 



n 



Good times* 9 will come with a change. 



Let's be done with wiggle and wobble 



Republican National Committee 



ADVERTISEMENT 



107 






108 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 






THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



rHE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION I 

. professional organization of tour thousand 
members. Following Ite war work It le enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known if tbt 
• Books for Everybody " movement for wblcb 
it le making an appeal for a two million dollar 
fund. It Is rendering library service to tbt 
Merchant Marine, Coast Guard and Lighthouses 
and plana to promote libraries for the slxt? 
million people now wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; to belp business concerns and 
factories to establish libraries In their plants 
to promote the use of good books on American 
Ideals and tradlttons 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF HOSPI- 
TAL SOCIAL, WORKERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, 
pres. ; Social Service Department, Massachusetts 
General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Ml*.- 
Ruth V. Emerson, sec'y; National Headquarters, 
American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. Organ- 
ization to promote development of social work 
In hospitals and dispensaries. Annual meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR COMMUNITY 
ORGANIZATION — El wood Street, Secretary. 
1105 Starks Building, Louisville, Ky., furnisher 
Information and advises on establishment and 
development of community councils, councils of 
social agencies, and financial and social federa- 
tions. Exchanges material and information 
among its members. Trains executives for 
community organization. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOIl 
LEGISLATION — John B. Andrews, sec'y; 1X1 
E. 21rd St., New York. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men's compensation, health Insurance; oot 
day's rast in seven, efficient law enforcement 
AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION, 
formerly AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND 
PREVENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— 
Gertrude B. Knipp, exec. Sec'y; 1211 Cathedra; 
8l , Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; birth registration; maternal nurs 
ing; Infant welfar* consultations; care of cbll- 
lre:i ol ;re-acbool age and school age. 
AMERICAN CITY BUREAU — An Agency for 
•rganlzlng and strengthening Chambers ol 
Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic anO 
commercial organizations; and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership 
Address our nearest office — 
Tribune Building, New York. 
121 W. Madison Street, Chicago 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 
AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION — Miss Lenna F. Cooper, Sec'y, Battle 
Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organ- 
ized for betterment of conditions in home, 
schools, institutions and community. Pub- 
lishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
Sec'y; 1417 Locust St., Phila. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles to Review and other publications), SI. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — 10S W. 40th St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal disease*, 
and the promotion of sound sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re 
quest. Annual membership dues, $2.00. Mem- 
berships Include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dlr. 
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Frank J. Osborne, exec, sec'y: 
it W. 46tb St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatmeat and prevention. Publications fre» 
en request. Annual membership dues. $6. 
CANADIAN CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC WEL- 
FARE — President J. Howard Falk ; General 
Secretary, F. N. Stapleford, 189 Church Street, 
Toronto. Next meeting, Montreal, September, 
1921. Annual fee $1.00. A yearly meeting to 
discuss the problems of public welfare. Com- 
mittees on Health, The Family, Immigration. 
Housing, Industrial Relations, Recreation. 
CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMER 
ICA — 16R Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L 
Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean. 
Director. To arouse public interest in the 
health of school children; to encourage the 
systematic teaching of health in the schools; 
to develop new methods of interesting children 
In the forming of health habits; to publish and 
distribute pamphlets for teachers and public 
Bealtb workers and health literature for chil- 
dren; r«> advise in organization of local child 
health programme. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED)— 
1 Madison Ave., New York. Organized In Feb- 
ruary, 1919, to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of all 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
best advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While Community Service (Incorporated) 
■sIds In organizing the work. In planning the 
program and raising the funds, and will, if de- 
sired, serve In an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, de- 
termines policies and assumes complete control 
•i the local work. Joseph Lee. pres.: H. S. 
Braucher. sec'y. 



CLGEN1C8 REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mien 
bancellor Davlo. Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H 
Mellogg secy, Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y 
4 public service for knowledge about bumsc 
nberltances. neredltary Inventory and eugenic 
Dossi bllif.es. Literature free 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCBES Ot 
CHRIST IN AMERICA — Constituted by 11 
Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles 3 
Macfarland. gen'l sec'y: 105 E. 22nd St.. N«« 
York 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv 
ice; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'* 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research secy. 
Miss Inez Cavert, ass't research sec'y 
Commission on International Justice inn 

Goodwill; Rov. Henry a. Atkinson, sec'y 
Commission on Church and Country L1I* . 
Rev. Edmund de S Brunner. exec, secy . 
Rev. C. O. Gill, field sec'y. 
Commission on Relations wltb France ano 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
glum. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J Browi. 
105 East 22nd Street. New York. 
HAMPTON INSTITUTE! — J. E. Gregg, prlnci 
pal; G. P. Pbenix, vice-pres. ; F. H. Rogers, 
treas. ; W H. Scovllle, sec'y; Hampton, Va 
Trains Indian and Negro youth Neither » 
State nor a Government pcbool Free lllus- 
■rated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 14* 
Henry St., New York; Etta Lasker Rosensohn 
ehm. Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, ad- 
vises, guides. International system of safe 
guarding. Conducts National Americanization 
program. 

THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DIS- 
ABLED MEN— John Culbert Faries, dir., 101 
East 23rd St., New York. Maintains free indus- 
trial training classes and employment bureau; 
makes artificial limbs and appliances; publishes 
literature on work for the handicapped; gives 
advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of 
disabled persons and cooperates with other 
social agencies in plans to put the disabled man 
" back on the payroll." 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laldler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue 
New York City. Object — to promote an intelli- 
gent interest In Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership $3, $5, and 
$25; Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review " 
Special rates for students. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; James W. Johnson, acting 
sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to 
colored Americans the common rights of Ameri- 
can citizenship. Furnishes in formation regard- 
ing race problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 
90.000 with 314 branches. Membership, $1 up- 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TRAVELERS 
AID SOCIETIES — Gilbert Colgate, pres.; Rush 
Taggart, treas.; Virgil V. Johnson, sec'y.; 26 
West 43rd St., New York. Composed of social 
agencies working to guide and protect travelers, 
especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 
NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG 
WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social, Intellectual, moral and spiritual In- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and social edu- 
cation; camps; restrooms, room registries, 
boarding bouses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 
seas work. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R Lovejoy, sec'y; 106 East 22d St., New 
York, 35 Stat6 branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural Investigations; legislation; studies of 
administration; education; delinquency; health; 
recreation; children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs 
slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, 
LNC. — Cbas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material which visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups In community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 
paigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOB MENTAL 
HYGIENE — Dr. Walter B. James, pres. ; Dr 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dlr.; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors. Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V, Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 
60 Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. " Mental Hygiene " : quar. ; $2 a year. 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOB THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; George D. Eaton, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 111 East 22nd 
St.. New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities 
at cost. Includes New York 8tate Committee 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 

— Robert A Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boa- 
ton Develops broad forms of comparative 
study *nd concerted action In city, state and 
nation tot meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work: seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of nelghber- 
hood lire 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
— Allen T Burns, pres., New York; W. H. 
Parker gen. sec y, 116 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago General organization to discuss prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and Increase effi- 
ciency >r agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
uuai meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership 11. 48tk 
annual meeting Milwaukee, June 22-29, 1921. 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children — J. Prentice Murphy, Philadelphia. 
Delinquents and Correction — Mrs Martha V. 

Falconer. Philadelphia. 
Health — Dr. Richard Bolt, Baltimore. 
Public Agencies and Institution* — R F. Beasley, 

Raleigh 
The Family — Frances Taussig, New York. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions — Soph- 

onisba P. Breckinridge, Chicago. 
The Local Community — Howard S. Braucher, 

New Voik. 
Mental Hygiene— Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, New 

York. 
Organization of Social Forces— Otto W. Davie, 

Minneapolis. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born In America 

— Grace Abbott, Chicago. 
NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 
— Jean Hamilton, gen. sec'y. Address 110 East 
59th St., New York. Girls' club; recreation an* 
educational work in non-sectarian self-govern- 
ing groups aiming toward complete self-support. 
Monthly publication, " The Club Worker." tl 
a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOB PUBLIC 
HEALTH — NURSING — Ella Phillips CrandalL 
R. N exec, sec'y; 166 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of publle 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription included In membership. 
Dues, $2.00 and upward. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EX CHANGS 
—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 110 E. 22d St., 
New York. A cooperative guild of social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
structively through members for professional 
standards 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION 
— 181 Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Hatfield. 
M. D., Managing Director. I. .formation about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing 
problems and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade, Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
" Monthly Bulletin." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social ser- 
vice among Negroes, L. Holllngsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y.; 117 
East 23rd St., New York. Establishes cooper- 
ative committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negre 
■~ o c 1 & 1 workers 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 64 W. 
Randolph St. (Room 1102), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government In the work shop through 
organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation Information given Offi- 
cial organ " Life and Labor " 
PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIA- 
TION OF AMERICA— H S Braucher, sec'y; 1 
Madison Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor- 
hood and community center activities and ad- 
ministration. Special attention given to munici- 
pal recreation problems. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION-* 
Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race Improve- 
ment Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J. 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dlr.; 110 E. 22d St., New York Department*: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Educa- 
tion. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Li- 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pub- 
lications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public in practical and inexpensive form 
some of tbe most important results of its work. 
Catalogue sent upon request" 
SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrew 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Cbllda, sec'y; It Wait 
9tb St.. New York. Clearing house for Informa- 
tion on short ballot, city manager plan, county 
gov't. Pamphlets free. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment la 
race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South: 
furnishes Information on all phases of tbe rao* 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prln. ; Warren Logan, treas.; 
A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 












THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



109 



SOCIAL STUDIES 




Conducted by 
JOSEPH K. HART 



ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF HOUSING 

IThe impossible dilemma: Rents are impossibly high to 
• the consumer. Profits are too small to stimulate building. 

a. What proportion of the family budget should provide for 
rent? Does this proportion vary with increasing income? What 
happens when this proportion is exceeded? Are other items 
eliminated? Is the standard of housing accommodations lowered? 
How is the economic demand for increased housing accommoda- 
tions affected? 

b. The demand for more and better housing is tremendous. 
What is the present relation between human need and economic 
demand? How is this explained by current economic theory? 

2 The charges of profiteering: Where does the "profit" 
• actually go? 

a. Profiteering charges against labor. What is the present 
scale for carpenters? Bricklayers? Painters? Plasterers? What 
does this mean in terms of a yearly income? Is the work sea- 
sonal? Uncertain? Skilled? What does this yearly income rep- 
resent in purchasing power? Is it unfairly high? What have 
been the demands in recent strikes in the building trades? How 
do wages in these lines compare with other occupations? Is labor 
flowing out of these trades or into them? 

b. Profiteering charges against capital. What is the rate on 
buildirfg loans? On speculative loans? On business notes and 
long-time loans? Should interest be higher? Can capital be 
compelled to choose the lower rate? How do you account for 
the " tightening up" on long-time loans? 

c. Profiteering charges against the middleman. Is there a 
*' building materials trust" as charged by Attorney Untermeyer? 
Compare prices of building materials in 1920, 1915, 1910. Con- 
sider increase in prices in relation to index prices, shortage in 
materials caused by the war, inadequate transportation facilities. 

d. Profiteering charges against the landowner. What part 
of rent paid today is economic rent? Consider this statement, 
" In the past the laborer has, through lack of earnings, been 
unable to live in a state of physical efficiency and at the same 
time pay an economic rent." 



tin 



^3 # The present situation. 

a. In round numbers, what is the actual shortage of houses 
in your city? State? In the nation? The housing shortage in 
New York city? 

b. What was the effect of the war on the building program? 
Consult figures on building for years 1917-20. 



^ # Foreign experiments. 






a. What is the English plan for governmental aid? How 
far has it been carried? What other solutions has England 
attempted? With what success? 

b. How have the German municipalities met the situation in 
the past (particularly Ulm, Dusseldorf, Munich) ? Do you 
think their methods would be successful in the United States? 

c. Consider French and Italian experiments, national and 
municipal (notably Milan, Venice and Rome). 

J). Is the economic difficulty insuperable? 

Consider in this connection the statement of J. J. Clarke (Eng- 
lish) in The Housing Problem: "If we were to start upon a 
definite economic basis we should put off housing reform at least 
a decade." 
References: 

Frederick C. Howe: European Cities at Work. Scribner's. 
370 pp. $2.00. Postpaid $2.15. 

Robert Tressall: The Ragged-Trousered Philanthropists. (This 
book deserves to be better known.) 

See References in Social Studies Column, the Survey for 
October 9. 

The above books may be obtained through' the Survey Book Depart- 
ment. 



fT What happens in England vitally 
^JJ affects Europe and America. 

f[\ And much has been, and is, happen - 
7JJ ing; matters seen casually in the 
newspapers, and forgotten, but which are 
of tremendous significance to America and 
the world. 

fj[ A complete picture of England, as it 
^JJ is since the war, is the best clue to the 
international situation. 

fj' Frank Dilnot, world famous publicist, 
^U gives it in this important book. 

ENGLAND 

AFTER THE WAR 

by Frank Dilnot 

At all booksellers, Net $3.00 



DOUBLEDAY 

GARDEN CITY 



PAGE & CO. 

NEW YORK 



FOREIGN-BORN 

is the service bulletin of the Division on Work for 
Foreign Born Women of the Young Women's Christian 
Association. Those engaged in foreign community work 
and Americanization find this bulletin indispensable to 
intelligent understanding of the interests of newcomers 
in America and of our mutual responsibilities. 

In FOREIGN-BORN you will find: 

A digest of clippings from the Dative American 

press on immigration, Americanization and 

kindred subjects. 

A digest of clippings from a selected number of 

foreign language newspapers. 

Government announcements. 

Recent laws and bills affecting the foreign born. 

R£sum6s and abstracts of current incoming 

material or organizations oihn- than the Younj: 

Women's Christian Association. 

A library section listing pertinent articles in 

leading magazines. 



THE WOMANS PRESS 
600 Lexington Avenue 
New York City 

Please enter my subscription as checked below : 
nPOREIGN-BORN (or one year's subscription of ten issues 
—$1.50 

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Monthly for one year — $2.75. 

nFOREIGN-BORN for one year with The Survey for three 
months — $2.00 

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110 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

" Another impression: that people apparently refer to old Burveys, at 
inquiries continued to come in for weeks after the advertising." — Amer. Red 
Cross. 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 

Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on request. 
Periodicals, Current Pamphlets, see opposite page. 



Address Advertising 
Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19 Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED : A woman to take charge of 
some two hundred children. The require- 
ments are: a love of children; a love of 
the work; an administrative ability, the 
latter of high order; a nurse — preferably 
trained. Beginning salary $1,000 a year and 
maintenance. 3661 Survey. 

SUPERINTENDENT of a Jewish Com- 
munity House in Brooklyn conducting re- 
ligious, educational and social activities is 
wanted. State experience and salary ex- 
pected. 3664 S urvey. 

WANTED: Visitors for family rehab- 
ilitation work. College education and 
School of Civics training preferred. Good 
salary and excellent opportunity. Apply 
Jewish Aid Society, 1800 Selden Street, 
Chicago. 

DIETITIANS: Matrons, Social Work- 
ers, Secretaries. Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5 East Side; Boston, 16 
Jackson Hall, Trinity Court, Fridays, 11 
to 1. 

WANTED: White girl to do general 
house work down stairs; no washing. Ap- 
ply 86 Woodland Avenue, Summit, New 
Jersey — Telephone 534 W. Summit. 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE capable of 
teaching Hygiene and First Aid, to high 
school students. Four nurses for Visiting 
Nurse Staff. Glad to communicate with 
graduate nurses who have had no experi- 
ence in Public Health. Location one-half 
hour ride from New York in rapidly grow- 
ing industrial city. Apply New Jersey, 3673 
Survey. 

WANTED: A registered trained nurse 
for Public Health work in a rural com- 
munity. Salary one hundred dollars per 
month and uniforms. Board, telephone 
service and office expenses paid by the As- 
sociation. Reply to the Visiting Nurse As- 
sociation of Somerset Hills, P. O. Box 45, 
Far Hills, New Jersey. 

HEADWORKER, preferably Jewish, for 
large, well organized Settlement in Middle 
West. Apply with full particulars, 3675 
Survey. 



If in need of Workers 

The Survey 

Classified Advertising Service 

will supply your wants 

A recent advertiser writes: 

" Considering the shortage of 
teachers throughout the country, 
we received a very satisfactory 
number of replies and have been 
able to suitably fill most of the 
positions. We consider your classi- 
fied advertisements of great value 
In bringing institutions and insti- 
tution people seeking employment in 
touch with one another." 



WANTED: Experienced Case Worker 
as Visitor for United Charities. Mid- 
western town of 25,000. Two and one-half 
hours from Chicago. Salary $1,200.00. Ad- 
dress, United Charities, Beloit, Wisconsin. 



WANTED : Nurse dietitian, woman 
willing to assist in the management of an 
up-to-date Health Farm, thirty miles from 
New York. No bedridden patients. Salary 
$100 and maintenance. Advancement for 
competent, energetic young woman. Apply 
daily between one and two P. M., at 237 
Rutledge Street, Brooklyn. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 



WANTED: Young man, Baptist, for 
Director of Religious Education for Bap- 
tist Sunday School in the Middle West. 
Salary $3,000. State training and experi- 
ence. Apply to S. M. Green, 3815 Mag- 
nolia, St. Louis, Mo. 



TEACHERS WANTED 



TEACHERS WANTED for emergency 
vacancies — colleges, universities, public and 
private schools. Ernest Olp, Steger Build- 
ing, Chicago. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



YOUNG MAN, unmarried, desires posi- 
tion in an institution with boys. Experienced 
teacher both in grade and commercial sub- 
jects. Has had experience as assistant 
superintendent. Can furnish best of refer- 
ences. 3645 Survey. 



YOUNG WOMAN desires responsible 
position where ability to organize is re- 
quired. Experience — executive in voca- 
tional and placement work; industrial and 
social investigating organization of co- 
operative housing corporation for business 
women. Interested particularly in indus- 
trial educational or public health work. 
Available December 1. 3671 Survey. 



TRAINED KINDERGARTNER with 
experience in social work, would like posi- 
tion with Children's Agency in Boston. 
3672 Survey. 



LADY wishes position in city as Matron, 
in school or hospital. Many years' experi- 
ence. Highest credentials. 3670 Survey. 



TEACHER of physical education with 
several years experience in social work, 
would like work with girls. 3669 Survey. 



HAVE spent sixteen years in Boys' 
Work. What Boys' Home needs a super- 
intendent, assistant, manual training teacher 
or supervisor. 3676 Survey. 



NUTRITION WORKER with normal 
and university training, and broad experi- 
ence, desires position which requires or- 
ganizing health classes and executive ability. 
3677 Survey. 



HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES 

FAMILY of three, on large simple place, 
northern New Jersey, 26 miles out, offer 
space for tent and one room in house to 
two or three adults, in return for care of 
garden and share in product; summer of 
1921. References. 3674 Survey. 



CO-OPERATIVE Apartments, Colum- 
bia Heights, Brooklyn, plan endorsed by 
Co-operative League of America. Rent 
now 2-3 rooms, bath, kitchenette, $50, $75. 
Buy equity soon, reducing costs third. 
Harbor view, gardens. 3647 Survey. 









SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 

Educational Advantages of French Switzerland 

For information concerning boarding 
schools for boys and girls in vicinity of 
Lausanne, inquire of American-Anglo- 
Swiss Educational Agency. Best references 
and patronage. MAJEL K. BROOKS, 
1928 University Ave., New York City. 



LECTURES 

DR. EMANUEL STERNHEIM 

LECTURES 

Consultant Sociologist 

Dates, Terms, Etc. 

827 Fine Arts Building 
410 S. Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111. 



EDWARD T. DEVINE: Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
105 East 22d Street, New York. Fall 
Schedule now in preparation. 



u 

km 



to 



:■ 



BOOKS ON GENEALOGIE 



BOOKS ON PEDIGREES, GENEAL 
OGIES, AND COATS-OF-ARMS. Every 
Anglo-Saxon and Celtic name. Kindly in- 
quire for particulars. Chas. A. O'Connor, 
21 Spruce St., New York City. 



- S 



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YOUR 

ISSUES 



The Survey may be kept for 
permanent ready reference in 
a tpecial loose leaf binder, 
made with board tides. It 
it covered with stout buck- 
ram, THE SURVEY stamped 
in gold letters both on the 
back and on the side. Pal 
in each issue as received. It 
does not mutilate issues, 
1 which may easily be re- 
moved and reinserted. At 
the end of each six months an index will be sent 
to you and the volume will then be ready for a 
permanent place in your library. 

Price $2.00 and postage. 



tD, 



M 



( 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 16, 1920 



111 



CALENDAR OF 
CONFERENCES 



Items for the next calendar should reach the 
Survey before November 13. 

Boys' Club Federation, New York. New 
York, November 26-27. Alexander Camp- 
bell, 110 West 40 st., New York city. 

Charities and Corrections, New York State 
Conference of. Buffalo, November 9-11. 
Richard W. Wallace, Room 431, The Cap- 
itol, Albany. 

Child Welfare, Ohio State Conference on. 
Zanesville, Ohio, November 16-1S. R. A. 
Longman, 312 West 9 St., Cincinnati, O. 

Churches of Christ in America, Federal 
Council of. Boston, December 1-6. Rev. 
Charles S. Macfarland, 105 East 22 St., 
New York city. 

City Managers' Association. Cincinnati, 
O., November 15-17. Harrison G. Otis, 812 
Tribune bldg., New York city. 

Consumers' League, National. Philadel- 
phia, November 17-18. Mrs. Florence 
Kelly, 44 East 23 St., New York city. 

Cooperative League of America. Cincin- 
nati, O., November 11-14. A. D. War- 
basse, 2 West 13 St., New York city. 

Dietetic Association, American. New 
York, October 22-26. E. M. Geraghty, 
New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Conn. 

Educational Congress, Pennsylvania. Har- 
risburg, Pa., November 11-13. Dr. 
Thomas E. Finegan, state superintendent 
of public instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Governors' Conference. Harrisburg, Pa., 
December 1-3. Miles C. Riley, Bank of 
Wisconsin bldg., Madison, Wis. 

Industrial Engineers, Society of. Pitts- 
burgh, November 10-12. George C. Dent, 
327 So. La Salle St., Chicago. 

Municipal League, National. Indianapolis, 
November 17-19. H. W. Dodds, 261 
Broadway, New York city. 

Public Health, Oklahoma State Associa- 
tion. Oklahoma City, October 12-13. Jules 
Schevitz, 315 Oklahoman bldg., Oklahoma 
City. 

Political Science Association, American. 
December 28-30. Frederic A. Ogg, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Probation Officers, State Conference of. 
Lafayette Hotel, Buffalo. November 7-9. 
Charles L. Chute, !32 State st., Albany, 
N. Y. 

Social Work, Kentucky Conference of. 
Danville, Ky., October 29-November 1. 
Homer E. Wickenden, 215 East Walnut St., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Social Work, Massachusetts Conference 
of. Worcester, Mass., November 10-12. 
R. D. Conant, 6 Beacon St., Boston. 
ocial Work, Texas Conference of. San 
Antonio, November 19-23. Ruby A. Black, 
415 Dallas County State Bank bldg., Dal- 
las, Tex. 
ial Work, Vermont Conference of. 
Windsor, Vt., October 20-21. A. R. Gif- 
ford, Burlington, Vt. 

Social Workers' Exchange, National. New 
York city, November 6. Edith Shatto King, 
130 East 22 st., New York city. 

Sociological Society, American. Washing- 
ton, December 27-28. Scott E. Bedford, 58 
st. and Ellis ave., Chicago. 

Tuberculosis League, New Jersey. Laurel- 
in-the-Pines, Lakewood, October 20. Ernest 

* D. Easton, Room 38, 45 Clinton St., New- 
ark, N. J. 

Urban League, National. Joint Conference 
with Negro Industrial Welfare Workers. 
Newark, October 20-23. Eugene Kinckle 
Jones, 127 East 23 st, New York city. 
Women, Council of Jewish. Denver, Col., 
November 7-12. Mrs. Leo Hertz, 45 Shel- 
don Terrace, New Haven, Conn. 



MARY AUSTIN 

is giving a course al the RAND SCHOOL on 

"Nationality as a factor in American literature" 
Mondays at 8.30 p. m. 

Write for the free bulletin on courses in cooperation, etc. 



RAND SCHOOL 



7 E. 15th st. N. Y. C. 



PAMPHLETS RECEIVED 



MOEE THAN THE VOTE, THE WOMAN AND HEU 

City. By R. D. Leigh. From the Woman's 
Press, 600 Lexington avenue, N. Y. city. 
Twenty cents. 
Visualizing Citizenship. By Ida Clement. 
From Municipal Reference Library, New York 
city. Fifteen cents. 

DlBECTOBY OF TUAVELERS' AID WORK IN THE 

United States and Canada., 1920. Issued 
by the National Association of Travelers 
Aid Societies, 25 West 43d St.. New Ycrk 
city. Seventy-five cents. 

The Labor Laws op Soviet Russia. Pub- 
lished by The Russian Soviet Government 
Bureau, Room 304, 110 West 40th St., New 
York city. Ten cents. 

The Russian Cooperative Movement. By 
Frederic E. Lee. Issued by Department of 
Commerce. Sold by the superintendent of 
documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington. Fifteen cents. 

Beautifying: the Farmstead. Issued by 
United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington. 

Community Buildings as Wab Memorials, 
Bulletin No. 11. From Bureau of Memorial 
Buildings of War Camp Community Service, 
1 Madison ave., New York city. 

Americanization ; Its Meaning and Func- 
tions. By Carol Aronovici, San Francisco, 
Cal. Reprint from The American Journal of 
Sociology. Vol. XXV, No. 6, May. 

The Lunch Hour at School. By Katherine 
A. Fisher. Prepared for the Bureau of Edu- 
cation by the Child Health Organization of 
America. Health Education No. 7. From 
the Department of the Interior, Washington. 
Five cents. 

Lecture Conference for Works' Directors, 
Managers, Foremen and Forewomen. From 
Balliol College, Oxford, England. 

The Duty of the Psychopathologist to the 
Man on the Street. By Donald A. Laird, 
University of Iowa. Reprint from The 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Boston. 

Psychopathic Nursing. By Donald A. Laird, 
University of Iowa. Reprint from The 
American Journal of Nursing. 

The New Coming of Age. By Mildred Board- 
man Leigh ; Training fob Citizenship. By 
L. C. Staples ; When Labor Goes to School. 
By Genevieve M. Fox. From the Woman's 
Press, 600 Lexington ave., New York city. 
Twenty cents each. 

Illegitimacy in Toronto. Issued by Neigh- 
borhood Workers Association, Toronto, Can. 

The Japanese in Rural Los Angeles 
County. By Ralph F. Burnight. From 
Southern California Sociological Society, 
University of Southern California, Los 
Angeles. Twenty cents. 

Better Homes for Workers. By H. E. Miles. 
Reprinted from American Industries, Na- 
tional Association of Manufacturers, 30 
Church St., New York city. 

The Problems Confronting a Psycho-Edu- 
cational Clinic in a Labge Community. 
By J. E. Wallace Wallin. Reprint from 
Mental Hygiene. From National Committee 
on Mental Hygiene, 50 Union square, New 
York city. 

Clinical Types of Occupational Diseases. 
Reprint from Journal of American Medical 
Association. Occupational Causes of III 
Health. Reprint from American Medical 
Journal. By Louis I. Harris, M. D. From 
City Department of Health, New York city. 

Child Welfare in Sybacuse, N. Y. By Lydia 
Allen Vilbiss, M. D. From Child Welfare 
Committee. 508 East Genesee St., Syracuse, 
N. Y. Twenty-five cents. 

Second Repoet on the Wages of Women in 
Cobset Factories in Massachusetts. Min- 
imum Wage Commission, 1 Beacon st., Bos- 
ton. 

Platform fob American Industby. National 
Association of Manufacturers, 30 Church st, 
New York city. 

The Hart Schaffneb and Mabx Labor Ageee- 
ment. Compiled by Earl Dean Howard. 
From Hart Schaffner and Marx, Chicago. 

Social Woek and Neubosyphilis. By Maida 
Herman Solomon. Reprint from Social Hy- 
giene, No. 270. From American Social Hy- 
giene Association, Inc., 105 West 40th St., 
New York city. 

Midwifeey — South Cabolina; Public Health 
Nubsing, County Unit Plan — South Caeo- 
olina. Issued by Bureau of Child Hygiene 
and Public Health Nursing. From ' State 
Board of Health, Columbia, S. C. 

THE WILLIAMS PBINTINO COMPANY, NIW YORK 



HP HE Annual Meeting of Survey As- 
A sociates, Inc., will be held on Mon- 
day, October 25, at 4 P. M., in the Sur- 
vey offices, 1 2th floor, 112 E. 19 street, 
New York city, to elect four directors 
to succeed Alexander M. Bing, Edward 
T. Devine, V. Everit Macy and Alfred 
G. Scattergood, whose terms expire; 
and to transact such other business as 
may come before the meeting. 

All members of Survey Associates, 
Inc. (life members, and those who paid 
$10 or more during the fiscal year end- 
ing September 30, towards the main- 
tenance of the Survey) are entitled to 
vote at this meeting. 

Julia C. Lathrop, chief of the U. S. 
Children's Bureau, will preside. 



HOW WILL YOU VOTE? 

Will you let the old parties fool you again? 

Tbere is a Third Party In the field. Wage- 
earners, farmers, Forty-Elghters and social 
workers combined to form It. 

Surely you will not cast your ballot before 
reading the Third Party platform. A free copy 
will be sent on application. 

Send a postal card today I 
FARMER-LABOR PARTY , . 

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CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

Stillwateb, The Queen of the St. Cboix. 
A report of a Social Survey by Dr. Manuel 
C. Elmer. University of Minnesota. 

Chicago Standabd Budget for Dependent 
Families, by Florence Nesbitt. Pp. 46. Re- 
vised September 1, 1920. Contains also mini- 
mum budget for the self-supporting family. 
Published by Chicago Council of Social 
Agencies, 17 N. State St., Chicago, 111. 25 
cents. 

Immigbation Litebatube sent on request by 
the National Liberal Immigration League, 
Box 116, Station F, New York City. 

Cbedit Unions. Free on request to Mass. 
Credit Union Assn., 5 Park Square, Boston. 

Child Welfabe Handbook. Contains informa- 
tion of value to health officers, superintend- 
ents of schools, teachers, librarians, visiting 
nurses and social workers, illustrates all 
the educational panels published by the Na- 
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PERIODICALS 

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Hospital Social Service Quarterly; $1.50 a 
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Mental Hygiene; quarterly ; $2 a year ; pub- 
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Public Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; 
published by the National Organization for 
Public Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Atc, New 
York. 



Are You a Lily? 

Of course you remember about the 
lilies of the field who neither toiled nor 
spun. 

Botanically speaking don't you think 
the poor little rich girl of several years 
back who wouldn't work because it 
wasn't quite respectable, must have 
felt very much like them? 

But who wants to be a Lily today in this 
age of toiling and spinning and being a part 
of things ? It's not the thing any more. Ask 
any College Senior ! 

But what to do, you ask. You can only 
give part time to it because of other obliga- 
tions and what can such a volunteer do other 
than "busy work ? " You'd like something 
real, where you will grow and progress as well 
as serve. 

RIGHT NOW the Charity Organization 
Society needs you but social work is no longer 
done by instinct . It requires training, regu- 
larity of service to build experience and an 
understanding of its underlying philosophy. 
So the volunteer of 1920 must qualify just 
like her professional sister worker on salary, 
and the Society is offering her this oppor- 
tunity to do it. 

A three months training course for Volunteers (two 
hours weekly) will start November first and be given 
without charge to eligible Volunteers who can contem- 
plate a regular service of fourteen hours a week for at 
least six months. 

The course is not intended to be a stepping stone to a 
salaried social work position but is given simply to 
enable part time volunteers to make their time and ser- 
vice really count in New York. 

2,000 Families 

are now under the care of the Society and you could 
render them an invaluable service if you fitted yourself 
to do so. Full information can be obtained at the ad- 
dress below where the Course will be conducted under 
the auspices of the 

Committee of Co-Operation and District Work. 

of 

THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY OF 

THE CITY OF NEW Y RK ' 

105 East 22d Street 



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Two Weeks from Tuesday 



Not the ability of Harding or Cox will be 
at stake — but the ability of women to Vote 
intelligently. 

To know the value of your vote read the 
following books : 

A WOMAN'S POINT OF VIEW: 
Some Roads to Peace 

by Harriot Stanton Blatch 

A record of facts with constructive conclusion and a 
strong program for progress by one of America's fore- 
most thinking women. The New York Tribune has 
said of it, " ' A Woman's Point of View ' is informed 
with so strong a conviction and so i*' en an intelligence 
that it is likely to make its own way gainst the 

common weariness." Price, 

THE YOUNG WOJVU., CITIZEN 

by Mary Austin 

Thinking men as well as women will welcome a book 
which sets forth trustworthy guideposts for a working 
philosophy of citizenship. It is a brilliantly written 
discussion for all world citizens of the responsibilities 
that are assumed with the right to vote, together with 
comprehensive survey of the development of the citizen 
from the age of the savage tribe to the present era. 
Price, paper $1.00; cloth $1.75. 

Citizenship Pamphlets 

A SPUR TO THE RELUCTANT 
VOTER 

by R. D. Leigh 

This is the answer, to the often repeated objection 
that voting is not a woman's responsibility. Price, $.20. 

MORE THAN THE VOTE 

by R. D. Leigh 

This deals with the question of the woman and her 
community and shows the increased power given to the 
vote through community action. Leaders in women's 
clubs and community workers will find this material 
valuable. Price $.20. 

TRAINING FOR CITIZENSHIP 

by L. C. Staples 

A pamphlet written for leaders who are interested 
in promoting a more intelligent citizenship among 
young people. It analyzes the background and knowl- 
edge necessary for intelligent voting. Price, $.20. 

THE NEW COMING OF AGE 

by Mildred Boardman Leigh 

This pamphlet will be especially valuable as a text 
in citizenship and for community classes, but it will be 
of interest alike to the new voter — young or old — in 
that it describes the group system and the place of the 
independent voter. Price, $.20. 



Bookshops Everywhere or 

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600 Lexington Avenue New York City 














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OCTOBER 23, 1920 S^ro 

PARAGRAPHS OF THE COMMON WELFARE .... 115 

Values — The Mt. Vernon Decision — State-Wide Civics — A New State 
Activity — The Low Cost of Living — For Strict Sexual Morality — A 
Child Health Council. 

Colonies and Protectorates . . William L. Chenery 118 

Social Justice and the Government . Edward T. Devine 119 

The British Coal Dispute . . Harold J. Laski 121 

Poland Frank E. Walser 123 

INDUSTRY 

The 48-Hour Law in Massachusetts . . . Ethel M. Johnson 125 

The Federated Press Andrew Long 126 

Industrial Pensions — Productivity of Labor — Profit Sharing — The 
Home Assistant — Wages of Farm Laborers — The New Mining Town 
— International Machinists. 

CHILD WELFARE 

The Day Nursery and the Community . . Frances Colbourne 129 

A New Bureau — Child Welfare in Minnesota. 

SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 

A Real Investigation Beatrice Wilmans 132 

Research in Industry B. E. Cherington 133 

Milwaukee Advances — School for Truant Officers — Educational Adap- 
tations — Academic Rip Van Winkles — Jails as Continuation Schools 

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The Colonization of North America 1492- 
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An Introduction to the Industrial and So- 
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Handbook of Ball-Room Dancing. By A. M. 
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English Literature. By John Louis Haney. 
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Labor's Crisis. By Sigmund Mendelsohn. 
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The Principles of Ante-Natal and Post- 
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Man's Unconscious Passion. By Wilfrid Lay. 
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The Price of Milk. By Clyde L. King. John 
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English Ways and By-ways. By Leighton 
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The Truth About Christian Science. By 
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Rising Above the Ruins in France. By 
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The Group Mind. By William McDougall. 

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Is Mexico Worth Saving? By George Agnew 
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The Unfinished Programme of Democracy. 
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The Ghost of the Whitb House. By Ger- 
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Traveling Publicity Campaigns. By Mary 
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Vanitas. By Paul Eldridge. The Stratford 
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What Happened to Europe. By Frank A. 

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The Pioneers of Land Reform. Essays by 
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The Life of Robert Owen. Alfred A. Knopf. 
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Handbook of American Government. By 
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Religion and the New Psychology. By 
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Gus Harvey the Boy Skipper of Cape Ann. 
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Poland the Unknown. By W. Walisiewski. 
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The Missionary Outlook in the Light of 
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The Industrial History of England. By 
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Easy Lessons in Einstein. By Edwin E. 
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World Survey. Vol. 1. American Volume. 
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Social Theory. By G. D. H. Cole. Frederick 
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The Taint in Politics. By a Well-Known 
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• 

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Life and Labour in the Nineteenth Cen- 
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The Three Taverns. A Book of Poems. B: 
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Vol. XLV 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1920 



No. 4 



'EUtl 

St«rj 
::■:,:; 

of m 



TEB BVRTBY 

PAUL D. KELLOGG, Kditob 

Associate Editors 

EDWARD T. DEVINE BRUNO LASKER 

WILLIAM L. CHENERY PAUL L. BENJAMIN 

JOSEPH K. HART MICHAEL M. DAVIS, JR. 

S. ADELE SHAW, Managing Editor 
Published weekly and Copyright 1920 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
tB Eiint 19 street. New York. Robert W. deforest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogy, secretary-treasurer. 

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pi 1 



JnttBj 



N 



VALUES 



EIGHBORHOOD workers have had a long line of 
experience in self-supporting clubs. Miss Wald of the 
Nurses Settlement, New York, tells of a choral class to 




which the children who came paid their cent apiece. One 
evening a little girl wanted her money back. She said she 
only got in in time to join in the last verse and it wasn't worth 
a penny! 

THE MT. VERNON DECISION 

WHEN Supreme Court Justice Keogh of New York 
last week declared unconstitutional the Mt. Vernon 
(N. Y.) ordinance regulating street meetings, the 
erican Civil Liberties Union won its first legal victory 
r free speech. As a result of the judge's decision, John 
ynes Holmes, pastor of the Community Church, New 
r ork city, Rose Schneiderman of the Woman's Trade Union 
League, and Norman Thomas, editor of the World Tomor- 
row, who had been arrested by the Mt. Vernon authorities, 
were set free. The ordinance, passed in 191 7, providing that 
street meetings may be held only on granting of a permit by 
the mayor, was but recently put into effect. 

Some weeks ago, Mayor Elmer Kincaid stated publicly that 
speakers of the Socialist Party would not be allowed the use 
of the streets during the current political campaign. On Oc- 
tober 4, Mrs. Arthur G. Hayes of New York, a non-Socialist; 
and two members of the Mt. Vernon local Socialist Party at- 
tempted to speak in defiance of the Mayor's policy and were 
arrested. Mrs. Hayes' husband, a New York lawyer, is a 
member of the national committee of the American Civil Lib- 
erties Union. 

National attention was called to the Mt. Vernon situation 
on the night of October 12, when Mr. Holmes, a non-So- 
cialist; Miss Schneiderman, candidate of the Farmer-Labor 
Party for United States senator, and Mr. Thomas, Socialist, 
were arrested for trying to speak, after they had read certain 
sections of the New York State Constitution concerning free 
speech and free assemblage. The street meeting at which 



they made their attempt to speak had been arranged by the 
Civil Liberties Union for the express purpose of testing the 
ordinance. On October 14, the case of Mrs. Hayes and her 
companions came up before Justice Keogh on appeal. He 
released them, stating that the ordinance was unconstitutional, 
but the judge intimated in a memorandum that a " reason- 
able " ordinance on street meetings would be upheld. 
The dismissal of the other cases followed within a few days. 

On the same evening that the arrests of Mr. Holmes and 
his companions occurred, the Civil Liberties Union was hold- 
ing a similar meeting in Norwich, Conn., where Albert Board- 
man, a Socialist, had previously been arrested and fined $25 
for street speaking, although that city did not boast an ordin- 
ance regulating free speech. Mrs. Elizabeth Glendower 
Evans of Boston and Mr. Boardman while speaking on the 
evening of October 12, were arrested before a crowd of 8,000 
people. Mrs. Evans was released and Boardman was again 
fined $25. The theory of both penalties was that Boardman 
had " resisted an officer " in holding meetings in defiance of 
the mayor who had publicly declared that Socialists should 
not be allowed to speak on the streets. 

The Norwich meeting is one of a series being held in Con- 
necticut mill towns, to test ordinances and police rules against 
free speech. Following the Mt. Vernon decision the mayor 
of New London changed previous rulings which he had made 
against free speech, and the mayor of Waterbury stated that 
he would grant a permit for Bishop Paul Jones, secretary of 
the Fellowship of Reconciliation, to speak, although this was 
not to be regarded as setting a precedent for the future. 

The same week of the presidential campaign saw Major 
George Haven Putnam, civil war veteran, forced to aban- 
don a Brooklyn platform from which he was scheduled to 
speak on Relations between America and England. His 
speech was successfully interrupted by a group of Irishmen 
who declared Major Putnam was pro-English. The police 
made no arrests. The Socialist New York Call while declar- 
ing against Major Putnam's " toryism," condemned the action 
of the meeting. 

A NEW STATE ACTIVITY 

NEW YORK, first of all states except Wisconsin, has 
entered the field of personnel administration. The 
bureau of mediation and arbitration of the State In- 
dustrial Commission has been enlarged to include technical 
advisers in this new field of industrial engineering. Informa- 
tion concerning " safety organization, employment manage- 
ment, trade agreements, labor turnover, training, means of 
determining piece rates, and other problems which have to do 
with sound methods of organizing and administering the rela- 
tionship between employer and employe " will be gathered 
and rendered available. The industrial counsellors will also 
undertake surveys of special plants or of specific problems 

115 



116 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



n$$Rft riTYml fffn 




GIRL SCOUT WEEK! 

Monday's Scout is at the tub, 

Her Sunday clothes to rinse and rub. 

Tuesday's Scout will roast and stew 
And fry fresh pancakes just for you! 

Wednesday's Scout is bent on Thrift, 
To patch the hole and darn the rift. 

Thursday is Scout Service Day, 

For helping your neighbor in many a way. 

Friday's Scout is rosy and strong, 

She camps and "hikes" the whole day long. 

Saturday's Scout is happy and gay 
For this is Baby Caring Day. 

While Sunday's Scout presents to you 
Her uniformed back in the family pew! 

November 6 to November 15 

Everywhere in the United States and her Territories 

flake checks payable to Girl Scouts, Inc. 
169 Lexington Avenue. New York City 

Will You Give a Day's Pay? 



MAKING MERRY SOBERLY 

The slogan of the 82,176 girl scouts who in their trim khaki 
uniforms and displaying their badges for proficiency in forty- 
seven various arts and crafts, will have a part in the campaign 
which the Girl Scouts, Incorporated is launching between No- 
vember 6 and 15. By building up an adult sustaining member- 
ship the organization hopes to raise $1,000,000 to be used in 
extension work throughout the United States. 



upon the request of employers or workers. Frank H. Part- 
ridge, formerly assistant director of the industrial relations 
department of the Interchurch World Movement, and J. B. 
Buell, formerly secretary of the Mayor's Committee on In- 
dustry and Employment, were the original appointees. On 
the resignation of Mr. Partridge to return to the Pacific 
Coast, Charles M. Mills, also formerly of the industrial 
relations department of the Interchurch World Movement, 
became one of the counsellors. 

STATE-WIDE CIVICS 

CITIZENS throughout New York state are this week 
receiving the announcement of the newly formed New 
York State Association, the fundamental purpose of 
which is stated to be " to promote the common state-wide civic 
interests of all the urban and rural communities of the state 
of New York." The announcement emphasizes the fact " that 
the association will be a strictly non-partisan agency, and that 
no official program will be adopted and no action other than 
formal organization will be taken until after the coming 
election." 

Through its committees and its staff maintained both in 
Albany and New York, the association will study civic prob- 
lems, state departmental policies, and legislation of state- 
wide movement, will press for progress toward efficient and 
democratic government in the state, and will seek to increase 
the number of citizens and local organizations which under- 
stand and influence state government. It is thus more than a 



bureau of government research, linking to scientific inquiry 
methods of public education and active propaganda. Among 
the immediate subjects for inquiry suggested in the associa- 
tion's tentative program are extension of state credit to hous- 
ing, food production and distribution, a state park plan, con- 
solidation of state departments, an executive budget system, 
county health and education problems, and consolidation of 
county institutions, almshouses and prisons. 

Membership in the association will be both individual and 
through affiliated organizations. A number of civic bodies 
have agreed to a merger with the association, notably the New 
York Short Ballot Organization, the Legislative Voters' As- 
sociation, the County Government Association, the Municipal 
Government Association, and the Citizens' Committee. Robert 
Moses, formerly chief of staff of the State Reconstruction 
Commission, is acting director of the association, which has 
offices at 305 Broadway. 

John G. Ayer, Robert S. Binkerd, Richard S. Childs, 
Elizabeth Collier, Dr. Katherine B. Davis, Mrs. William H. 
Good, Raymond V. Ingersoll, Darwin R. James, Jr., Sam A. 
Lewisohn, V. Everit Macy, Adelbert Nevot, Lawson Purdy, 
and George W. Wickersham are among the signers of the 
announcement. 

THE LOW COST OF LIVING 

CERTAIN prices are moving downward. In some lines 
consumers have already been benefited. Sugar and coffee 
and ready-made clothes are conspicuous examples. Au 
tomobiles, too, although except for the farmer they do not 
enter cost of living budgets, have moved downward in cost. 
For the most part, however, retail prices have not been seri- 
ously affected. " Bargain sales," it is true, are more common 
than they have been in five years, but the basic retail prices 
are much the same. Nonetheless, the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reports a downward trend in living costs. 

Wholesale prices have of course been much more heavily 
influenced. In times of rising values retail costs hold the 
lower level for considerable periods of time after wholesale 

Gale in the Los Angeles Time 



'VAint it^eat _\ 

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v <$-o\n6< DOWN ! ^/ 




SLIPPERY PLACES' 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



117 






FOR STRICT SEXUAL MORALITY 

HTHE recent Lambeth Conference of Bishops of the Anglican communion, in addition to tak- 
■*■ ing decisive positions on Christian reunion, international relations, intemperance, and other ques- 
tions of wide social import, sent out a clarion call against moral laxity in every form; opposing 
legislation for easier divorce and birth control by sale of contraceptives. The resolutions on problems 
of marriage and sexual morality follow: 



Recognizing that to live a pure and 
chaste life before and after marriage is, 
for both sexes, the unchangeable Christian 
standard, attainable and attained through 
the help of the Holy Spirit by men and 
women of every age, the conference de- 
sires to proclaim the universal obligation 
of this standard, and its vital importance 
as an essential condition of human hap- 
piness. 

The conference affirms as our Lord's 
principle and standard of marriage a life- 
long and indissoluble union, for better, for 
worse, of one man with one woman, to 
the exclusion of all others on either side, 
and calls on all Christian people to main- 
tain and bear witness to this standard. 

Nevertheless, the conference admits the 
right of a national or regional Church 
within our communion to deal with cases 
which fall within the exception mentioned 
in the record of our Lord's words in St. 
Matthew's Gospel, under provisions which 
such Church may lay down. 

The conference, while fully recognizing 
the extreme difficulty of governments in 
framing marriage laws for citizens, many 
of whom do not accept the Christian 
standard, expresses its firm belief that in 
every country the Church should be free to 
bear witness to that standard through its 
powers of administration and discipline 
exercised in relation to its own members. 



The conference, while declining to lay- 
down rules which will meet the needs of 
every abnormal case, regards with grave 
concern the spread in modern society of 
theories and practices hostile to the family. 



We utter an emphatic warning against the 
use of junnatural means for the avoidance 
of conception, together with the grave 
dangers — physical, moral, and religious — 
thereby incurred, and against the evils 
with which the extension of such use 
threatens the race. In opposition to the 
teaching which, under the name of science 
and religion, encourages married people 
in the cultivation of sexual union as an 
end in itself, we steadfastly uphold what 
must always be regarded as the governing 
considerations of Christian marriage. One 
is the primary purpose for which mar- 
riage exists — namely, the continuation of 
the race through the gift and heritage of 
children; the other is the paramount im- 
portance in married life of deliberate and 
thoughtful self-control. 

We desire solemnly to commend what 
we have said to Christian people and to 
all who will hear. 

* * » 

The conference, moved by responsible 
statements from many nations as to the 
prevalence of venereal diseases, bringing 
suffering, paralysis, insanity, or death to 
many thousands of the innocent as well 
as the guilty, supports all efforts which 
are consistent with high moral standards 
to check the causes of the diseases and to 
treat and, if possible, cure the victims. 
We impress upon the clergy and members 
of the Church the duty of joining with 
physicians and public authorities in meet- 
ing this scourge, and urge the clergy to 
guide those who turn to them for advice 
with knowledge, sympathy, and directness. 
The conference must condemn the distri- 
bution or use, before exposure to infection, 



of so-called prophylactics, since these can- 
not but be regarded as an invitation to 
vice. 

* * » 

The conference urges the importance of 
enlisting the help of all high-principled 
men and women, whatever be their re- 
ligious beliefs, in cooperation with, or, if 
necessary, in bringing pressure to bear 
upon, authorities, both national and local, 
for removing such incentives to vice as 
indecent literature, suggestive plays and 
films, the open or secret sale of contra- 
ceptives, and the continued existence of 
brothels. 

* * * 

With regard to the education of the 
young in matters of sex, the conference 
presses upon parents that the duty of giv- 
ing right teaching on these subjects rests 
primarily with them, and that it is the 
duty of all persons giving such instruc- 
tions to prepare themselves for this re- 
sponsible task. Boys and girls should be 
guarded against the danger of acquiring 
knowledge of sexual subjects from wrong 
persons and in wrong ways. 



Bearing in remembrance the example of 
our Lord, and the prominent place that 
He gave in His ministry to protecting the 
weak and raising the fallen, the confer- 
ence deplores the common apathy of 
Church neople in regard to preventive 
and rescue work, and urges on bishops, 
clergy, and all Christian people the duty 
of taking a more active share in this es- 
sential part of the Church's life. 



prices have moved upward and the reverse process has been 
noted when prices were falling. The consumer 'does not get 
the benefit for a considerable period of time. That retail 
prices should trail at a distance after wholesale prices is in- 
evitable because of the difference between wholesale and retail 
seasons. Articles now purchased by consumers were pro- 
duced at costs much higher than those which now obtain. 

Agricultural interests are seriously concerned about the fall 
in prices. They have asked for special aid from the Treasury 
and this has been refused. Cotton growers in particular are 
alarmed. The price of cotton has slumped while the present 
crop was sowed and cultivated at the higher previous costs. 
Textile mills and automobile factories, furthermore, have re- 
duced their output. That has resulted in some unemployment. 
The question which faces consumers is accordingly whether 
the low cost of living is to bring in its train the ad- 
vantages expected. If price contraction moves so rapidly that 
employment is seriously affected low prices will not be a boon. 
We have as a nation, moreover, only a small degree of con- 
trol over the process. The Federal Reserve organization is 
the one effectual agency now in existence for such service. The 
Federal Reserve will meet its great test during the coming 
months. If through its guidance the transition from a higher 
to a lower price level can be made without unemployment and 
reduced production, consumers may hope for genuine gains 
from a low cost of living. The coming months will tell the 
story. 



A COUNCIL FOR CHILD HEALTH 

ONE of the most forward-looking steps in the field of 
child health is the recent organization of, the American 
Council for Coordinating Child Health Activities. Of- 
fices of the council have been opened at the American Red 
Cross Headquarters in Washington, with Courtenay Dinwid- 
die, formerly superintendent of the Anti-Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation of Cincinnati, as the executive secretary. The forma- 
tion of the council is partly a recognition of the danger that 
lies in too high a specialization without some cohesive force 
to bind special groups together. 

At present the council is made up of representatives of the 
American Child Hygiene Association, the National Organiza- 
tion for the Public Health Nursing, the American Red Cross, 
the Child Health Organization of America and the National 
Child Labor Committee, but it is expected that other organiza- 
tions will be included as the movement progresses. 

A study will be made of the plans and programs of the 
constituent groups which will be used as a basis for working 
out a common plan of action. The purposes of the council 
are: 

To define so clearly their own work that each organization 
will be working in harmony and cooperation with all the others. 
To develop new methods which will lead to meeting more 
effectively some of the special problems still unsolved. 

To afford an opportunity for any organization dealing with 
the health of children to submit its plans and program for 
suggestions. 



118 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



Thomas in the Detroit News 




IMPORTED RAW MATERIAL 



Colonies and Protectorates 

AMERICAN rule in some of the " republics " and in- 
sular possessions to the South is being gravely chal- 
lenged. Shocking conditions have been alleged to 
exist in Haiti where the former commander-in-chief 
of the Marine Corps reports that American marines have 
been guilty of indiscriminate killing of the native population. 
In Santo Domingo the American occupation has been bitterly 
arraigned. In both of these theoretically independent coun- 
tries American naval and military forces have apparently be- 
come the real government and at the same times grievous 
social conditions have been perpetuated. 

In two of the insular possessions circumstances appear to be 
almost as serious. The question of sovereignty is not at issue 
in Porto Rico and in the Virgin Islands but other questions 
have been made the basis of a harsh criticism of American 
colonial policy. Neglect to meet the responsibility to deal 
fairly with social and industrial conditions is the burden of 
these latter charges. 

The Nation, the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People, and Brigadier General George 
Barnett, former commandant of the Marine Corps, are jointly 
responsible for the new consideration which is being given 
Haiti. James Weldon Johnson, formerly United States 
consul in Venezuela, Nicaragua, and in the Azores, made an 
-investigation of conditions in Haiti on behalf of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People of which 
he is field secretary. The Nation published four articles 
embodying some of Mr. Johnson's observations. He criti- 
cised vigorously American policy in Haiti. Among other 
things he said that American intervention has wantonly de- 
stroyed Haitian independence, that American military forces 
have ruthlessly killed Haitian people, that American bureau- 
crats have exploited the country, and that the American in- 
tervention has served the financial interests of the National 
City Bank of New York, which, according to Mr. Johnson, 
is the real power in the republic. Just at the time that the 
Nation's articles were directing attention to Haiti, Secretary 
of the Navy Daniels published a report which General Bar- 
nett had made to him and in which the former commandant 
referred to indiscriminate killings by members of the Marine 
Corps. The secretary of the navy stated that the Barnett 
report had been made public the day after it reached him. 



Furthermore immediately a court of inquiry was constituted 
and to its work high naval and marine officers were assigned. 
If the court does its work the truth concerning Haitian affairs 
ought to be ascertained and put into perspective. 

Insular officials are in part responsible for knowledge of 
evil conditions which obtain in Porto Rico. [See the 
Survey, for Oct. 9, 1920, p. 63]. 

The Virgin Islands, so-called by Christopher Columbus, 
were transferred to the United States on March 3, 1917 by 
Denmark. The islands were purchased because of their 
strategic value for naval purposes. They are part of a far 
flung line of defense. With the harbors and potential forts 
the United States, however, purchased sovereignty over some 
26,000 people and responsibility for political, social, and in- 
dustrial conditions which are certainly not American. As to 
the facts in the Virgin Islands there is little dispute. In 
a book entitled The Virgin Islands of the United States of 
America published in 191 8 by G. P. Putnam's Sons, Luther 
K. Zabriskie, formerly American vice-consul at St. Thomas, 
relates the facts which are now the substance of the islanders' 
grievances. The population is composed very largely of 
colored people, the Bureau of Census having found only 7.4 
per cent whites. The islands seem to be dominated by large 
plantations. The franchise is restricted to property owners. 
Wages are extraordinarily low. In a general way the sort, 
of feudalism which so many democratic countries maintain in 
their colonial possessions is characteristic of the Danish and 
to a lesser extent of the American rule in the Virgin Islands. 

Protest has been made against the perpetuation of these 
conditions. Among others Rothschild Francis, a member of 
the colonial council of St. Thomas, is now in this country 
seeking to enlist American interest in the affairs of the Virgin 
Islanders. Mr. Francis says: 

The one good thing that the American government has done since 
taking the islands is to establish fairly good schools and hospitals. 
The naval surgeons have been forces making for better conditions. 
The chief complaint is that out of a population of 18,000 in St. 
Thomas only 210 people can vote. The present wages are from forty 
cents to a dollar a day for all classes of labor. Since the Danish tax- 
ation system has been retained uncultivated land pays no tax and 
does not produce. The great demand of the natives is for land in 
small holdings but the owners who are chiefly Danes refuse either 
to sell or to let small holdings. In order to vote an income of $300 
a year is needed. As a consequence of this class franchise the natives 
can get no favorable legislation. Housing conditions are appalling. 

Mr. Francis criticised unfavorably the activities of the 
Marine Corps in the Virgin Islands but he had only words 
of praise for the insular governor, J. W. Oman, who, he 
stated, is endeavoring without the cooperation of the legis- 
lature, to remedy conditions. 

In general many of the wrongs and hardships which are 
complained of in the Virgin Islands are those found in Porto 
Rico and in that entire region of colonies and dependencies. 
Conditions thoroughly un-American, conditions which do 
violence to every wholesome tradition of this republic, obtain. 
These conditions are largely not of American creation but we 
are accountable for their perpetuation. There needs of 
course to be official inquiry into each one of the islands in 
which grievances exist. But more than that it is necessary 
for the American people to define policies and principles. 
The Monroe Doctrine has been at work now for a hundred 
years. Decade by decade since the eighteen-nineties the 
Monroe Doctrine has added to our colonies and dependencies. 
Without intending it we are becoming an imperial nation and 
we with disquietude are discovering the train of injustice and 
of brutality which so often follows in the wake of empire. 
What do we purpose with these islanders? Why are we 
there? Events which varied only slightly in texture have 
composed a chain which from Cleveland to Wilson, from 
McKinley to Roosevelt to Taft, have actually made a policy. 
But it has been an unconscious and to an extent an unfor- 
mulated policy. The wrongs which we have inflicted or 
which we have not prevented are sufficient now to call forth 
an inventory of conditions on which with justice to ourself 
and to the world a reasonable program may be built. 

William L. Chenery. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23 , 1920 



119 







sIdhU 
pitab. 



fiCif 



mt *l 



i- 






Social Justice and the 
Government 

BY his speech on social justice at Marion, O., on Oc- 
tober i, before a delegation of women headed by Mrs. 
Raymond Robins, Senator Harding carried the discus- 
sion of campaign issues into the region which especially 
interests the Survey and its constituency. In general terms 
the Republican candidate pledged himself " to support with 
all that is in me whatever practical policy of social welfare 
and social justice can be brought forward by the combined 
wisdom of all Americans." Governor Cox in an address on 
October 16, stimulated by Senator Harding's challenge, said 
that it would seem to him " proper that a national meeting 
be called of representatives of every woman's organization in 
America to formulate a program for Congress and the Execu- 
tive for social legislation and administration." Such pledges 
are gratifying indications of sympathetic interest in so- 
cial welfare — by which we understand, and obviously 
both Governor Cox and Senator Harding understand, 
measures for the protection of the public health, the promo- 
tion of education, the safeguarding of standards of living, and 
the like. Senator Harding, in his speech, proclaims sturdy, 
orthodox, American doctrines in regard to the duty of voting 
with conscience and enforcing the laws, and the obligation to 
engage in honest, useful production and toil. About these also, 
there is not likely to be any difference of opinion unless the 
latter obligation should be expressed, as during the war, in a 
" work or fight " order, or in something like the Russian labor 
mobilization, and we are not to assume that the Republican 
candidate has anything like this in mind. 

Coming closer to the specific measures on which the newly 
enfranchised voters were eager to learn his views, Senator 
Harding recognizes that the twelve million women engaged 
in paid occupations in the United States, 40 per cent of whom 
are between fifteen and twenty years of age, present a special 
problem. This " army of potential maternity demands from 
America careful and adequate protection in the conditions 
which surround their labors." Taken in connection with a 
later declaration that the work of the Children's Bureau 
" must be extended and made still more capable of educating 
and assisting in pre-natal care and early infancy," this seems 
to commit the Republican candidate for the Presidency to the 
program of federal aid and instruction for expectant mothers, 
and more generally, to the fundamental principle that the 
national government has a responsibility for protecting and 
improving our racial inheritance analogous to that which we 
have long acknowledged in connection with live stock and 
grain crops. 

The injuries resulting from child labor, the physical defects 
of childhood, the diseases which attend a low state of morals, 
the epidemic diseases, and even the chronic diseases of ma- 
turity, are all explicitly recognized as problems of national 
health. Many of the chronic diseases of maturity, among 
which Senator Harding would no doubt place tuberculosis in 
the first rank, are said to be " due to a failure on the part of 
individuals to adjust their living and habits to an artificial civ- 
ilization." The senator is alert to the danger of too much op- 
pressive bureaucracy, and he insists that the function of the 
federal health agencies is that " of stimulating, by research 
and education, the communities and local governments of the 
United States to the most active and efficient campaign 
against low standards of physical well being." Nevertheless, 
it is gratifying to perceive that he takes no narrow or tradi- 
tional view of the field in which this stimulation shall take 
place. For the federal government to accept responsibility 
for active participation in all these forms of public health 
work is as much as the most ardent advocates of a national 
health program can demand. 

As far as concerns its general scope and spirit, the substance 



of what Senator Harding has to say about education is equally 
to the point. Complacent and bombastic reference to our 
school system is conspicuously absent. The senator declares 
explicitly that we have " just awakened to the fact that the 
education of the American child everywhere has fallen below 
the standard necessary for the protection of our future." In 
physical training and in other respects we " have been deplor- 
ably delinquent." Nowhere is there " more cause for alarm 
than in the fact that the annual school term of the rural school 
in the United States only averages 137 days a year; that four- 
fifths of the rural schools are one-teacher schools, requiring 
instruction in many grades, and resulting in hasty, necessarily 
careless teaching. Illiteracy is " twice as common in the coun- 
try as in the city," and " the opportunity for country boys 
and girls to have a high school education is all too slight." 
Confidence is expressed that the " conception of adult educa- 
tion will develop in America." Such education of the adult as 
" teaches the facts of current life at home and abroad, will be 
the true bulwark against extreme radicalism, and will be the 
basis for an intelligent, free and tolerant thought." 

Having thus discussed the protection of maternity, the pub- 
lic health and education, Senator Harding finally devotes sev- 
eral paragraphs of this significant speech to the subject of 
industrial peace. He reiterates his full belief in labor 
unionism and the practice of collective bargaining. He at- 
tributes industrial unrest in part to the discontent which 
arises from unsteady employment. This, he thinks, is to be 
remedied not alone " by federal employment bureaus filling 
the gaps of unemployment " but in part by the abolition of 
those conditions of industry which make for seasonal produc- 
tion and periodic closing and opening of industrial plants and 
operations. The senator declares himself enough of an op- 
timist to believe that government can assist in this abolition. 
He is, finally, " enough of an optimist to believe that the 
government can take a large part in a second and, perhaps, 
even more important campaign." Many of our workers " are 
engaged in tasks which have become so specialized that the 
men and women themselves have become almost pieces of 
mechanism. This has produced a condition in which many 
of our workers find no self-expression. In such a condition 
men and women are burned dry of the impulse to create." 
The senator believes that, without turning back progress to 
an age of less specialization, it is none the less " our duty 
as a whole people to see if we cannot make every job in the 
country a small business." The worker and the employer 
must " combine to make every job, no matter what it is, a 
friend of the man who does it." Thus we have a fourth task 
— one of tremendous import to the public welfare, that of 
industrial adjustment — added to the three major tasks which 
Senator Harding is willing and eager to have the federal 
government assume, or having already assumed, to perform 
more thoroughly. 

Before taking up Senator Harding's specific proposal as to 
where in the federal administration these new and enlarged 
functions should be lodged, it is appropriate to refer to the 
Democratic candidate's views and to his well known interest 
in measures affecting social welfare. Standing upon his rec- 
ord, Governor Cox reminds us that he was the active cham- 
pion of the Ohio Children's Code, or Bill of Rights, which 
included a mothers' pension act, model child labor and com- 
pulsory education measures, a juvenile court section, and pro- 
visions bringing the supervision of public institutions under 
the state Board of Charities; and that upon his recommenda- 
tion a bureau of juvenile research has been established, en- 
abling those who are brought into' the juvenile court to be 
examined by experts to determine whether they need cus- 
todial care. The Ohio rural consolidated school act, the 
public health law, providing for a full-time health commis- 
sioner and public health nurse in each local district, the fifty- 
hour law for working women, the law creating a state indus- 
trial commission, and the workmen's compensation act are 
all among the best laws of their kind. Those who have been 



120 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



interested in such legislation consider that the governor has 
been their steadfast reliance. Governor Cox has not only 
advocated the right of working people to organize, but dur- 
ing the steel strike upheld the principle in a way which of- 
fered a marked contrast with the practical negation of the 
rights of free speech and free assemblage in an adjoining state. 

It is quite true that a strong believer in states' rights and 
states' responsibilities might throw himself ardently into the 
securing and enforcement of legislation of this kind within 
the state, and at the same time oppose the expansion of fed- 
eral activities in the same direction on constitutional grounds, 
or on those of practical expediency; but Governor Cox him- 
self refers to the " fifty-four laws for bettering conditions of 
life and labor " enacted in the six years during which he has 
been chief executive of Ohio as a means of giving some idea 
of what to expect of him if he is elected President. " You will 
know," he said to the women of Ohio, " that whenever I have 
opportunity to act along any of the lines I have described I 
will serve diligently to stamp out disease, oppression, ignorance, 
neglect." 

Thus the Republican and Democratic candidates have both 
clearly committed themselves to enlightened and progressive 
action in the interest of the social welfare, interpreting this 
term in its specific sense as applying to health, including ma- 
ternity care, to education, and to industrial relations. 

What gave Senator Harding's address of October 1 its spe- 
cial significance, was not so much his pronouncement in favor 
of federal action in this field as his definite proposal that 
these existing and proposed activities shall be grouped in a 
single department of public welfare. This proposal seemed 
to meet with favor among the visitors to whom Senator Hard- 
ing's remarks were addressed, and it has been widely ap- 
proved, even for example in a journal as little in sympathy 
with the Republican campaign as the Nation. It deserves, 
however, careful scrutiny. Unlike the more general program, 
this proposal does not seem to emanate from the Republican 
National Advisory Committee, whose valuable and interesting 
reports have been published from time to time. It appears to 
be rather a somewhat impromptu and, it must be admitted, 
rather shrewd attempt to evade some practical difficulties 
which have arisen in connection with previous attempts to 
secure new federal departments. Referring to this proposal 
of his opponent for a new department of public welfare, Gov- 
ernor Cox said: "While I am in hearty accord with the 
idea of house-cleaning our government departments, and sort- 
ing out the human from the technical problems, I feel that 
we should look forward to giving education and health equal 
consideration with labor, instead of dumping all social ques- 
tions again in another grab-bag, ill-defined department." We 
are not sufficiently in the confidence of either candidate to 
venture to interpret their feelings. This seems, however, 'to 
be intended as a declaration in favor of two new federal de- 
partments, one of education and one of public health, as that 
is the way in which consideration is now given to labor. 

Readers of the Survey are well aware that for many years 
the American Medical Association and other representative 
bodies have been urging the establishment of a federal health 
department with a secretary of public health in the Cabinet. 
England and Canada have their health ministers, and in view 
of the very considerations which Senator Harding urges, there 
should clearly be a department of public health in our own 
government. Why has it not already been established? The 
answer is like that which John Wanamaker gave to the ques- 
tion as to why we did not have a parcel post. It was because 
we did have four express companies under private manage- 
ment. We likewise have, at the present time, proprietary 
medicines and " leagues of medical freedom." We have Chris- 
tian Scientists and others who, on religious or other grounds, 
oppose the organization of a genuine public health service by 
the medical profession. We have also such popular prejudices 
as are represented by the opposition to vaccination in Oregon 
and the opposition to medical school inspection in California. 
Possibly we may also have some lukewarmness toward the 



proposal on the part of some of those who are interested in 
continuing the existing fragmentary organization of the Public 
Health Service. In the face of all of these obstacles it may 
be easier to get a public welfare department in which the 
health service will be associated with the various other activi- 
ties which Senator Harding catalogues but will this really 
satisfy the medical profession? Will it satisfy the sanitarians 
who know what an efficient national health service might be? 
Will it satisfy the welfare workers and the women voters who 
were interrogating Senator Harding? 

The campaign which has been carried on by the National 
Educational Association and other responsible bodies of edu- 
cators for a department of education with a secretary in the 
Cabinet is likewise familiar, but this campaign also encounters 
opposition. Those who are fundamentally opposed to our 
existing public school system on the ground that it is godless 
do not, of course, look with favor on the proposal to spend 
public funds derived from federal taxation to supplement that 
which the states are now providing. Those who are fearful 
of federal encroachment on state rights, if there are still any 
such persons, no doubt feel the same way. Here again, as in 
the case of the Public Health Service, there may be those 
who have a certain vested interest in continuing the present 
fragmentary arrangements. It requires a very public-spirited 
and far-sighted secretary or commissioner to throw himself 
enthusiastically into a movement the success of which would 
have for its immediate result a diminution in his own powers 
and prestige. Sheer inertia also plays its part in blocking even 
such admirable proposals as those for a department of educa- 
tion and a department of public health. 

One may thus arrive at an understanding of the considera- 
tions which may have suggested a department of public wel- 
fare rather than two or more new departments, however 
complete — and they are very complete — the arguments in 
their favor. The suggestion that industrial peace might also 
become one of the objectives of the new department is rather 
surprising in view of the existence of the Department of Labor. 
Certainly here, if anywhere, the federal government would 
naturally develop those activities which would tend to dimin- 
ish unemployment and restore the motive to industry arising 
from the creative impulse. Possibly it may only have been from 
inadvertence that those subjects are included within the scope 
of the proposed new department. 

All that Senator Harding says about the need of overhauling 
the federal departments and bringing the activities of the 
federal government into better coordination through the trans- 
fer of bureaus, or otherwise, is well within the truth. The 
prediction which has appeared before in these columns may, 
however, be repeated, that a thorough and dispassionate study 
of the executive departments will lead to the irresistible con- 
clusion that in order to get the work of the government done 
with reasonable efficiency there will have to be an increase, not 
of one, but of several departments. The demand of the engi- 
neers for a department of public works should be heeded. Pos- 
sibly this can be done by relieving the present Department of 
the Interior of many of its functions. 

The demand of educators for a department of education and 
the demand of health authorities for a department of. public 
welfare should both be met by appropriate distinct legislation. 
There are, of course, close relations among the educational, 
health and industrial activities of the government, but 
these interests are far too important to be committed to 
subordinate bureaus or services. They should receive equal 
consideration, as Governor Cox suggests, with labor; or, as 
he might have suggested, * with commerce, agriculture, the 
mails, the navy and the army. We should profit by the war 
experiences with the food, fuel and railway administrations. 
We should not repeat the blunder by which the administra- 
tion of the War Risk Insurance act was entrusted to a bureau 
chief responsible to an assistant secretary of the treasury. 
We need, for the great responsibilities now carried by the 
federal government, a larger number of first-class executives 
of Cabinet rank. Edward T. Devine. 






The British Coal Dispute 



By Harold J. Laski 



rj~lHE strike of the British coal miners is an evidence of the bad feeling which exists between the 
§ present government and the miners. If relations had been different, if the government had 
enjoyed the confidence of the rank and file of the miners, the colossal coal strike might 
never have occurred. As amatter of tactics Robert Smillie, president of the Miners' Federation, 
and his associates, were against calling the strike. Their view seemed to be that the time was in- 
auspicious. The executive officers of the miners were, however, decisively overruled. The final 
vote of the federation showed 181,428 votes for accepting the coal owners' suggestion and 635,098 
against the proposal. 

Whether or not the Railway Workers or the Transport Workers, who are so closely allied 
with the miners, will stop work in sympathy is at this writing {October 18) not decided. It prob- 
ably depends upon the manner in which the strike is conducted. The Manchester Guardian has 
remarked that " no strike has ever been entered upon with less passion on either side." Lloyd 
George has expressed himself as ready to explore every avenue of settlement. If that mood is 
maintained on both sides a settlement ought to be made before catastrophic losses have been suf- 
fered by the British people and by all who are dependent on their coal and their industry. Mr. 
Laski here gives the background of the present strike. — The Editors. 



London, October 4. 

FAR deeper issues are in question in the present dispute 
between the miners and the government than is 
apparent from the superficial aspects of the negotia- 
tions. When, as long ago as last July, the miners 
presented a demand for an increased wage of 2 shillings per 
shift, together with the abolition of the 14s. 2d. added to the 
price of coal by the government last May, the strike seemed 
too far away for men to be concerned with its possibilities. 
With the coming of September the significance of coal, not 
merely to British, but even to European history, became 
apparent; and an immense campaign was undertaken by the 
press to convince the public of the injustice of the miners' 
demands. And, broadly speaking, that campaign has been not 
unsuccessful for three reasons: 

1. The resources of labor journalism do not enable the miners 
to reach any very large section of the public. 

2. Miners' wages, though they have not increased relatively 
to the cost of living have increased faster than those of any 
other portion of the community. 

3. No one wanted the disturbances of normal life a coal strike 
would entail. 

At the outset it must be realized that the miners' negotia-, 
tions were, until last week, with the government. As the final 
controlling authority in the coal trade the government, through 
the Coal Controller's Department of the Board of Trade, 
has the sole right to fix wages and prices in the industry. To 
them, therefore, the miners' demands were presented. 

The government's position, as stated by Sir Robert Home"; 
lly turned upon three points: 

1. The price of coal had been fixed by parliamentary enact- 
ment, and only parliamentary enactment could change it. 

2. _ An increase of wages was impossible since (a) with every 
previous increase there had been a decline in output and (b) 
an increase would be unfair to the workers in other industries. 

3. The increased profits of the coal trade were due to purely 
fortuitous conditions in the export trade, and the fund so derived 
ought to be used for the general relief of the burden of taxation 
upon the community rather than for the benefit of any special 
class. 



The miners' case stood upon broader ground. It was argued 
by them 

1. That the increase in the cost of living justified an increase 
in wages. 

2. That the £66,000,000 due to the imposition of 14s. 2d. on 
the price of coal per ton ought to be shared among the miners in 
the shape of wages and the community in the shape of cheaper 
coal. To use it for taxation was to benefit the richer rather than 
the poorer section of the community. 

3. The miners also charged that the government was pre- 
paring the way for the decontrol of the coal industry and that 
the 14s. 2d. had been added in order that, when decontrol came, 
the poorer mines would be able to pay their way independently 
instead, as at present, of sharing in the established common pool 
of the profits of all mines. It is difficult to know where the truth 
lies in this matter. Sir Robert Home has consistently said that 
the government has no intention of decontrolling immediately ; 
on the other hand, Sir Adam Nimmo, a great figure in the coal 
world, has given his colleagues among the owners to understand 
that they may prepare for decontrol. The truth probably is that 
while no explicit promise had been made, the miners had ground 
for their suspicions and were justified in seeking some guarantee 
of the continuance of control. 

The executive of the Miners' Federation, being confronted 
with a firm refusal from the government, held a delegate con- 
ference in London which voted to ballot the workers upon the 
question of a strike. The ballot was taken and more than the 
necessary two-thirds majority was secured. The Triple 
Alliance met and upheld the miners' demands, though without 
considering immediate joint action. The Trade Union Con- 
gress heard a statement from Mr. Hodges with applause; and 
as the day of the strike, September 19, drew near, it seemed 
as though no prevention was possible. 

The attitude of the press at this point was interesting. The 
miners were consistently accused at once of selfish rapacity in 
demanding the increased wage, and of disingenuousness in de- 
manding the decrease in the price of coal. The latter, they 
were told, was not their business. Let them stick to the 
increase-of-wages demand and let the prices go; in that event 
a compromise was possible. They were advised, that is to say, 
to be selfishly rapacious but not to assist the community by 
decreasing prices. 

At this stage the Triple Alliance met again and, mainly 
on the urgency of J. H. Thomas, of the railwaymen, sought 

121 



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122 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



an interview with the prime minister. Here, the demand 
about prices was withdrawn and that relative to wages only 
was pressed. The prime minister, with characteristic agility, 
suggested a reference of the issue to an industrial court with 
special powers. This was the repetition of an offer already 
made by, and refused to, Sir Robert Home ; and it was refused 
again. Naturally; for the miners having lost prestige in 
relation to the price demand for the sake of industrial peace 
(it is significant that no newspaper has attacked them on this 
score) were not willing to lose all by submitting to a tribunal 
which was certain to give them less than they asked and might 
possibly give them nothing at all. 

On the very eve of the strike, Lloyd George then came for- 
ward with new proposals. Wages were intimately connected 
with output; output was going down; a decline in output 
was disastrous. Would the miners discuss terms with the 
owners so that they would establish a datum line upon which 
an increase of wages could begin, with further increases at 
certain stages of increased production. This was, for the 
miners, a difficult position. One of Mr. Smillie's greatest 
achievements as president of the Miners' Federation has been 
the establishment of a basic minimum wage, irrespective of 
output. Here he was invited to abandon this principle with 
the certainty that if output was increased the miner would 
be accused of slacking in his previous effort. He argued that 
the 2 shillings should be granted anyhow; and the whole 
problem of output be considered immediately with a pooling 
of suggestions by owners and men. This was refused ; and 
it is probable that at this stage an important section of the 
miners pressed for an immediate strike. It was only the 
amazing hold of Mr. Smillie upon his men, and his keen sense 
(far keener than that of the prime minister) of the disaster 
a coal strike would involve, which secured the acceptance of 
this proposal. Up to this point, it is not even clear whether 
the prime minister wanted a strike or not. Most are inclined 
to the view that he did in order to force a general election 
upon the issue (not unknown in America) of Bolshevism; 
but the renewed acuteness of the Irish question as evidenced 
in the horrible reprisals at Mallow and Balbriggan, made him 
change his mind. Whatever the fact, that peace was so far 
preserved was due to Mr. Smillie and not to the government. 

The negotiations with the owners lasted from Monday, 
September 27; until Friday, October 1, when the miners broke 
them off. Neither side came near the demands of the other. 
The miners demanded a 2 shilling increase, as from July 15, 
on an annual production of 236 million tons with an extra 
shilling for each further six million tons; the owners offered 
one shilling at 242 million tons with a sixpenny increase at 
each extra six million. On Friday recourse was had to the 
prime minister and the original demand for the two shillings 
presented again. This was refused, and the prime minister 
asked Mr. Smillie to confer further with the owners. Dis- 
cussion on Friday afternoon produced an amended offer from 
the owners of rather better terms. But the owners still stood 
by a proposal which, basing wages as it does on output, would 
lead trade unionism into a terrible morass were it accepted. 
For while it would place a heavy burden on the miners it 
would place no real obligation on the owners to replace the 
inadequate and antiquated equipment which is, in the miners' 
view, the real cause in the decline of output. 

On Saturday morning, October 2, the prime minister made 
one of those dramatic appeals to the miners to preserve national 
unity in which he has now become such an adept. The Dele- 
gate Conference met and an immense struggle ensued in which 
Mr. Smillie, with some support from the Yorkshire delegates, 
pleaded for another ballot as to whether a strike against the 



owners' terms should be made. South Wales and Lancashire 
were passionately opposed; and it is the greatest tribute Mr. 
Smillie ever received from his colleagues that he should have 
been able to carry the conference with him. The second ballot 
will take place in a fortnight. Probably it will lead to a 
rejection of the owners' offer, but without the two-thirds 
majority necessary for a strike. If that majority is obtained 
the miners will at least be able to claim that they have done 
more either than owners or government to secure a settlement. 
For it is worth putting down the offers of each side to 
realize fully the part the miners have played. 

1. The miners demanded some assurance about the continu- 
ance of control. They have not got it though it is vital to their 
general position. In the interest of peace, they have not pressed it. 

2. The miners demanded that the 14s. 2d. be taken off the 
price of coal. On this being refused, in the interest of peace they 
harve not pressed it. 

3. The miners demanded an increase of two shillings per shift 
in wages. They have been offered approximately half that 
amount, but conditionally upon increased output. They are given 
no guarantee (a) that good places will be worked (b) that 
improved equipment will be provided (c) that better transporta- 
tion facilities will be secured. They had certainly a mandate 
at this point for a strike; but in the interests of peace they have 
again decided to ballot their members. 

The government (i) refused to lower the price of 'coal. 
No one has yet explained why it was increased. The suspicion 
remains that it was with a view to subsequent decontrol with 
the relapse into the industry's former chaotic organization. 
The government (2) refused to give any pledge as to the 
continuance of control to some definite date. Yet it is known 
from experience in other trades that the end of control will 
mean a great increase in price with an added burden to the 
consumer and resultant wage-demands with resultant higher 
prices all round. The government (3) refused the 2 shillings 
increase in wages. They offered a wage tribunal; and, on its 
rejection, they suggested conference with the owners. This 
was itself an evasion ; for since the government controls the 
industry the owners ought not to have been brought into the 
dispute at all. When they were brought in, they inevitably 
produced unacceptable terms for the simple reason that they 
knew beforehand that the men's terms would not be acccepted. 

One aspect of the whole situation deserves a word. The 
£66,000,000 profit which led to the demand is made from the 
export trade to Southern and Central Europe. These are the 
countries which can least afford to pay the present famine- 
prices of coal. A government really desirous of restoring 
European civilization would have reduced the price of coal 
by this amount and thereby hastened that recovery. Against 
such a plea, the miners would have had no valid case. 

From the whole situation three central points seem to 
emerge : 

1. The basis of the mining industry is utterly unsatisfactory. 
The men do not trust either the owners or the government. They 
will not rest until nationalization is effected. 

2. The owners are deliberately working poor seams and using 
bad equipment in the belief that when decontrol comes they can 
force up prices and make large profits. 

3. The government is anxious to decontrol the mines in order 
to throw the burden of disputes on miners and owners. 

This is in any case impossible; for a coal strike, no matter 
who controls the mines, would be disastrous and a government 
which allowed it to occur would not long survive. 

But as long as the present system obtains there will be 
new demands with consequent crises. The basic problem is a 
psychological one; and it will not be solved while the present 
system continues. Anyone who wants an admirable, summary 
of the reasons for this has only to read the excellent discussion 
in Arthur Gleason's What the Workers Want, Part II, Chap- 
ter II. But I assume that every reader of the Survey is 
acquainted with that incomparable guide to the British labor 
movement.. 



Poland 

By Frank E. JValser 



o 



MEMBER, POLISH UNIT, AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE 

The peace signed between Poland and Soviet Russia at Riga, which went into effect on October 18, 
concludes one of the most tragic chapters in the history of events since Versailles — traffic because it inflict- 
ed untold suffering on the peoples of both nations for no ends that could not have been secured much 
earlier by well-intentioned parley. Poland obtained more territory than marked out for it on the allied 
peace map; Russia succeeded in postponing the financial 'settlement upon which the Poles had insisted in 
earlier negotiations. The diplomats of the Allied countries, however, were dissatisfied with the out- 
come. Insofar as a desire to see the Poles keep up the war " to the bitter end " was due to lacking 
understanding of what the conflict meant to the Polish people, the following narrative of first-hand 
experience by an American social worker may help to rectify the perspective. The peace just con- 
cluded will make possible a much more vigorous participation of American agencies in the stupendous 
task of relief and reconstruction. — The Editors. 

car loaded with flour and blankets 



'ptfii. 
The 
ii the 

■edit 
min6 



jainst 



3 tO 






NE does not need to have gone over the Polish rail- 
roads in freight and passenger cars (I have jour- 
neyed from Lublin to Warsaw for the seventh time 
in three weeks), to realize that this nation is being 
bled to death by war. Think of a country where everything has 
been broken up and thrown into a mess by three great armies ; 
where the machines have all been stolen from the factories and 
where the splendid mansions of the many large estates, with 
the brick barns of their large farms, have all been ripped up 
by guns. Sixty-two per cent of the revenue is paid out to 
run a large army, and most of the coal mined, which could 
be sold at a fabulous price because it is in such demand all over 
Europe, is used in pulling long trains of these unproductive 
men in ragged uniforms over long stretches of the Polish plain. 
There is not much left for other governmental departments, 
such as those of agriculture and education. These two, for in- 
stance, have great plans. The estate owners and even the peas- 
ants must be enabled to use tractors on all this expanse of 
stoneless and fenceless land. The best and most up-to-date 
education must be enforced for all children of 7 to 14. But 
everything must wait for peace, even the improvement of the 
roads, which are so bad that three-quarters of them are impas- 
sable by any other means than horse travel, and even then one's 
cart sinks into the frequent mud holes up to the axles of the 
wheels. One can see the sign of discouragement very plainly 
in the officials of the non-military departments. It is pathetic to 
hear them tell you that there is no money, that the govern- 
ment is poor, or that the kerosene sent down from Warsaw 
for farm tractors has all been requisitioned for the army. 
Meanwhile one sees train-loads of soldiers idling at every rail- 
road station, waiting for a locomotive to take their train to the 
next stop on the long journey to the front. 

During the last month I have worked in the group of vil- 
lages around Werbkovice, which is between Hrubieszov and 
Zamosc, southeast of Lublin. But the Bolshevists were ad- 
vancing so fast that our unit had to evacuate. You should 
have seen the lines of refugees coming westward, how sad they 
looked, with their chairs, tables, boxes, pet hog or dog and per- 
haps a calf or goose, piled into a narrow cart with the family. 
The retreating soldiers looked dead tired, but now and then 
they would joke with one another in that care free sort of way 
which is doubtless the best mood for anyone in that great game 
in which all personal differences, such as those of individual 
opinion, matter so little. 

Rowno had been captured and there had been stiff fighting 
at Dubno. When I left Werbkowice the Russian cavalry was 
advancing rapidly toward Vladimir-Volinsk, which is only 50 
kilometres east of us. 

Last week I convoyed seven workers and all our baggage in 
a freight car to Warsaw. Two days later another batch left. 
Now I am coming up to Warsaw a second time in a freight 



, 



I have been here with my 
cot and supply of canned herring for five days, and now our 
train is waiting outside Warsaw until there is room on the sta- 
tion's tracks. All the men from 14 to 52 are going off to the 
front. You should see the little boys that look no more than 
twelve, marching along so valiantly in the hot sun. 

In the territory which we have just left, half the peasants are 
Poles and half are Russians, with the proportion of Russians 
rapidly increasing as one gets east of the river Bug. Two-thirds 
of the land or more is farmed by large estate owners, who are 
Poles of refinement and culture, who can usually speak three 
or four languages and have a fairly thorough understanding 
of their agricultural business. The pity is that they share the 
fairly widespread contempt for the inferiority and ignorance of 
their peasants, and even where they do dispense to them kind- 
ness and gifts, have no idea at all of the spirit of democracy. 
This feeling has been heightened by the noxious propaganda 
against large Polish land owners pursued by the old czarist 
regime. The few schools in all this area in and around White 
Russia and western Ukraine conducted by Russian teachers 
aimed at injecting a hatred in the peasant children against these 
big Polish farmers, and thus to assist in the policy which en- 
abled the three empires to keep the Poles in subjection. 

Poles, you see, are peculiarly individualistic in temperament. 
This is what makes them interesting as individuals but weak 
as a nation. Individual freedom is an old right. One can do as 
one feels and pleases without the fear as in Austria or Ger- 
many of looking conspicuous because one is too natural. A man 
who owns his own soul is more at home in Warsaw than in 
Vienna or Berlin. But there are times when individual opinion 
must be merged into the united stand of a people or a nation. 
The Roman Catholics, the Orthodox (Greek church), the 
Jews, socialists, Nationalists, peasants, and big land-owners 
should long ago have learned to stand together in an emergency 
and not let a foreign power whip up their quarrels for its own 
ends. Even in the whole conduct of the war against Russia, 
there has been internal dissension, rising up till a month ago to 
the point of completely paralyzing the military and political 
effort. 

It must also be considered that any altruistic feeling toward 
the peasants was checked by the czarist government, which 
wished them to remain ignorant so that they would be content 
to produce food and keep quiet. Now that the Polish govern- 
ment is introducing schools into every district, and organiza- 
tion for social and human welfare is no more under suspicion, 
the attitude of the Polish gentry will probably change rapidly. 
The large land-owners will look upon the peasants more and 
more as less lucky brothers in the growth toward freedom and 
beauty. 

Although there is a distinct finesse of intellect and grace of 
movement, especially among the women, in all of the Polish 

123 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



people, the absolute lack of all knowledge of the outer world, 
in fact of all beyond their own village, is terrifying. For 
instance, in the area we have just worked in, Polish is the 
language in one village and Ukrainian in the next, and few 
if any will be found in either village who know both languages. 
Often two villages speaking different languages are only three 
or four miles apart. One realizes how little modern civiliza- 
tion has penetrated this part of Europe when one sees the 
peasant horses turn tail at the approach of our little car, and 
run across the field or down the road as fast as they can, fail- 
ing by very little to break the harness or upset the cart. There 
is scarcely one horse in ten which lets our car go by without 
looking desperately afraid. 

Half the members of the Diet are socialists, and many of 
these are representatives of the peasants, but the Polish social- 
ists are very patriotic and intelligent, and have a more hopeful 
and constructive attitude than most socialists of other East 
European nations seem to possess, with their war for the last 
hundred years on capitalism instead of on czarism. 

The sudden joy of independence has filled every heart, 
and checked the discontent with present society and economics 
which has been increasing in the other European countries. To 
have, suddenly, one's own army, railroad system, government 
departments, currency, free organizations, where before there 
were only enforced dependence and oppression, is enough to 
take considerable attention away from radical experiments. 

Coming back to the war, I imagine that many foreigners 
must be asking, What keeps the war going? Well, in fact 
only a little more than half the people, as was represented by 
the vote of their representatives in the Diet, want the war 
to continue. But as long as the minority, with their intense 
patriotism for Poland's welfare, still harp upon the broadly 
advertised idea that Poland's independence is not safe until the 
Bolsheviks are kept at a safe distance, it will be unable to 
make a vigorous stand for its program of peace and the con- 
centration of all effort upon internal reconstruction. 

The small majority that is vigorously pushing the war has 
so many prejudices and preferences to reinforce its attitude. 
There is, for instance, the widespread Polish love for the 
Roman Catholic church, traditionally strengthened by the long 
opposition of the former Russian government. There is the 
hatred against the Jews, with the widely advertised fact that 
many of the Bolshevist leaders are Jewish and the Jews 
throughout Poland, all of whose cities are half Jewish, sympa- 
thize with the Bolshevists and would be only too glad to see 
another nation or social regime take the power away from the 
Poles, whom they so dislike. There is also the traditional 
hatred against Russia, bred into the bone of every Pole, and a 
growing feeling that a large proportion of the Russian peas- 
ants, who are a considerable proportion of the population 
around Grodno, Brest-Litovsk, and Lemberg, have Bolshevist 
sympathies and would be only too glad to get permission to 
seize the large estates of the Polish land owners and thus add 
substantially to their small holdings of ten to fifty acres. 

I have talked with several officers. One is soon aware that 
many of the finest individuals in the country are among them. 
When one can get their confidence, one soon finds some who 
are not in agreement with the policy conducted at Warsaw, 
and, as one told me only yesterday: The office holders in War- 
saw may not be keen to end this war, but you need only ques- 
tion the officers and men who are fighting for their sixth year to 
know how sick they are of it. 

I predict big changes when demobilization begins. On the 
other hand demobilization will probably be conducted slowly 
and with great care. The Polish leaders have had their eyes 
on the conditions in the other countries of Europe and realize 
that on the continent only Switzerland, Belgium, Holland 



and Czechoslovakia are running with order and production, and 
that even in the last of the countries named, which has been at 
peace for some time, there are signs of internal strife. Some 
predict a military dictatorship, others a pogrom against the 
Jews, and still others a very socialistic government with a pro- 
gram for the nationalization of all large resources and the 
immediate partition of large estates. 

When one considers that this is very much an agricultural 
country, and that owing to the lack of raw materials and ma- 
chines for the factories the life of the country now more than 
ever depends upon its agricultural production, this question of 
division of estates is a very important one. The socialists were 
some time ago successful in passing the bill for the partitioning 
of estates, but there is very much division of opinion in the Diet 
on how this should be done. It will therefore be some time 
before majority opinion concentrates upon one definite plan. 
Many intelligent Poles say that all but the very large or poorly 
run estates are safe for the next ten years. However, this period 
of uncertainty is the worst possible thing, and I have been told 
by several land owners that they do not know with the present 
threat of partitioning before them how much of their capital 
they dare invest in rebuilding and reequipping their ruined 
farms. The country needs food badly. If the land is taken 
away from the comparatively small group which understands 
the science and the business of farming, it is doubtful if there 
can be found enough intelligent and trained men to achieve the 
production which the nation requires to sustain its population. 
The present state of Lemberg with its weak and vitality 
lacking population is an example of what may happen to all 
the cities, if the socialists do not sufficiently realize the tre- 
mendous importance of keeping up the salable agricultural 
product. The people in Petrograd and Moscow are starv- 
ing because they had no trained Bolshevik agriculturists but 
only ignorant and untrained peasants to do the important work 
of the aristocrat land owners. Lemberg is near the strip of 
devastated territory occupied for so long by the German and 
Russian fronts, where the barns and houses of the large 
land owners are all destroyed and the machines and animals 
taken away. Most of the peasants around Lemberg have their 
little places running again, but they sell little food, not only 
because they have little land, but also because they raise flax 
and hemp and several other crops themselves and have the habit 
of buying little. A large number of the peasants in that area, 
but more still in the western sections of Poland, have actually 
more money than they need, and as they cannot count to a 
very high figure, measure the paper money in barrels or weigh 
it on scales. The large land owners around Lemberg are only 
with great difficulty able to buy materials, machines and stock 
for reconstituting their farms, and usually have a number of 
their workers in the army. Most of them are only just able 
to exist themselves at a standard of living very much lower 
than what they were used to, and can farm no more than a 
quarter of their land as long as the present war conditions pre- 
vail. Lemberg, which grew up as a city on the favorable con- 
ditions of food from those large efficiently farmed tracts, is 
now receiving only a quarter of the food that should come to it. 
One thing that will ease the economic rehabilitation of 
Poland considerably is the fact that its economic system is 
much simpler than that of Austria or of Germany. A very 
large majority of its population is still in the primitive economic 
state of a self-sufficing family unit, which grows its own hemp, 
flax for clothes, rye for bread, and tobacco, and handles little 
money. The farmers of Poland are, except in Posen, much 
less dependent upon commercial fertilizers than are those of 
Germany and France. 

The principal need of Poland is good, modern education, one 
that will be on a broad and fundamental basis. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



125 



INDUSTRY 



WILLIAM 



Conducted by 
L. CHENERY 



The 48-Hour Law in Massachusetts 



THE Massachusetts law limiting the hours of women 
and minors to a maximum 9-hour day and 48-hour 
week in the major industries in which such workers are 
employed, went into effect July 18, 1919. It has, therefore, 
been in operation for a little over one year. Although this 
period is perhaps inadequate to warrant a final statement as 
to the result of the law, it does permit some general observa- 
tions as to how it is working out. 

The act provides that no woman and no young person un- 
der 18 years of age shall be employed in laboring in any fac- 
tory, workshop, mercantile, manufacturing or mechanical 
establishment, or for an express or transportation company, 
or in a public telephone or telegraph exchange for more than 
9 hours in any one day, nor more than 48 hours in any one 
week, except that in occupations that are seasonal — and the 
Department of Labor and Industry shall determine what occu- 
pations are seasonal — the hours may exceed 48 a week, but 
not 52, provided the average of the number of hours worked 
during the year does not exceed 48. 

The only changes made from the former law are the re- 
duction of the number of hours that may be worked a week 
from 54 to 48; the number of hours in one day from 10 to 9; 
and the maximum weekly hours for seasonal employments 
from 58 to 52. The 48-hour act does not of itself add any 
new occupations to the list covered by the 54-hour law. A 
measure passed last year, however, automatically adds women 
elevator operators, since it states that they shall come within 
the provision of the 54-hour law and of any amendments 
thereto. 

How has the 48-hour law worked in practice? Has it, as 
proclaimed by opponents, thrown women out of employment ; 
resulted in the substitution of men for women; has it caused 
a reduction in wages? The Department of Labor and Indus- 
tries has made no detailed investigation to ascertain the effect 
of the act. The regular inspection work of the department, 
however, and the complaints that are received, furnish a 
pretty good indication of the result. Where violations were 
found they were practically always due to ignorance rather 
than any intentional violation of the law. They occurred 
mainly in small concerns and point to the need for a definite 
policy of educational work by the department in explaining 
the labor laws. With the great number of employers, the 
adjustment has been made apparently without any confusion 
or especial difficulty. 

In many cases the change to the shorter schedule was made 
considerably in advance of the time required. In some of the 
large textile centers the adjustment was effected several months 
before the law went into operation. Practically everywhere 
where workers, were employed by the piece, the change was 
accompanied by an advance in piece rates, usually the approxi- 
mate amount to prevent any loss of wages on the part of the 
workers. In some instances, however, the increase was sub- 
stantially more than this, so that the employes gained both 
in reduction of hours and in increase of wages. 

I think it is safe to say the reduction in hours has not re- 
sulted in the discharge of women workers, or in the substitu- 
tion of men for women, for if anything of this sort had taken 
place, it would pretty certainly have come to the attention of 
the department, through complaints, and the only instances 
that have been reported are those of three or four women tele- 
graph operators. An opinion of the attorney-general recently 
given holds that such operatives, when engaged in interstate 
commerce, do not come within the provisions of the state law, 
and these women are now asking that their former positions 
be restored. 



A study of some of the effects of the Massachusetts law is 
being made by the Women's Bureau at Washington, and in 
this connection some data which the department collected for 
the bureau is of interest. As a means of definitely checking 
up some of the effects of the law, we selected the textile in- 
dustry, as the largest women-employing industry in the state. 
A number of representative factories in the different centers 
were taken, where it was known mills were operating on more 
than a 48-hour basis the first of the year. The number and 
proportion of men and women workers were taken in January, 
the month before the change was made by the majority of 
mills, and again in October following the date the law be- 
came effective. These show substantially no change either in 
the number of women workers or in the proportion they repre- 
sent of the entire number of operatives. 

The situation here may, I think, be taken as typical of the 
principal women-employing industries in the state. In short, 
women have not been thrown out of employment, and wages 
have not been reduced. In this connection we should remem- 
ber that the period under consideration is one characterized by 
labor shortage and by rising wages, so that from the stand- 
point of the proponents of the law, it has been an especially 
favorable period to apply it. At the same time, I think that 
the result is a natural one, for the trend in industry, inde- 
pendent of legislative action, has been toward a shorter work- 
ing day. Progressive employers recognizing the advantage as 
a business proposition, have voluntarily adopted a shorter 
working schedule, and a number of such employers in Mas- 
sachusetts and elsewhere are on record in favor of the 48-hour 
week as a means of increasing production. Some employers 
have gone even further and are operating on a 44 or 45-hour 
schedule. A number of the large retail stores in Boston volun- 
tarily adopted a 7j^-hour day this year, starting work at 9 
in the morning instead of 8.30 as formerly. 

A significant statement concerning the effect of the 48-hour 
law on production was made by one of the largest employers 
of women in Massachusetts, in an advertisement which ap- 
peared after the law had been in operation for six months. In 
this, reference was made incidentally to the shorter hours and 
the increased output during the period. 

The 48-hour limit for the working week is an accomplished 
fact in this state. The law was passed in response to strong 
popular demand. While there was some vigorous objection to 
its enactment, it went into effect without any apparent fric- 
tion, and to date, I think its operation has been successful. 

There are certain features in the Massachusetts law which 
are sometimes called in question. These are the inclusion of 
the words " in laboring " to qualify the kind of employment 
covered by the law; the provision for exemptions for seasonal 
employment and the provision for a 9-hour day. With respect 
to the last mentioned provision, it should be borne in mind 
that the 9-hour day is limited by a 48-hour week; also that 
it applies only to women and young persons 16 to 18 years 
of age, minors under 16 being restricted to an 8-hour day. 
This provision gives an amount of elasticity to the law and 
makes it possible to adapt it to suit individual needs. It enables 
employers to make adjustments to meet emergencies. It secures 
for employes a Saturday half-holiday. It sometimes operates 
to insure a shorter working week than would otherwise be 
possible. 

The provision for seasonal exemption has less to commend 
it. An exemption when granted applies not merely to the 
establishment requesting it, but to the entire occupation; not 
to a special group of workers, but to all — women and minors 
16 to 18 years of age alike. In only two occupations has such 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



exemption been granted, the straw hat industry and the tobacco 
packing industry; a third case, that of the fresh fish canning 
industry, is now pending. 

The addition of the words " in laboring ", — " No child 
under eighteen years of age and no woman shall be employed 
in laboring in any factory or workshop, or in any manu- 
facturing, mercantile, mechanical establishment," etc. — gives 
a certain ambiguity to the law and makes possible conflicting 
interpretations. 

Opinions of different attorney-generals and the department 
counsel, have varied somewhat as to its meaning. The ques- 
tion has not as yet reached the Supreme Judicial Court. Ac- 
cording to a recent opinion of the counsel, the words " in 
laboring " restrict the application of the act to women em- 
ployed in industrial as distinguished from clerical employment. 
Thus it applies to the factory operative, but not to the factory 
stenographer. 

An amendment proposed this year which would have raised 
the question again, proposed to add to the groups now covered 
by the law, women employed in hotels, as ushers in theaters, 
in motion picture houses, manicuring and hairdressing estab- 
lishments, in hand laundries, private telephone exchanges, on 
all elevators, and in banks. It was probably the inclusion of 
women in banks that resulted in the defeat of the measure. 

This raises a problem which must be met by those who be- 
lieve in protective legislation for women. That is, how 
women may be safeguarded from injurious conditions in in- 
dustry without restricting their opportunity. The answer, so 
far as there can be a definite answer, lies I think, in dividing 
the groups that need protection and are least able to protect 
themselves from those who, by reason of their training, educa- 
tion, or position, possess effective bargaining power and are 
able to determine the conditions under which they work. 

Ethel M. Johnson. 
Assistant Commissioner, 

Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries. 

Industrial Pensions 

THE Merchants' Association of New York has completed 
a study of industrial pensions. The association confined 
its attention to the old age system maintained by private cor- 
porations. It reports that there are now between 150 and 200 
such systems in this country. Manufacturing concerns, rail- 
roads, banks and other large organizations chiefly have under- 
taken the development. The report says : 

The fundamental reason underlying almost every pension sys- 
tem is the desire of the employer to assure his employes of inde- 
pendence during their old age, both as a reward for faithful- 
ness and as the best method of performing a duty. A prevalent 
social theory which the average employer accepts is that an em- 
ployer should not use the services of an employe during the 
fruitful period of his life and then heartlessly discard him to 
the. human scrapheap where he is dependent upon society, if he 
has not been able to accumulate savings from his earnings to 
care for himself and his dependents during his old age. On the 
other hand, it is expensive and unsatisfactory to keep an em- 
ploye, who has become inefficient because of old age, at his regu- 
lar position and it is frequently difficult to find sufficient posi- 
tions suitable to the capability of, or satisfactory to all super- 
annuated employes. The only alternative is to pension them in 
some way. In addition to the desire to reward faithfulness or 
to fulfill a duty there is usually in the mind of the employer, 
hope of attaining definite beneficial effects on the efficiency and 
the prosperity of the business. 

The Merchants' Association found that employes are not 
as a rule enthusiastic about a gift from the employer made 
without consulting their desires. Yet without intelligent 
interest on the part of the employes, the association points out, 
a pension system cannot be made highly successful. This 
interest can be obtained by winning the endorsement of the 
employes before a pension plan is installed, by cooperating with 
them in operating the system and by making it, in fact, an 
employe organization through financial contributions from 
them. The report adds : " The lack of success of pension sys- 



tems is due, in no small degree, to the fact that they are 
usually autocratic and paternalistic rather than democratic and 
cooperative." 

The problems involved in an industrial pension system are 
of two kinds: employer management and actuarial. The 
system must be sound from an insurance point of view and valid 
from the standpoint of industrial relations. The Merchants' 
Association urges that a system which does not assure a pen- 
sion to each employe is unfair and that a system which is 
dependent on the changing desires of an executive is not valu- 
able. " The best practice," it states, " which, however, is far 
from typical, calls for the development of a permanent pension 
fund kept separate from the regular assets of the business in 
such a manner as to protect it from creditors in case the com- 
pany meets with financial difficulties. At least in the case of a 
contributory system the contributions of employes should be 
protected." A list of companies having pension systems is pub- 
lished with a copy of the questionnaire on which the inquiry 
is based. 

The Federated Press 

THE organization of the Federated Press eleven months 
ago brought together for the first time in this country ele- 
ments corresponding roughly to those cooperating in the Brit- 
ish labor movement. Thirty-two editors met in Chicago in 
November, 19 19, for the express purpose of building up their 
own news-transmitting service. In the language of their by- 
laws, they felt themselves " unable to obtain unbiased news 
service from the existing press associations." The editors who 
organized the cooperative association, and those who have since 
come in, represent the Socialist and Farmer-Labor parties, the 
Nonpartisan League, the cooperative groups, the One Big 
Union districts, such as Butte and Seattle, the foreign-lan- 
guage groups, the great independent unions, central labor 
bodies, and American Federation of Labor groups. 

Among the hundred-odd papers which make up the member- 
ship in the United States are the New Majority, national 
organ of the Farmer- Labor Party; the New York Call, the 
Milwaukee Leader, and Tyomies, of Superior, Wis., Socialist 
dailies; the Seattle Union Record, Butte Daily Bulletin and 
Minnesota Daily Star, supported by the local labor communi- 
ties, and union organs, such as Advance, issued by the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers. 

Canadian members of the Federated Press take in a simi- 
larly broad sweep. In England, the London Daily Herald, 
which, with its circulation of nearly half a million, has become 
the powerful voice of a powerful labor movement, is the 
largest member of the new organization. In Germany more 
than one hundred daily papers, representative of every labor 
group in the country, have recently formed a branch of th 
Federated Press. Similar national sections have been organize 
in Russia, Scandinavia, Belgium, Holland, Australia and Nc 
Zealand. 

The Federated Press is organized along lines identical wi 
the Associated Press, in that it is a non-profit making, co 
operative association of editors. The aim set forth in its by- 
laws is to furnish straight, uncolored news of all sorts. Dur 
ing the first months of its existence, it has put its chief ei 
phasis upon that large portion of world-happenings which ha< 
been suppressed or ignored by previously existing associations. 
Its correspondents and writers have displayed a tendency to 
analyze the daily grist of news in its bearing upon the live 
and purposes of the working class, and to interpret events 
part of contemporary industrial history. Thus they have 
created an entirely new field of American journalism, treated 
in fresh and often illuminating fashion. 

Evolution of the American trade unions, many of which 
already have assumed the industrial form; the grimmer phaseg 
of the industrial conflict as waged in Centralia, West Vir- 
ginia, Butte and Bethlehem; the effect of great commercial 
and financial transactions upon the lives of the common people; 
the international alliances and intrigues of capital and capi- 









3V- 

ur- 
m- 
lad 

is. 

to 

ve 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



127 



OUCH! > hurt! 

SPoSE THAT ROOOH 
NECK DOCTOR THINKS 
t HAVE NT ANY FEELING- 

6ucss rtS tower A» rr 
DIDN'T HURT HIM — 

Mt should worry 




talistically controlled statesmen; the 
growth of the cooperative movement and 
the political movement of the farmers 
and trade unionists — such are the fields 
being closely reported by this labor press 
association. 

Bureaus and correspondents have been 
placed in the great centers of political 
and industrial battle — in London, Paris, 
Berlin, Vienna, Rome, Amsterdam, 
Christiana, Antwerp, Sidney (N. S. 
W.)» Montreal, Washington, Pitts- 
burgh, Chicago, Minneapolis, Butte, 
Seattle, Los Angeles, and a host of 
other cities. Traveling writers in Eu- 
rope, America and Asia have brought 
vital news to Federated Press readers, 
viewed always from the standpoint of 
those who work for their livelihood. 

E. J. Costello, long with the Asso- 
ciated Press, is managing editor of the 
Federated Press, and Louis P. Lochner, 
of wide experience in writing and edit- 
ing labor news, is general news editor. 
Mr. Costello is now in Europe estab- 
lising new bureaus at strategic points 
through which tremendous news is 
going to flow in the coming twenty-five 
years. 

Members of the Federated Press staff include such Ameri- 
can writers as William Hard, Scott Nearing, Paul Hanna, 
Lawrence Todd, Carl Sandberg, Anna Louise Strong and 
Frederick C. Howe, while its foreign staff includes George 
Lansbury, E. D. Morel, W. N. Ewer, H. N. Brailsford, M. 
Phillips Price, Sanford Griffith and Frederic Kuh. 

There are those who assert that the labor press leans as far 
over to the side of labor as does the employer-owned press to 
the other side. That is a factor against which the new 
association must guard. Andrew Long. 



Wonder What a Sore Finger Thinks About 



WOW HI 

THE p.o * OOOO THAT 1.1 T 
HE 6CTMDHT IH THE Tl <UT 
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MB A6AINST THE WAIL 
■VKERE'S »m e 

t OM» • <.ATj N THOUGH 
IT HURT H1N AJ MUCH 

ft* it cio Kie._ 



HE SEWED UP A BlCi 

HOLE IH THE SIDE OF 
ME JO&T LIKE HE vVoi/LD 
.SEW <i" A ORAIN BAO — 

oidn'T hori met ANf 
1 DON'T think I'M 
APPRECIATED- »'M A 
VALUABLE MEMBfcft 




WONDER VJHV ME IS 
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IF HE HAD LOOKED 
WHERE ME WAS F>OTTlN<i 
rtE 1 WOULDN'T" HAOE 
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Ol-OOO POISON Witt 

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1 




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SAFETY FIRST 

GULLET rNS AND PAY 
AOI-ie ATTENTION TO 

T»en- then f^Avne 

I'D GET BETTFiR 
r-REAT^eMT 



THE. uOf l'l>| FAVTENED 
To HAD BEEN A UTTLE 
MORE CAREFUL I WWi.1 
~»T BE. IN THIS SHAPE 
NOW — »T'l THE BltKEN* 
OF A NOTE TO HAVE 
TO BE AFRAID ALL THE 
TIME 





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HURT MY FINGER*— SOME 
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Productivity of Labor 






A YEAR ago production was uppermost in the minds of 
men. Labor was alleged to be slacking. Production had 
fallen off, it was said, far below the pre-war standards of out- 
put. Most of these assertions were sheer matters of opinion. 
Practically no evidence to back them up was presented and 
probably very little existed. It may have been true that pro- 
duction did decrease after the armistice was signed but in 
most cases there is no clear way of determining the question. 
The United States Bureau of Mines has made an investiga- 
tion which bears on the fundamental question. W. A. Adams, 
mine statistician, has gathered together data from various 
countries, and reckoned the average miner's daily and yearly 
output of coal. Those eager to hear the American eagle 
scream will undoubtedly be delighted to know that American 
coal miners produce per man very much more than the miners 
i any other country. The highest production of coal ever 
orded was that of the American miners during 19 18. On 
e average each man then produced 1,134 tons of coal. The 
osest competitor was the New South Wales miner who 
uring the same year produced 814 tons. Canada came next 
hile the smallest output for recent years was that of Japan 
1917 when an average of 155 tons was mined. In Japan, 
owever, women as well as men are employed as miners. 
The United States employs about 600,000 miners to dig 
600,000,000 tons of coal each year. In 1901, according to 
Mr. Adams, they produced 729 tons per man. Eighteen years 
later, this had increased to 1,134 ton s- During those 18 years, 
however, the use of machines had increased from 25 per cent 
to 56 per cent of the tonnage dug. Not only the annual but 
the daily output also is greater for the American miner. The 
average work of the American coal digger in 191 8 was 4.4 
tons. As indicated, Australia and Canada come next to the 



By A. F. Ward in the National Safety News 

United States in point of productivity. Great Britain em- 
ploys between 800,000 and 900,000 miners to produce about 
300,000,000 tons annually. During 19 18 the output per man 
was only 337 tons. This represented a decrease from 191, 
and especially from 1906 when a high point of 419 tons per 
man was reached. 

It is worth noting, however, that the amount of coal mined 
with machines in Great Britain was only about 11 per cent 
in 191 8 as compared with 56 per cent in the United States. 
The German miners seem to have been more productive than 
the English miners since 191 1. This larger productivity of 
the German was due to the fact that he worked more days 
to the year than his British confrere. The daily output of 
each is practically identical. The French miner over a thir- 
teen-year period has produced an average of 302 tons a year. 
India and Japan, where both women and children are em- 
ployed underground, are very much below the w x estern nations. 
In India, apparently about 40 per cent of the miners are 
women. In Japan one-fourth of those employed underground 
are girls and women. 

The productivity of the miner depends on many factors 
other than his own skill and energy. The workers in Ameri- 
can mines have been drafted from the four quarters of the 
earth and yet theirs is the highest average. The nature of a 
coal seam, the extent to which machinery is used, transporta- 
tion, markets, and many other factors outside the control of 
the individual workman determine the production possible. 

Further light on the question of the productivity of labor is 
being sought by the Massachusetts Department of Labor and 
Industries. The department undertook to obtain information 
from plants where conditions have been so stable during a 
course of years that conclusions might be fairly drawn. The 
first material collected covers the years 19 14, 191 8, and 1919. 
as representative of pre-war, war, and reconstruction condi- 
tions. Of the seven establishments from which data was 
finally accepted as meeting the tests of accuracy imposed, four 
show an increase in the quantity of output per employe per 
hour in 1919 over 1914 and three show a decrease. The per- 
centage of decrease by industries as given in the Monthly 
Labor Review is as follows: shirtings 10. 1 per cent, chairs 
10.6 per cent, rubbers 17.8. Increases were found in the fol- 
lowing plants: paper-making 11.3 per cent, candy 36.2 per 
cent, one shoe factory 9 per cent, a second shoe factory in- 
creases ranging from 6.7 per cent to 142.7 per cent. 

The Massachusetts investigators concluded that " it does 



128 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



not appear that increases in wages in these several establish- 
ments uniformly resulted in an increase in production per em- 
ploye." Nor does it appear that 1919 was a year of slacking. 



Profit Sharing 



THE National Industrial Conference Board's survey of 
profit sharing, past and present, in this country, gives 
only mild approbation to the system. The inquiry cov- 
ered 137 establishments, of which the board considered 41 
true profit sharing plans. The names of the establishments 
investigated are contained in an appendix to the volume and 
the summarized experience is in part individual. 

Various ventures which have called themselves profit shar- 
ing have been in existence in this country for at least three- 
quarters of a century. The mortality among them has been 
exceedingly high. Nevertheless the idea has offered recurrent 
hope and in a few of the establishments provision has been 
made under profit sharing schemes for the election of em- 
ploye directors. The reasons for the abandonment of profit 
sharing plans in times past arose largely, apparently, from the 
dissatisfaction and apathy of the workers and from changed 
conditions in the industry. The investigations of the National 
Industrial Conference Board tend to show that outside of the 
executive group, profit sharing has not elicited the interest of 
the workers. At one place, the board states, " the oft repeated 
cycle, noted in the experience with discontinued plans, namely, 
introduction with enthusiasm and high hopes, gratifying suc- 
cess for a certain period, and final abandonment on account, 
chiefly, of lack of appreciation by workers, labor disturbance, 
or disproportionate costs as against results achieved, tends to 
weaken one's faith in the stability of plans now in operation, 
and leads one to conclude that profit sharing plans are pos- 
sible of successful maintenance for limited periods only." 

The report, however, is not antagonistic to the system. It 
says finally: " Profit sharing . . . cannot be offered as 
a solution of the wage problem. But properly understood and 
utilized it evidently possesses valuable features. . . . Of 
greater importance, however, than any mechanism for securing 
cooperation and loyalty, and necessary to the real success of 
any plant, is the influence and personal touch of wise manage- 
ment that believes in maintaining the best possible relation- 
ship between the highest executive in the organization and the 
humblest worker in the ranks." 



The Home Assistant 



T 



1 HE Young Women's Christian Association has elaborated 
a set of standards intended to aid in the development of 
the " home assistant." This is a part of the attempt which 
has been continued a number of years to put domestic service 
on a more rational basis. It is common observation that young 
women prefer industrial and commercial work to employment 
in homes even though better wages and more healthful and 
varied work may be obtained in domestic service. The reasons 
found by inquiry for this preference were the length of hours 
exacted and the undesirable social status of the home worker. 

During the war the old-fashioned servant more or less dis- 
appeared in many sections of the world, and accordingly it 
became urgent to discover a social equivalent. For that rea- 
son the Y. W. C. A. has given emphasis to its plan for the 
home assistant. The organization suggests that women be 
employed at domestic work on the eight-hour day and forty- 
four-hour week basis. This means one entire day and a 
second half day free each week. Legal holidays or the equiva- 
lent and a paid vacation are a part of the plan. The home 
assistant does any work required with the exception of heavy 
laundry but sleeps and eats away from her place of employ- 
ment, pays her own carfare, uses the front door, does not wear 
a uniform, and is called by her last name and title. The asso- 
ciation suggests that the minimum wage fixed by the District 
of Columbia Minimum Wage Commission October, 1919, at 
$16.50, be used as a current minimum wage standard. 



In an interesting brochure, the case for the home assistant is 
argued. According to the logic offered the system is very 
much more economical and happy for both parties to such a 
contract. 

Wages of Farm Laborers 

THE case of the agricultural laborer in Great Britain has 
been one of the most tragic in the history of that island. 
For a hundred years after the Enclosure acts of the Eight- 
eenth Century, English farm laborers had no opportunity 
to earn a living wage. The social status of the agricultural 
workers seems definitely to have sunk and then when the 
country folk were hungriest and most hopeless, the game laws 
were applied with terrible stringency. Men were deported, 
as the Hammonds, of the London School of Economics, have 
shown, for killing a rabbit or fowl to meet the needs of a lit- 
erally starving family. For years agricultural laborers were 
paid as little as six shillings a week. 

The war, however, caused a great change for them. A 
trade union was reestablished, but more important still, an 
agricultural wage board was set up by the government. The 
last wage rate fixed for England and Ireland offered an in- 
teresting contrast to the old times. For ordinary laborers the 
new rates ranged from 46 to 52 shillings a week. The hourg 
of labor remained unchanged at 50 shillings a week in sum- 
mer and 48 shillings in winter, except in Cheshire, where they 
are 54 shillings all the year round. Overtime rates are from 
1 shilling and 2 pence to 1 shilling and 3^2 pence an hour 
on week days and from I shilling and 5 pence to I shilling 
and 6 l / 2 pence an hour on Sundays. 

The New Mining Town 

ONE of the interesting manifestations of the trend of con- 
temporary industrial management is to be found at Kaska, 
Pa. The Alliance Coal Mining Company, which operates at 
this point in the Pennsylvania anthracite fields, has decided to 
rebuild the town. According to The Coal Age, better houses, 
stores and community buildings are in the course of construc- 
tion. A new town created in conformity with contemporary 
ideals of town building is being substituted for the haphazard 
village which grew up about the mine. Living conveniences 
are being made available and in general the community is 
being improved. 

The coal company, it is said, has also extended aid to the 
churches. The very frank purpose of this enterprise has been 
to minimize existing dissatisfaction among the miners. No 
variety of welfare work ever settles fully any problem as per- 
sistent as human unrest. Nevertheless, many of the most 
troublesome conflicts between employers and workers are at- 
tributable to community conditions which might easily have 
been remedied. The purpose of the more progressive and sen- 
sitive management is to improve these conditions in order to 
narrow the range of conflict. This is entire gain. 

International Machinists 

AMONG the more progressive group of trade unions in 
the American Federation of Labor is the International 
Association of Machinists. During the last four years, 
the machinists have had a remarkable growth. At the Balti- 
more Convention in 1916 the union included 105,400 mem- 
bers. At the close of 19 19, the organization had more than 
330,000 members. During the last year, there has been a 
slight falling off, but apparently the membership is still in 
the neighborhood of 300,000. The machinists have com- 
pleted a large building at Washington which is situated across 
the street from the headquarters of the American Federation 
of Labor building. The union also opened a cooperative bank- 
ing business in Washington on May 15, last, and at the close 
of the first three-months' period, had deposits exceeding one 
million dollars. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



129 



CHILD fF ELF ARE 



Conducted by 
PAUL L. BENJAMIN 



The Day Nursery and the Community 



FOR many years the day nursery has been looked upon 
with decided disfavor by the trained social worker, who 
saw in it a relic of the old, non-constructive charity, in- 
volving no attempt at cooperation with other welfare agencies, 
and with no further thought in view than the kindly, but too 
often ignorant, feeding and sheltering of a given number of 
children for a given number of hours. A study of the day nur- 
series of Philadelphia, recently made by Helen Glenn Tyson, 
on behalf of the Child Federation and with the cooperation of 
the Seybert Institute, discusses the limitation of nurseries as 
they exist in Philadelphia, in such a way as to bring out more 
clearly the possibilities of the modern day nursery as a well- 
planned social agency possessing unusual advantages for 
studying the social needs of working mothers. 

The study was made to serve three purposes: to sup- 
plement a former study of the day nurseries, which dealt chiefly 
with their actual physical equipment and administration; to 
summarize certain much-needed information about the nur- 
series of the city, viewed from the standpoint of the com- 
munity's responsibility for its children, and to increase the 
number of families included in a more intensive and elaborate 
study of industrial mothers, carried out 
by the Carola Woerishoffer Graduate 
Department of Bryn Mawr College, in 
collaboration with the Seybert Institu- 
tion, in an effort to discover the causes 
and extent of the entrance of mothers 
into industry, and the effects on the 
home life of the families. 

In discussing the characteristics of 
families using day nurseries, Mrs. Ty- 
son writes: 




An uneasy feeling is prevalent today 
that something is wrong with the home 
and with society when mothers are leaving 
their children to go into industry in such 
numbers. In an effort to fasten the blame 
for this sweeping change in the part the 
mother plays in home care and child train- 
ing, superficial thinkers are apt to con- 
demn the day nursery. They forget that 
the day nursery is an effect, not a cause; 
that in city communities the old-time home 
life has broken down ; that mothers worked 

outside the home long before nurseries came into existence, and 
that only a relatively small group of working mothers, out of the 
whole number, avail themselves of nursery care. They forget, 
too, that the really serious menace to home life is sickness and 
unemployment, the inadequate wage, and the premature and pre- 
ventable death of the wage earner. 

The statement that " the day nursery is an effect, not a 
cause," is substantiated by a table, showing that widows make 
up 30 per cent of the group using the Philadelphia nurseries, 
while widows, deserted, separated and divorced mothers make 
p 69 per cent of the total number whose marital status was 
own. A surprisingly low number of unmarried mothers, 
nly 19 out of a total of 864 mothers, are recorded as using 
e nurseries. Several reasons are suggested for this, followed 
y the statement that " with the new emphasis that social 
orkers are laying on helping these mothers to do the kind 
of work they like and are accustomed to, there is little doubt 
that the day nursery will be much more frequently used by 
them in the future." 

Another table shows that " exactly one-fourth of the chil- 
dren in nurseries belonging to the Philadelphia Association 
come from one-child families, that these one-child families 
make up 46.7 per cent of the total number of families, and 
that two-child families make up 29.5 per cent, leaving 23.8 



ii r T y HE things we want for young 
■*• children are not so very costly. 
Sunshine and {air colours, free flowing 
air and yet shelter from biting wind 
and rain, space (0, space/ the glorious 
thing our children never had before), 
the sky, flowers and vegetables, birds 
and trees, music and gay voices, a hot 
water supply, sleep, a good diet, regu- 
lar hours, play. We can get them all, 
if we plan our nurseries as outdoor 
places. I don't see how we can get 
them all in any mere house of bricks 
and mortar — not even if the house were 
a royal palace." 

Women and the Labour Party. The 
Nursery of Tomorrow, edited by Dr. 
Marion Phillips, New York, B. W. 
Huebsch, 1918. 



per cent of the families with three children or more, is of 
distinct interest, while the fact that the day nursery is patron- 
ized in such small numbers by the mother of a large family 
is reassuring to those persons who fear that day nursery care 
is encouraging women to shirk their responsibilities as mothers 
and home-makers." Disapproval of any such encouragement is 
voiced in the sentence: "The granting of service to a large 
family of little children should not be a source of pride to a 
nursery — it but marks another failure on the part of society 
to recognize the real value of a mother's service to her 
children." 

In Philadelphia, the location of the day nursery mother's 
job in relation to the location of the nursery is not the deter- 
mining factor in her choice of work. The study demonstrates 
that in 55 of the 100 families the children had to be taken 
more than five blocks and in 23 families more than nine blocks 
to and from the nursery each day. Mrs. Tyson says: 

Such a trip on a cold or wet morning is a real hardship for 
a sleepy child, and it is small wonder that the attendance at the 
nurseries is so irregular. If there were no other reason for dis- 
tricting the nurseries and insisting on cooperation between them, 
the distances little children are taken in 
the rush hours of the early morning and 
night should be sufficient. . . . While 
any sudden districting of the nurseries ac- 
cording to the location of the families 
would break many valuable personal con- 
nections, a general policy could be worked 
out and gradually developed, so that in 
time the nurseries could be as carefully 
placed, and their districts as definitely de- 
fined as are the public schools. 



Under the heading The Relation of 
the Nursery to Other Social Agencies, a 
strong plea is registered for better co- 
operation on the part of day nurseries: 

If a nursery wishes to do nothing more 
than give a child good physical care, it is 
obvious that it should know what medical 
agencies of the city have dealt with the 
family, and the nature of the service ren- 
dered it. And if the nursery intends to 
carry on the constructive family 'work that, 
after all, should be its chief reason for ex- 
istence, cooperation with the other social 
agencies working with the family is vitally important. 

This section and the following one, The Nursery's Obligation 
to Its Families, which may be summarized by the sentence, 
" The nursery's obligation is not discharged until to every fam- 
ily under its care has been restored, as nearly as possible, that 
normal home life on which our modern society was founded " 
— emphasize perhaps, as clearly as any in the study, the new 
meaning and significance of day nursery work — representing 
the kernel, as it were, of the day nursery's social duties in its 
community relations. 

The author does not stop, however, at the day nursery as it 
exists, or may exist, today. The "changing status of the 
nursery " is discussed and the possibilities of the " nursery of 
tomorrow," as outlined by the women of the Labor Party 
in England, are suggested: 

It will be widely different from the "poverty" nursery of 
today. Its organization should be democratic rather than phil- 
anthropic; it would be open to all children of the neighborhood, 
and located for the convenience of the mothers. . . . The 
" poverty " nursery of today may be the forerunner of the "neigh- 
borhood" nursery of tomorrow, even though for years to come 
its work must, of necessity, be confined to caring for the children 
presenting the greatest economic need. 

And, in conclusion, " The nursery that is satisfied simply 



130 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



A Soliloquy 



1AM Everyman's Child. 
I did not ask to come, but I am here. 
I arrived on this earth like every other child. 
I have been sent from pillar to post. 
I have been in many places. 
I am able-bodied and healthy. 
If I have the right to be born, I have other rights: 
I have the right to play. 

I have the right to have clothes like other children. 
I have the right to the loving care of people who are 

interested in me, but I am the ward of the state — 

Society. 
I am put in a house of a thousand children, but not the 

home of one. 
I am the child of the Institution. 

When I am sixteen, Society will have finished with me. 
It will send me forth to brave the battle. 
I start handicapped with the sign of the asylum. 
Shall all who are born like me suffer the sorrows of 

No Man's Child ? 

Sophie Irene Loeb, 

— From Everyman's Child, published by The Century Co. 



with furnishing routine physical care to its little charges will 
doubtless soon cease to arouse community interest and support, 
and will join the orphan asylum in its passage toward oblivion. 
But the nursery that is progressive enough to study community 
needs and to work out its own part in meeting them, will be 
recognized more and more widely as a conservator of the true 
values of home life." Frances Colbourne. 

Child Welfare in Minnesota 

IN a report that is a welcome departure from the usual sta- 
tistical, rule-of-thumb, juiceless narrative, William W. 
Hodson, director of the Children's Bureau of the State Board 
of Control of Minnesota, translates into pictures of human 
need and human experience the work of the bureau for the 
past year. With a lucid interpretation of those factors which 
make for the most wholesome, normal development of the 
child, he discusses such subjects as the effects of prolonged in- 
stitutional life upon the child, the placing of children in foster 
homes, the need for more adequate medical attention given to 
children in institutions, and other topics of pertinent concern 
to all interested in the welfare of the child. 

Of special significance has been the growth and organization 
of county welfare boards in Minnesota during the past two 
years, from thirty-nine in October of 191 8 to fifty-five, with a 
total budget of $30,000 at the present time. Seventeen of 
these boards have one or more full-time paid secretaries and 
agents or have made provision for such service. The policy of 
decentralization of administration in the local boards while 
retaining centralization of authority in the Board of Control 
has helped to make it possible for these local boards to handle 
cases quickly and to establish close cooperation with public offi- 
cials and private agencies. 

Another interesting sign-post has been the development by 
common consent in some counties of child welfare boards into 
community welfare boards, a development which Mr. Hodson 
predicts will soon become more general. This type of service 
has been largely the natural outgrowth of the work of the 
county boards in rendering assistance to the unmarried mother 
and the child born out of wedlock, in cooperating in the com- 
mitment and after-care of the feeble-minded, in serving ' juve- 
nile courts in cases of dependency, delinquency, and neglect, as 
well as in the investigation of county allowances, so-called 
' mothers' pensions." In the expanding of these activities in 



the rural communities, Mr. Hodson points out that one of the 
chief problems " will be a proper correlation with other 
agencies of a private character such as the Red Cross chapters 
and other social organizations which may be functioning." 

A survey made by the bureau of seventeen orphanages and 
children's homes in Minnesota under the supervision of the 
Board of Control shows that of 906 children in the institutions 
September 1, 1919, 733 or 80.9 per cent had lived there from 
one to five years; 134 or 14.7 per cent from five to ten years; 
30 or 4.4 per cent from ten to fifteen years. Mr. Hodson 
makes an exceedingly illuminating comment upon these figures, 
particularly those showing that of these 906 children, 707, or 
78 per cent had been on the rolls of the institutions for from 
two to fifteen years. The report continues : 

Ten years ago the White House Conference on dependent 
children, called by President Roosevelt declared that " the care- 
fully selected foster home is for the normal child the best sub- 
stitute for the natural home," and the temper of the conference 
was distinctly opposed to prolonged institutional life for children. 
The sentiment of the past ten years has in the main supported 
the declarations of the conference. It is being generally recog- 
nized that children cannot be brought up properly on a mass plan. 
They differ in tastes and temper, mind and character, and the 
family home offers individual care for individual needs, while 
the institution must of necessity lay greater stress upon groups 
of children than upon the child. Aside from this, however, is the 
matter of parental love and affection, which plays so important 
a part in the psychic and sub-conscious life of the child, in addi- 
tion to contributing to his comfort and happiness. One matron 
cannot mother one hundred children, nor yet fifty. Affection has 
its natural human limits and cannot be indefinitely expanded, 
particularly where the matron's patience is being tried by fifty 
varieties of youthful energy — energy which must not be sup- 
pressed but controlled and afforded a proper means of expression. 
In brief, the advantages of the home and the family are in the 
small homogeneous group that cannot be duplicated in large 
heterogeneous groups. It is a fair question to ask, then, in view 
of the undoubted disadvantages to the child, why have 707 chil- 
dren been kept in institutions for from two to fifteen years? 

As a side-light upon the perplexing problem of divorce the 
report shows that the parents of children in institutions studied 
were separated or divorced in 20 per cent of the cases: 

In view of the constantly increasing divorce rates, an easy 
method of disposing of the children or providing for their care 
is not calculated to assist in checking this increase. Certainly in 
cases of divorce or voluntary separation, suitable arrangements 
could be made for proper permanent care of the children, and 
the institution should refuse to acquiesce in any other plan. 

The survey made also disclosed that of 555 half orphans, . 
167 had mothers living and 388 fathers living. In comment- 
ing upon such figures Mr. Hodson states: "The true func- 
tion of the institution for children is to provide temporary 
care until the child can be returned to its natural surroundings, 
or, if such return is impossible, until a suitable family home 
can be found." It is a commentary upon the irresponsible at- 
titude taken by many fathers toward their children that the 
records " show all too frequently that the father is quite willing 
to leave his children where he is free from worry or responsi- 
bility, and where he can maintain them much more cheaply 
than in his own or in some private home." 



ANEW venture in centralizing in a specialized bureau the 
special problems of juvenile court work has been recently 



organized by Bernard J. Fagan, chief probation officer of the 
Children's Court, City of New York. The principal func- 
tions of the new bureau will be : 

1. Vocational guidance and placement work. 

2. Investigations for juvenile courts of other cities, of persons 
living in the City of New York. 

3. Advice to agencies and individuals on pre-court cases. 

4. Locating private boarding schools, homes, farms, etc. 

5. Recreational opportunities, summer camps, outings, relief 
and other special welfare work. 

6. Survey and study of special plans for combatting juvenile 
delinquency. 

Although organized primarily to assist juvenile courts and 
probation officers, all workers among delinquent and neglected 
children are invited to make use of the bureau. 










The Right to Play 

is the. heritage of every 
child. 

Upon every Grown-Up- 
rests the obligation to see 
that children play in safety. 

586 children have been (tilled or injured in Bal- 
timore since January. 1920. as a result of playing 



in the streets. 

AlMhe-yeor-round 
child in Beltiraorc n 
Apeoeietion H«lp to 
• ■ e member. 



lunorrieeol pU» ctitm eeeoeeiblo to oeor. 

tho ideoJ of Too Children 1 ! PUym>ound 

Enroll NO* 



ioW ol Too Children'. 
tbie ideal e ronhtv. 



oeembipi M ee eree. 



The Children'* Playground Association 

7 East Mulberry Street 



A Little Girl Killed! 
A Boy Crippled for Life! 

Scarcely a day passes but that 
the newspapers tell the story of 
a street trage/y which has over- 
itakeri'some child. 
588 children below the age o* 
sixteen were killed or injured on 
the streets or Baltimore in the 
last eight 1 months. Keep 

children out of the streets. 
Provide sale places for children' 
to play. 
Ml-the— year— round 'supervised play centers ac- 
cessible to every child in Baltimore is the ideal of The 
Children's" Playground Association. Help to make this 
ideal a reality. Enroll NOW as a member. 
Annual membership $2.00. 
-Sustaining membership $5.00 or over. 

The Children's Playground Association 

7 East Mulberry Street 

— Thtt' adeeriiaenenl has been paid far bit friends oj 
The Children s P'ctylfenind AttrxiaUtn. 





"Once Upon t 
Time' 

Has your boy heard the end 
of that legend? It was told last 
week by a wandering story teller 
to a group of youngsters on * 
vacant lot. It was a tale that 
satisfied the ad venture-craving 
spirit of the boys and left the 
little girls starry eyed and happy. 
The Children's playffropnd Association opens thA doora of 
rAiryJand and fable to thousand* ot Baltimore children. Its guilds 
of play, story centers and playgrounds are sMe places for your 
children to play. 

AU-the-ycar-ronntl sopcrrfced ptay centers accessible to every 
cbtU in Baltimore Is the Ideal of The Children',! Playground 
Association. Help to make this Ideal a reality. Enroll NOW as o 
member. 

Annual membership, 52. 
Sustaining membership, $5cor over. 

The Children's Playground Association 

7 East Mulberry Street 

—This advertisement has been paid for by friends of 
■The Children's Playground Amolation. 



PLAYING SAFE 



fjl HESE ad- 
/ v e r t i s e- 
ments which 
have been ap- 
pearing in the 
Baltimore news- 
papers this week 
in connec t i o n 
with the mem- 
bership drive of 
the local Play- 
around Associa- 
tion, would seem 
to indicate that 



9W the 6<riUtdt ugu. ~*\scu\&/ 
ftOni.BuVM. DoifoU. -n&miCfKlev? ^.'Bu* *ha} UJ&tx ex. X&44? 
skoirC.' 3 uro-6 ScaMiA sLfP Qyvxd UCU. Sunrtij., So 3 aofi&A. 
M<r«A-.->n*c<it OX <&*w SCoJuZcl, too . 

ThoVie. <ru.c.A.f to (k -fatitAj a&xau ? rt. «. MA*, ta j&ul, 

<n>*V a co^fSiL. th*L&. ago twv4 f -we£(?, Jura-* pAatfcj. JWct. 
TVuU|tii«! iMg. ttoun. a/a. soft, pfece*. wwtAji ottu fo\j 

hiitKt to fia^> <kJtl*/j^tZ~Jl. "hout. «/K W. >l^WWlJtrcf 

TVuU| te/Jl. "rut {fern. <t*s>~jr\df <^f am. £o\ ~*Ln. &4 ,ur«/v«Wj *A« 
Chixd/i&yi s "P&w<ja.<tu^\c/ (XtvciOX>uxku7v.. < ht. 1 . 3 uAA. 
uotjl. uitiu&L. 3t utx/vJLi hsZa yviA. Ovjt Q. 4<f£! 

Th«*DoM 1|ota. 71£oa£w "RorH. QvVu. 

V.S.' 3f M<r«*£4? hJrlp ttt^T a. jJ^Vuk>s*t4. -io\ >»i*» 9-«S <£» 
•Hv^ ^eii- to Iceep <rvejr jUw «/w £<?*+_*£ ^o*** "»*' ac ^»« 
SC ot a. 4**%***^. OL^it /W *£• <A J^O^> ^J^ir 

tKM&tAA^ S±. t o^CUrf^M Wo***- ^tru. MoA J f rt >>* 

T. 13. lj. H. "R. Q- 



the association 
has learned the 
technique of 
"putting it 
across." This is 
the second time 
that a Baltimore 
social agency has 
used this means 
of . reaching the 
tublic — the first 
time being in a 
"Better School" 
campaign. 















, 






PLA Y! 

Safe and Supervised Play 

under the direction of 

The Children's 

Playground Association 

Hikes, Games, 

Clubs, Stories! 

at 9 large parks, 4 undeveloped 

parks, IS small parks and story 

centers and at the Recreation Pier, 

foot of Broadway. 

After-school Story Hours in 14 branches 

of Uie Pratt Library. Five play centers in 

institutions. 

S88 children Mere killed or injured on Baltimore streets in 
the lih-t eight months. Many of these accidents could have beeo 
avoided had the children played at supervised playgrounds in- 
stead of in the streets. 

More playgrounds are needed. Help the CHILDREN'S 
PLAYGROUND ASSOCIATION to get them. Enroll NOW as 
a member. 

Annual dues. -S2 per year. 

Sustaining dues, $o or aver per year. 

The Children's. Playground Association 

T ftist Mulberry Street 
— This a d eert iA -ment haf heen paid Jor by friends of 
The Children's Playground Association. 





ts There Room 
For Your Child 

on a playground near your 
home? Is there a playground 
close enough for* your child to 
attend? 

The Children's Playground 
Association of Baltimore has 
brought the happiness of play 
and the soundness of healthful 
sport to thousands of children. 

Ail-the-year -round sqpernsed play centers, accessible 
to every child in Baltimore, is the ideal of The Children's 
PhvygTound Association. Help to make this ideal a reality. 
Enroll now as a member. 
Annual membership, $2.00. 
Sustaining membership, $5.00. 

The Children's Playground Association 

7 East Mulberry Street 

— This advertisenunt has been ps(3 /#r sy friends •/ The Chih 
drm'9 PUporsmsut Assaoialien. 




Over the Hills 
There's a Piper- 



playing a tune as sweet and as 
irresistible to childhood as that 
played by the Pied Piper in the 
I long ago. It is the call to play 
I and laughter, to healthy sport 
and safe recieation. 

This year thousands of girls 
and boys enjoyed the piping of 
this kind Play Spirit. From 
homes of opportunity and "homes 
of need, from close alleys and busy street corners, thty 
joyfully heeded the call of this Piper and followed him to 
the playgrounds. 

All-tb.c-ycar-ronnd supervised piny centers. acce;-*.OJe to every 
child In Baltimore, ts the ideal of the Children's riayrroundl 
Association, Help to make this ideal a reality. Enroll now as & 
member. 

Annual membership, ;2.00. 
Sustaining membership. $5.00. 

Children's Playground Association 

. 7 East Mulberry Street 

-77ii> adfrliscmcnt has been paid for by friends of the Chil- 
dren's Playground Association. 



131 



132 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 



Conducted by 
JOSEPH K. HART 



A Real Investigation 



FOR some time there has been developing within the minds 
of many of us who are concerned, directly, with the edu- 
cation of children, a certain uneasy conscience in regard to 
our " hit-or-miss ", " trust-to-luck " methods of procedure in 
the schools. We have come to realize that the time-honored 
plan of making up an iron-bound course of study for an entire 
community, and then proceeding, Procrustes like, to stretch 
out, or lop off the mental or spiritual or even physical members 
of our children's personalities to fit that course, might be the 
" easiest way " for us, but also might have the painful result 
of seriously mutilating our victims. Of late this uneasy con- 
science has even gone so far as to suggest that it might be wise 
and even necessary to thoroughly investigate each one of the 
children under one's care, and find out, if possible, just what 
should be expected of him, and also discover what ought to 
be done with him and for him. 

One group of school people in a western city were driven 
by suggestions of this sort to attempt an intensive study of 
the children in their particular district. They realized, as a 
working principle, the fact that children are not types, but in- 
dividuals, and that only by studying each one of them in the 
light of all that goes to make up personality, as an individual, 
can intelligent teaching proceed. In the course of their sur- 
vey, they have investigated and recorded every phase of each 
child's life, physical, mental, psychological, personal and so- 
cial. By this means they have been enabled to determine fairly 
accurately exactly what should be done for each child, and 
through the machinery of their organization, to see that proper 
action is taken. 

The school with which these teachers and workers have to 
do is in the center of a factory district, in a good sized uni- 
versity city, on the shores of San Francisco Bay, and its pupils 
are of the sort usually found in such communities. Fortu- 
nately, the school had maintained a close relationship to the 
city dispensary, through which it was able to enlist the services 
of expert persons to assist with the survey. The Red Cross, 
University of California, Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion and various clubs and philanthropic organizations have co- 
operated closely with the school both in the making of the sur- 
vey, and in organizing the " follow-up " work. 

As the organization of the work developed, it was found to 
arrange itself in the follow- 
ing form, the various phases 
of the investigation, however, 
being carried on simultan- 
eously, as far as possible. 
First in order came the gen- 
eral survey of the community. 
This study discovered the 
neighborhood to be an exten- 
sive factory district with the 
factories grouped fairly near 
to each other. In spite, how- 
ever, of the fact that the dis- 
trict is a factory community, 
there is very little congestion 
in living conditions — very 
little " crowding up." The 
rents are extremely low, it is 
possible to buy small homes 
on easy terms, there is no 
great tendency to segregation 
by nationalities, and there 
are large open spaces, almost 
like country fields, in which 



YT? E shall need to revise our conception of the term 
1/1/ " school " in view of the recent expansion of all sorts 

' of educational forces, and the multiplication of all 
kinds of educational instruments. Democracy and the educa- 
tional process go hand in hand; the one cannot expand without 
increase of the other. To some the word "school" may recall 
the little red school house and the period of childhood; to 
another the term brings a recollection of the substantial city 
structure and its teeming occupants. In any case the picture 
is incomplete if it shows only the child and the youth as the 
natural beneficiaries of the process of education. We have 
recently sent four million men to school to learn the art of 
war; we have had the school for the soldier and the school 
for the officer; ive are re-educating our disabled soldiers. We 
have had schools to train our shipbuilders and schools to train 
the new workers in war industries. We have schools for our 
firemen, policemen, and teachers, and we have schools for 
diplomats and schools for journalists. Revising Shakespeare's 
adage that " all the world's a stage," we may say to-day that 
all the world's a school, and that our "seven ages" are spent 
as students in school rather than as players in a drama. 
— From The Schooling of the Immigrant, 

By Frank V. Thompson. 



the children may run and play at will. The neighborhood, 
however, is peculiar in that it is utterly lacking in recrea- 
tional facilities. There is literally nothing for the people to 
do with their leisure time, no place, not even a moving pic- 
ture theater, to which they may go for formal entertainment. 
The results of this condition are of course serious, going 
deeper than mere drabness of existence, though certainly that 
is bad enough. What this situation means as to moral, in- 
tellectual and civic conditions is obvious. The school, how- 
ever, has striven to do everything possible to make up for this 
lack and plans to do much more. It has provided a public 
library, a branch of the city library. It has given entertain- 
ments, dances and plays, provided a piano and dancing lessons, 
and organized sewing clubs, reading clubs, and hiking clubs. 
It is asking now for a " hostess ", who will live in the build- 
ing and keep the community center departments open at all 
times. 

The next study undertaken was that of the character of 
the people, at least as far as it could be determined, first by 
nationality, second, citizenship, and third, occupation. It was 
discovered that nineteen different nationalities were repre- 
sented in the district, American-born (of foreign parentage), 
Portuguese, Finns and Italians predominating. (Of the 
foreign-born parents, 53.4 per cent are not naturalized, the 
study of illiteracy showing a close relationship between ill- 
iteracy and failure to take out citizenship papers.) 

The study of occupation revealed the fact that the fathers 
of the children are practically without exception laborers, 
mechanics, factory workers and small shop keepers. The 
mothers are employed for the most part in the knitting 
mills, canneries, cotton mills and machine works. (As a 
matter of interesting comparison, the principal of a school in 
another part of the city was asked to prepare a similar report 
on the occupations of the parents of children in her school 
They proved to be largely university professors, doctors, law- 
yers, artists, writers and owners of large business and manu- 
facturing concerns. And yet these two schools have exactly 
the same course of study, and are held to exactly the same 
standards of achievement.) 

The intensive school investigation was so carefully or- 
ganized as to take very little of the children's time and 

aroused no feeling of ani 
mosity on their part or on 
the part of their parents. 
The pupils were examined 
grade by grade, beginning 
with the physical examina- 
tion which included height, 
weight, general appearano 
posture, gait and nutrition, 
Medical examination of th< 
eyes, ears, nose, throat, 
teeth, skin, heart, lungs and 
abdomen, was followed by 
orthopedic and laboratory 
examinations. Then came 
the neurological study (ex- 
tremely important), the psy- 
chological, including group 
and individual tests, in 
which the Otis, Binet 
(standard revision) and 
Pintner devices were used, 
and the psychiatric investi- 
gation into personality 



a- 
it, 
e, 

I 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



133 



and behavior and an intensive anthropological study. One of 
the most interesting phases of the work is the teacher's rating 
of each child in her group on the basis of physical qualities, 
intelligence, leadership and personal qualities. Each teacher 
has also submitted a list of special ability pupils and of special 
disability pupils. 

The social survey includes exhaustive studies of housing, 
environment, health, history, social history, criminal history, 
dependency, finances and religion. As a by-product, a study 
of cases of malnutrition is being carried on which it is hoped 
will give a basis for judging the reaction between malnutrition 
and retardation. 

For the recording of all of these findings a fairly complete 
card system has been worked out with considerable space al- 
lowed for " follow-up " data as to further schooling, occupa- 
tion and so on. A striking feature of this card is the two graph 
forms, one entitled Personality Chart after First Examination, 
and to the right of it, another entitled Personality Chart at 
Time of Leaving School. The realization that sooner or later 
that second graph must be made has a tendency to lead the 
workers to consider very seriously what they are doing and 
what they are achieving. 

Through the efforts of the teachers, the health development 
nurse, and the home teacher, who look after the social prob- 
lems involved, the findings of the survey are being constantly 
put to actual, practical use. The establishment of the school 
Penny Luncheon has made it possible to take care of the under- 
nourished children, and nutritional classes are, of course, in- 
corporated in the regular school course. 

But perhaps after all the most important service which this 
study has rendered is the development, within the minds and 
hearts of the teachers and their principal, of larger understand- 
ings, deeper sympathies, saner judgments and wiser procedure. 
By a careful study of the findings of each investigation the 
teacher is able to base her education of the child upon a sure 
foundation, to place him where he belongs, to discipline him 
just so much as, and no more than, is necessary, and to give 
him the fullest opportunity to develop the best that is in him. 
As for the principal, her knowledge of all these qualities and 
conditions and backgrounds enables her to judge, for instance, 
whether a child who is sent to her for an interview is perhaps 
a " petitmal epileptic " and should be seated comfortably in a 
quiet room, with a good story book, whether he is hungry and 
should be fed immediately, whether he is the nervous off- 
spring of alcoholic parents and should be sent out to sit for an 
hour by himself in the sunshine, or whether his is simply a 
case of " pure cussedness " and a good, old-fashioned spanking 
' should be administered with promptness and dispatch. 

Beatrice Wilmans. 

Principal, Hawthorne School, Berkeley, Cal. 

Milwaukee Advances 

T*HE teachers of Milwaukee are working out plans for a 
teachers' council. The proposed constitution provides 
that the name of the organization shall be the Teachers' Co- 
operative Council of Milwaukee. The purposes are thus 
stated : 

1. To encourage professional improvement through the study 
and discussion of important problems of education and school 
management. 

2. To secure a more active and effective participation of the 
teachers in an advisory capacity in the professional direction of 
the schools. 

3. To maintain and increase professional spirit, initiative and 
responsibility in tiie teaching corps. 

4. To strengthen and improve the educational system by plac- 
ing more completely at the service of the administrative force 
the practical experience of the teaching body. 

The functions of the council are prescribed as follows: 

1. The furnishing of information and the opinions of the 
teaching staff upon questions submitted by the Board of School 
Directors. 

2. The submitting of recommendations concerning any of the 
problems affecting the welfare of the school system, primarily to 



the superintendent and subsequently to the Board of School Di- 
rectors, whenever the council so requests. 

The council will consist of twelve members, four from each 
of three districts, and will be elected annually by the teachers 
for two-year terms, half the members from each district being 
chosen each year after the first election. It will elect its own 
officers and meet regularly once a month, the meetings being 
open to all persons interested in education. Expenses of the 
council are to be paid by the school board. 

Research in Industry 

A TALL, rather angular young man enters a room in which 
about a dozen persons are already seated around a long 
dining table. As the young man takes his place at the table, 
you note that he has delicately moulded features and an air 
of refinement, although he is dressed in a rough cotton shirt, 
a pair of corduroys, and heavy shoes. In spite of the rough 
dress, there appears something familiar about the young man's 
face. Surely this cannot be the young man you met at college 
last fall, a light-hearted freshman who knew everyone, was 
the best dancer in college, and was never known to retire 
to his downy couch earlier than 1 a. m., unless society had 
gone to the mountains for the week-end. But the person looks 
like Jack and as he starts to speak the voice has a strangely 
familiar ring, although the language is certainly new. " You 
fellows may think that bunch on the hill are delivering the 
goods, but as a matter of fact they aren't. We have them 
skinned a mile. Every now and then they forget to get up in 
the morning and half of their routes have no milk for break- 
fast. We haven't missed a customer since last fall. . . ." 

Strange words are these to come from Jack, for you are 
certain now that it is he. What is Jack doing? Driving a 
milk wagon. Yes, he of the dances and society, who comes 
from one of the finest homes in the city and whose parents 
are among the leaders in the social life of the community, is 
engaged in the lowly and menial task of delivering milk bot- 
tles at kitchen doors before the sun is up. 

Jack is only one of the group of twenty young men who 
constitute an informal organization known as the Industrial 
Survey Group. Each one of the twenty young men seated 
at the table is a student at a western college and during the 
summer is employed as a menial workman at one of the fac- 
tories or industrial plants of Denver, in an effort to arrive at 
a true and accurate judgment as to the cause of our present 
industrial unrest. 

As you look across the table from Jack, you see E 

G , his face fiery red and his arms bandaged as a re- 
sult of burns received while tending one of the vulcanizers 
operated by a large tire company. L W is de- 
fending himself against good-natured banter, a result of his 
announcement of new employment at the difficult task of 
loading lumber into box cars. " Look at the blisters on my 
hands," he says, by way of evidence of hard work, to which 
he receives the reply, " Shucks, couldn't have been loading 
lumber that did that. You must have got those from a knife 
and fork." 

At one end of the table, a spirited discussion is going on of 
the impending tramway strike, and you learn that three of 
the group are operating street cars and have been thoroughly 
imbued with the idea that the tramway company is entirely 
in the wrong. 

At the other end of the table you sit in on an interesting 
discussion as to some of the details of steel manufacture, which 
a youthful college student — age nineteen — is explaining with 
enthusiasm, after several weeks of practical experience. 

After the meal is over a speaker, who is introduced as the 
president of the largest local industrial concern, speaks on the 
Economic Forces Working in Modern Industry. The next 
speaker is an organizer from the International Machinists' 
Union. After the lecture, you rise with the entire group, and 
follow them to an evening's lecture, which is one of a series 



134 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



given five nights a week on Modern Social Problems by Ed- 
ward T. Devine. 

You have been listening in on a feature of the collegiate in- 
dustrial research movement. During the summer just passed 
twenty men from the colleges of the Mountain States, of 
their own volition, came to Denver, and took any task which 
was given them, in a factory or workshop, provided it offered 
an opportunity to study an industrial problem. Broad-minded 
business men and far-seeing union labor leaders assisted in 
finding the necessary employment. The men worked nearly 
two months at their employment. Three of the men went 
through a severe industrial crisis in their plant, during which 
there was violence and bloodshed. All men came into close 
contact with industrial problems and their many phases. All 
took the day's work as it came — low wages, long hours, un- 
interesting tasks, and uncongenial associates, in order that they 
might learn at first hand what industrial employment means. 

During the course of the lectures, each man reported his 
impression of his job, its opportunities and possibilities for ad- 
vancement. Later, each man wrote up his impressions. It is 
hard to say how successful a plan of this kind is. Its results 
are largely intangible. One thing, however, is significant. 
When the employment first began the men decided that they 
would hold two seminars a week, at which they might ex- 
change their personal experiences. Later, they decided that 
it would be necessary to have three, and toward the end of 
the term, they met four times a week. 

B. E. Cherington. 

Jails as Continuation Schools 

WHEN two New York girls were sent to jail last week 
for truancy they opened a new chapter in American 
education. To be sure they had the alternative of paying a 
fine of two dollars, but not having the money they were sent 
to the Tombs instead. The procedure seems to have made a 
decided impression on the courts and educational authorities 
of the city and state. For example, Justice Franklin C. Hoyt, 
of the Children's Court, is reported to have said: 

I do not regard the Tombs as a proper continuation school. 
Quite the contrary. If the legislature in its wisdom sees fit to 
enact a law providing that children below a certain academic 
grade shall attend school four hours a week (and I believe there 
is much to be said in favor of such a law) then in my opinion 
there should be some compulsory school provided to which per- 
sistent truants can be committed. 

But as these two girls were over sixteen years old they did 
not come under the jurisdiction of the Children's Court. 

The State Education Department was surprised at this out- 
come of the truancy provision of the new continuation school 
legislation. That the jail must inevitably become a definite 
part of the educational system under this legislation seems not 
to have been foreseen. Frank B. Gilbert, first deputy state 
commissioner, said that the State Department had never sup- 
posed that truants would be sent to jail. "The State Educa- 
tion Department has never stood for truant children being 
sent to penitentiaries or jails, where they would come in con- 
tact with criminals," he put it. 

The affair has served to enliven the discussion among edu- 
cators as to where these children shall be sent; what is the 
exact legal status of boys and girls over sixteen who refuse to 
obey the compulsory provisions of the continuation legislation ; 
are they criminals; is the jail to become a recognized part of 
the continuation school system. Jails have long been recog- 
nized instruments of education, but shall children who want to 
work, and who do not want to go to school be sent to this 
sort of a school? 

The real significance of compulsory education may be 
thrown up into relief by these developments. It is easy to 
pass laws making school attendance compulsory. But what 
can be more futile than such compulsion if the will of the 
child is enlisted elsewhere? Is truancy a crime? It is some- 



times discussed as if it were a virtue — though not in the pres- 
ence of children. 

If the final outcome of compulsory education makes the jail 
an integral part of our school system, is it not about time 
that we reconsidered the whole structure of the system? 

Academic Rip Van Winkles 

ACADEMIC Rip Van Winkles is the term used by 
Georg Nicolai in a sweeping indictment of German uni- 
versity students and professors, in a recent issue of the Free- 
man. The power and influence of the reactionary wave that 
is just now sweeping through the German universities must 
not, he says, be exaggerated, for it may very readily be ex- 
plained. The startling change that has taken place in the 
university traditions of liberality and freedom is due, probably, 
to the change in the character of the institutions themselves. 
From the acknowledged buttresses of spiritual and political 
freedom, they have become the " spiritual bodyguards of the 
Hohenzollerns." This regrettable deterioration of morale 
" could not have taken place so soon or so quickly had it not 
been for the fact that in the course of time the universities 
were becoming mere trade-schools, giving to the cities the 
officials they required and meeting the new and clamorous de- 
mands of German industry with a never-ending supply of well- 
trained, technical experts. This new state of affairs unex- 
pectedly turned the idealistic student societies of former days 
into mere vocational place-finding institutions," with the nat- 
ural result that they became the firm supporters of the bureau- 
cratic hierarchy, unalterably opposed to any change in the 
established order of things. " And now the German intellec- 
tuals are meeting the tragic fate of privileged people every- 
where — they are quite shut out from the main currents of 
life in the modern world." However, even Rip Van Winkles 
must wake up eventually, and it is to be expected that before 
long they will be rudely aroused from their dreams by actual 
contact with the hard facts of the economic situation. 

School for Truant Officers 

THE Attendance Officers' School held at the University of 
Kentucky this summer is a splendid example of coopera- 
tion on the part of agencies working for the upbuilding of a 
state's social viewpoint. 

One of the school laws passed by the last session of the 
legislature made it obligatory for each county board of educa- 
tion to appoint a full-time county attendance officer. Realiz- 
ing the far-reaching effects of the law if it were properly ad- 
ministered, and visualizing the importance of this new social 
force in relation to child welfare in general, the educational 
service of the American Red Cross, in cooperation with the 
University of Kentucky and the State Department of Public 
Instruction, conceived and put into operation a training course 
for the newly appointed attendance officers. 

The entire time was devoted to an intensive study of school 
attendance problems from the practical and social service stand- 
points. Lectures by men of national prominence in educa- 
tional work were followed by open discussion of problems of 
attendance and methods of procedure. Dr. C. B. Cornell, 
director of education service, Lake Division, American Red 
Cross, said of the work: 

Our problem in carrying out the provisions of the attendance 
laws is to make it possible for children to attend school. Looked 
at in this light the attendance officer is not a policeman, but a 
friend of the child, cooperating with parent and teacher. It is 
his duty to investigate the causes of any case of non-attendance 
and to try to remedy -the situation by counsel and advice, and 
perhaps by calling upon outside agencies. Only when the parent 
refuses to cooperate should the law be called into action and then 
it should be enforced to the letter. 

At the end of the two weeks, the sixty-six attendance officers 
and county superintendents, representing fifty-one Kentucky 
counties, went to their duties with the vision of the social 
worker rather than the policeman's idea of enforcing the law. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 23, 1920 



135 



TEN YEARS' WORK WITH NEGROES 

Principles Demonstrated by the Phelps Stokes Foundation 



ADAPTATION of all efforts to the need at hand. Tra- 

/-m dition, custom, or class are not to hamper educational 
/ M methods. 

To originate, stimulate and encourage movements and 
activities that are strategic in their influence on human 
betterment, rather than to maintain these movements per- 
manently. The continued wisdom and soundness of social 
forces justify their support and control by the groups most 
concerned. 

Recognition of cooperation between racial and national 
groups as a fundamental element in human progress. 

No distinction of class, race or nationality. 

The work shall be constructive in character. Destructive 
criticism, mere complaint, propaganda without a program 
of improvement, are contrary to our purposes and spirit. 

Education must be closely related to the actual life of 
those who have to be taught. It must take account of their 
instincts, experience, and interests, as distinct from those 
of people living in quite different conditions. Its aim must 
be to equip them for the life which they have to live. Hence 
the main emphasis must be put, not on a purely literary 
curriculum such as still prevails in many schools, but on 
training in such necessities of actual life as health, hygiene, 



the making and keeping of a home, the earning of a liveli- 
hood, and civic knowledge and spirit. 

In curriculum and method, the schools have continued 
to be arbitrary and aristocratic. Subjects introduced in the 
Middle Ages to meet the needs of one or more classes of 
the people of that time, have been retained for their cultural 
value. Democracy in the content of education demands 
that the curriculum shall impart culture through knowledge 
and practice related to the farm, the shop, the office, and, 
above all, the home. Among the good Negro schools are 
some which have achieved international fame for pioneer 
service in democratizing education. But the majority are 
following the traditional school curriculum with too exclu- 
sive emphasis on bookish studies. 

Successful leadership requires the best lessons of econo- 
mics, sociology, and education. Really skilled and educated 
Negro physicians, clergymen and teachers are needed, with 
an adequate intellectual background to deal with the con- 
flicting problems and many misunderstandings caused by 
race friction in America. Without such leadership, both 
white and colored, race problems will increase and multiply 
in menace to the nation. 



Educational Adaptation 

rHE problem of the adaptation of the accumulated culture 
of the white races to the Negro race has brought about 
3ne of the most interesting and important phases of our 
lerican education. " The fundamental requirement is a 
jnsciousness of the real needs of the pupil and the com- 
lunity," says the report of the Phelps Stokes Foundation 
jst issued, which sets forth the principles which the founda- 
ion has demonstrated in ten years' work with Negroes, 
"his statement applies quite as definitely to the education 
the white child as to the case of the Negro. The chief 
defect of our American education is its remoteness from the 
life of the child and the community. 

In the education of the Negroes, this policy of adapting 
education to the community, says the report, works out 
uirough the following lines: industrial education, including 
programs of manual training, mechanical practice, household 
rts, vocational outlooks and elementary economics, rural or 
small-town trades, training leaders for educational work and 
; workers in industries and in homes; rural education, in- 
cluding the science and practice of gardening in rural and 
urban schools, gardening and economics in rural higher 
schools, two year courses for farmers, courses for the training 
of agricultural teachers and farm demonstrators, rural ex- 
tension courses and activities; secondary education, including 
some incidental work in the languages, but with attention 
largely directed to the sciences, particularly physiology, hy- 
giene and sanitation, the scientific foundations of these prac- 
tical instruments, physics, chemistry and biology, especially as 
these " have revolutionized many of the industrial and social 
activities of mankind," the social sciences, including history, 
community civics, and elementary economics — as illustrating 
" the remarkable social forces that are now working vital 
changes in human affairs " ; college and professional educa- 
tion, with special reference to the training of real leaders, 
teachers, physicians, religious leaders, etc. The report says: 
With the increasing separation of the white and colored people 
in America, the leadership of the Negroes is devolving more 
and more upon capable men and women of the race. This in- 
creasing responsibility of the Negroes for their own education 
is one of the hopeful signs of the progress of the race. It is not 
only sound democracy but good pedagogy to work with a people 



rather than for them. So f